Mexico's National Autonomous University College of Sciences and Humanities, Expe rimental Sciences Area Curricula of Physics I and

II (Third and fourth semesters) June 2003 CONTENTS Introduction ............ .................................................. ... ............................................... ................................ .... 3 Focus of the matter ......... ........................................... ....... .................................................. General Purposes .... ..................... 4 ...................... ................................. ................. .................................................. Thematic co ntent ................................. .............. 7 ....................... ........................... .................................................. . ..... 8 Evaluation ................................................ ............ ...................................... ......................................... ......... .... 8 Physics I First Unit. About Physics .............................................. ....... ........................................... Second Unit ........................ .... 10. Mechanical Phenomena ................................................ . ................................................. Third Unit ................. 1 3. Thermodynamic Phenomena ................................................ .... .............................................. .......... 18 Physics II First Unit. Mechanical wave phenomena .......................................... ..... ................................................. 22 Second Unit. Electrom agnetic Phenomena ................................................ ............. ..................................... Third Unit ..... 26. Contemporary Physics and Technology .............................................. .................. ............................... 31 Annexes Learning and content ............................................. ............. ..................................... .................................... 35 Th e experimental work in the CCH ....... ......................................... ......... .................................................. 36 ................ .... 2 PRESENTATION The programs of Physics I and II considered a regrouping of content, the relatio nship between content and timing, and clarifies the focus of the course, which f oster the efficient coverage of learning. The substantial differences that have these programs compared with those for 1996 are: 1. In its structure prioritize learning, articulating the conceptual, procedural and attitudinal. 2. Learning o f concepts is fundamental for the explanation of natural phenomena and the mathe matical formulation is presented as a tool to better manage them, avoiding a pur ely rote learning and meaningless. 3. Show, even if in passing, the role of tech nology as application of concepts and skills development. 4. He joined as a lear ning strategy development School Research Project. The subjects of Physics I and II are compulsory, are located within the Area of Experimental Sciences and tau ght in the third and fourth semesters. As background, the students have complete d the first and second semesters the subjects of Chemistry I and II, of the Depa

rtment of Experimental Sciences, which have addressed some aspects of structure of matter. They have also studied mathematics for the first two semesters that i ndicates the curriculum, so they have the mathematical foundations necessary for the proper development of the courses in Physics I and II. Teachers who teach t hese subjects should consider that students can select later, on an optional bas is, the subjects of Physics III and IV whose role is primarily propaedeutic. Con ceptual Framework of the Experimental Sciences Area. Science is not an aggregate of culture but an integral part of it. Science is a product of the individual w ays of thinking from the interpretations made of the situations in their environ ment, why are not limited to information, methods and techniques, but determinin g the position of the individual against the world that surroundings. The Depart ment of Experimental Sciences aims to provide students with the basic elements o f culture for the scientific and technological knowledge, so you will have basic information and methodologies that will enable them to his discharge, interact with their environment in a more creative , responsible, informed and critical. 3 Education aims to enable the student to change their structures of thought and i mprove their intellectual processes.€Being consistent with the postulate of lear ning to learn, it is proposed to search for answers to questions, to research as a learning methodology, which allows you to learn how to reach the knowledge of the sciences that comprise the area of Experimental Sciences. Science in the ed ucational dimension is assumed as a strategy that facilitates and promotes the r ebalancing schemes that leads to knowledge and learning of knowledge, skills, at titudes and values. FIELD APPROACH Study Programs are the way to realize the mission of an educational institution and should therefore be present in the actions of their entire community, especi ally in participants in the educational process, this is achieved through unders tanding the Plan and the Curriculum. In the case of the subjects of physics must be taken into account, besides the College's mission, the guidelines of the Dep artment of Experimental Sciences. Mission College highlights the following eleme nts: 1. Promote learning in students systematic knowledge of the discipline. 2. Encourage students to apply in practice the knowledge and scientific ways of thi nking. 3. Giving students a growing intellectual autonomy, support the developme nt of thinking skills and capacity for independent learning: learning to learn, learning to do and learning to be. 4. Develop the values of social responsibilit y and capacity to impact positively on their environment. In the guidelines of t he Department of Experimental Sciences highlights the following points:? Print a cultural orientation courses, ie focus on intellectual skills and concepts need ed to address the experimental sciences and the application of the concepts and principles of these disciplines in their environment, so as to obtain a more sci entific interpretation, systematic, creative and responsible nature than that wh ich has to enter the school. ? Encourage the student to recognize how to constru ct the Man-Science-Nature, particularly in physics, so that the relationship is more harmonious and responsible, emphasizing the interaction between science and technology and environment and society. 4 Taking into account that the school has an orientation training of students in a basic culture in order to have a reference compatible with the educational mode l of the College, is part of the next idea of culture: Culture is everything tha t acquired, what the individual has as a member of a social group that character izes it, is the structured set of values, beliefs, processes, knowledge, skills, attitudes and behaviors with respect to scientific, technological, artistic, ec onomic and political that occur in society. It follows that they can not separat e the elements of the culture that the individual acquires in their daily lives,

those who can appropriate at school. The cultural elements are developed within and outside the classroom. It is indisputable that science is an essential part of physical culture and is one of its main branches whose validity is determine d by means of experimentation can use their knowledge and understanding of physi cal aspects of natural phenomena and with the help of other disciplines, nature. Therefore, the courses Physics I and II: a) consider the student's own experien ces and situations recreated in the laboratory, as the foundation of learning, p romoting its application to real processes. b) Promote the explanation of natura l phenomena, technological applications and the physical interpretation of mathe matical models. c) To promote useful learning and application to your environmen t. Teachers promote students to acquire an overview of the discipline that takes into account the following components: Concept. The basics consist of a minimum set of ideas, concepts, principles, models and theories, some of them are: chan ge, system, interaction, process, maintenance, overlay, field, particle mass, wa ve, balance, strength, energy. Historical-social. The physics is built as a set of constantly evolving ideas and social contexts that make up explanations to so me of the phenomena of nature, so students must know elements of the historical development of physics. Interdisciplinary. Recognizing that physics studies only one aspect of reality and by the setting of problems can establish links with v arious disciplines such as mathematics, chemistry, biology, health sciences and psychology.€A first approach to interdisciplinarity must be supported through th e link between the subjects that students enrolled or have completed. 5 Methodology. In physics, as in all science, methodological elements are used suc h as: questioning, exploring, conjecturing, experimenting, observing, measuring, concluding, communicating, inferring, modeling, etc. The essential thing is to promote the students' scientific thinking, understood as the use of methods for understanding nature. Teaching. Necessarily involves the teacher and students, f ocuses on learning and guides how to how, through the strategies of teaching and learning specific to CCH, the student improves his interpretation of natural ph enomena and develops your ability to perform learning independent and self-inter est. Therefore, it was required to make explicit the role of student and teacher . In the educational process, students:? It is he who builds his own knowledge? Participate, reflect and question the approaches that emerged from the discussio ns, research and activities proposed by the teacher, peers or by himself. ? Deve lop an attitude of research of natural phenomena through experimental activities . ? Linking physics to their everyday life through the development of activities within and outside the classroom and project development. In the educational pr ocess, Professor:? Guides the process of learning about situations of interest t o students? Promotes problem-solving approach and show specific explanatory and predictive features of physics. ? Learning activities designed to stimulate inte rest and enthusiasm for physics and science in general. ? Try the generation and exchange of ideas is made based on the interests and abilities of students. ? P romote, guide and supervise the search for information through desk research, ex perimental and field, and its subsequent interpretation and communication to the building of new explanations. ? It promotes communication between students and between students and to allow feedback processes occur, the teacher also learns in this process. For better learning achievement of development is recommended f or school research projects. These are works by students on a topic of interest and under the supervision of the teacher. They are activities that allow student s a better understanding and interrelationship of the concepts to their implemen tation and at the same time foster the development of methodological skills asso ciated with the way in which scientific knowledge is constructed. So, wanting to know how the universe originated, how does a geostationary satellite?, 6 What are superconductors?, Or depend on what the different perceptions of sound in the human being?, Are a way to get students to handle the concepts and laws l earned in a practical context, but also serve to show their ability to analyze q uestions or situations from the scientific point of view. The possible products of scholarly research may be: 1. Report of documentary research. 2. Report resul

ts of an experiment (other than those developed in class.) 3. Design and constru ction of technological devices or prototypes. Clearly, the assessment of this ty pe of activity is not limited to know whether it works or not a device or determ ine whether the answer agrees or disagrees with the "official" science, but requ ires the teacher to assume a receptive attitude, so such that at all times consi der the consistency of the knowledge used and how to use them, and the identific ation, if any, of any minimum methodological research: ask and experimental vali dation of hypotheses. It recommends the development of one per semester, in para llel with the course, with regular monitoring of the teacher, and they are expos ed to the end of the semester, with the respective discussion by the group. Atta ched documents are presented with some general ideas about learning and the cont ent and the experimental work for teachers we have a common language. GENERAL PURPOSES The general aims of the subjects of Physics I and II are the students:? Rate Phy sics as a science useful to the social and technological development in Mexico. ? Understand the modes of approach of the knowledge of the physical nature: the experimental methodology and theoretical modeling.€? Develop skills to gain know ledge to make documentaries and experimental research and to communicate, orally and in writing, foreground. ? Understand that Newton's Laws and Universal Gravi tation represent a first synthesis in the study of movement while giving support to physics. ? Know and understand that energy is transferred, transformed, stor ed and dissipation implies limitations on its use, thereby promoting rational us e of energy. ? Understand that energy transfer can be done also through wave pro cesses. 7 ? ? Understand the processes of induction and electromagnetic radiation and to asses s its impact on the development of technology and everyday applications. Underst and the physics, its evolution has changed or clarified its concepts and laws, e specially when changing study systems, quantum and relativistic theories. THEMATIC CONTENT Have been selected thematic content provide students with an overview of the dis cipline. The time allocated to each unit and the instruction set is a parameter that determines the level and depth of content. Each course consists of three un its and each presents a structural outline of content you can provide guidance i n the development of the Unit. Units that make up the courses are: PHYSICS I? Fi rst Unit. About Physics? Second Unit. Mechanical phenomenon? Third Unit 3. Therm odynamic Phenomena PHYSICS II? First Unit. Mechanical wave phenomena? Second Uni t. Electromagnetic Phenomena? Third Unit. Contemporary Physics and Technology EVALUATION In the same way that the planning of learning experiences addresses the nature o f content and educational objectives, assessment instruments must verify the ach ievement of learning. For evaluation of learning has a meaning that goes beyond accreditation, it must meet some key features:? Functional in the sense of being easy to use and interpretation. More complicated systems are not necessarily th e most reliable to achieve an objective interpretation of the acquired knowledge . The student must know clearly the rules of the assessment as this affects thei r academic performance. ? Integrated and continuous, trying to avoid, as far as possible, separations stereotyped specific moments of evaluation. By developing an ongoing evaluation, it may be part of one's own learning experiences, thus el iminating its coercive aspects. This does not mean eliminating eight times ?

significant such as the diagnostic evaluation, intermediate and summary, or the use of reviews, essays, presentations, summaries, or reports, but encourage thei r application is consistent. Feedback for the student to learn both from their s uccesses and their mistakes and for the teacher to develop new teaching methods suggested by the results, designed to improve learning. Specifically makes some suggestions on issues that may guide the evaluation of l earning and accreditation of the course, considering that they require adjustmen t according to the teacher and students group. ? Improved attendance, punctualit y and task accomplishment. ? Delivery team presents and discusses the results of desk research. ? Exemplifies and applies the concepts developed. ? Collaborate in the review of research literature. ? Delivery reports concerning experiments. ? Presents the results of the experiments to the group. ? Solve problems posed by the teacher or the students themselves. ? Using criteria previously set by th e group for the preparation of this work, participate in the evaluation of each and every one of the work and its presentation to the group. ? Surrender, expose s and discusses the results of their projects. ? Solve short tests, developed by the teacher or by each team. 9 PROGRAMME OF PHYSICS I FIRST UNIT. ABOUT PHYSICS This unit is motivating character, its purpose is to a waken the student's interest in physics, give you the opportunity to recognize t he relationship of physics with his everyday life and know the why of things, yo u know some aspects of the methodology used in the investigation and explanation of physical phenomena. In the presentation of systems and physical phenomena ar e not discussed in the explanations, leaving them in the case for its subject.€I t will encourage students to participate by asking questions about the system or phenomenon that they observed and proposed solutions or answers will be tested if the situation permits. It is intended that the student receives a system unde r study is a part of the universe that is selected to investigate a physical phe nomenon, and that the physical quantities are measurable properties that help de scribe and analyze their systems to predict changes. To have a comprehensive und erstanding of the dynamics of the course, it should be a summary description of the educational model of the College of Sciences and Humanities, and get agreeme nt on activities and assessments that will be developed during the course. PURPO SE At the end of Unity, the student:? Will have a vision and comprehensive intro ductory physics. ? Increase your powers of observation and description of some s imple physical phenomena. ? Know that the main elements of methodology in physic s are: the approach of problems and the development and experimental validation of hypotheses. 10 STRUCTURAL DIAGRAM ABOUT PHYSICS LOCATION OF THE SUBJECT QUOTIDIAN INTERDISCIPLINARY CONNECTION PHYSICAL PHENOMENA TECHNOLOGY AND SOCIETY PHYSICAL SYSTEMS

SCIENTIFIC METHODOLOGY SCIENTIFIC KNOWLEDGE SCIENTIFIC THINKING 11 FIRST UNIT. LEARNING ABOUT THE PHYSICAL Student:? Understands the characteristic s and course of the program and contribute to work in an environment of trust. ? LafFísica relates to technology and society. STRATEGIES? Presentation of the co urse, program and discuss the role of teacher and student, and the dynamics of t he course and its assessment. ? Research and discussion on the characteristics o f physics as part of science and brainstorm aspects of their life and about wher e to manifest principles or physical phenomena. ? Students will be introduced to some physical systems for describing and showing the elements that make up the phenomena that occur in it and the physical parameters (constants and variables) present. ? Each team will identify an activity where the elements of the method ology of physics and submitted to Working Group to conduct a group discussion. D iscussion of a video ie. TIME: 10 hours THEME? Presentation of the course. ? Imp ortance of physical in nature and in everyday life (science, technology and soci ety). ? Physical systems. ? Magnitudes and physical variables. ? Describe different systems and physical phenomena and identify the physical qu antities that allow a better description and study. ? Known elements of the expe rimental methodology that uses physics to explain phenomena. ? Meet some relevant facts of the development of physics and its relation to tec hnology and society. ? Theoretical and experimental physics methodology: problem posing, formulating and testing hypotheses and modeling. ? Research documentary about an event? Exam ples of transcendent historical facts of physics. significant in the history of physics and processing, in a group, a time line. Discussion of research and argu ment about its importance. BIBLIOGRAPHY? Cetto, Ana Maria, et al. The world of physics, Trillas, Mexico, 19 97. ? Gamow, George. Biography of Physics, Alianza Editorial, Madrid, 1980. ? He cht, Eugene. Fundamentals of Physics, Thomson Learning, Mexico, 2001. ? Hewitt, Paul. Conceptual Physics, Pearson, Mexico, 1999? Zitzewitz, Paul W., Neff, and R obert Davis, Mark. Physics. Principles and Problems, Mc Graw Hill. Mexico, 2002. 12 SECOND UNIT. MECHANICAL PHENOMENA This unit emphasizes the importance of mechani cal interactions as a way of approaching the interpretation of the world around us, there are two main axes: the Newtonian synthesis and the concept of energy a s integrating elements of physics and other branches of science. It is intended that students see in Newton's Laws and Universal Gravitation a summary of the me chanisms that explain the motion of bodies. It is important in the development o f the unit, emphasizing that the mechanics are based on fundamental principles, products of observation and experimentation, and its importance in technological development and its impact on society. The periods presented will emphasize the physical nature of the phenomena in real situations. It is suggested that the d evelopment of projects of this unit is aimed at aspects of technology implementa tion, with the support and constant guidance of the teacher. PURPOSE At the end of Unity, the student:? Recognize the importance of interactions in the study of motion.€? Will learn about Newton's Laws and Universal Gravitation. ? Well know n and used concepts related to the description and explanation of some types of

movement. ? Understand that energy allows the description of the movement and se rves as a hub in the study of physical phenomena. ? Understand that Newton's Law s and Universal Gravitation represent a first synthesis in the study of motion a nd provides support to physics. 13 STRUCTURAL DIAGRAM MECHANICAL PHENOMENA DYNAMIC ANALYSIS THERMODYNAMIC ANALYSIS Unit 3 ENERGY PHENOMENA NEWTON'S LAWS PRINCIPLES OF CONSERVATION GRAVITATION Interaction FORCE MOMENTUM ENERGY FRICTION MOVEMENT PROCESSING AND TRANSFER MRU MRUA MCU Ec Ep WORK 14 SECOND UNIT. LEARNING MECHANICAL PHENOMENA Student: Newton's First Law STRATEGIE S TIME: 40 hours THEME ? Exemplifies the principle of inertia for that? Starting with examples of movem ent,? Inertia reference system and rest. he uses the concepts of students, draw graphs qualitative particle position, displacement, speed, speed and displacemen t versus time; average inertia reference system, speed and graphics, and discuss ion on the concepts of acceleration in one dimension. and inertial reference sys tems: inertial and noninertial. ? Recognized in a system interactions and? Discu ssion on different examples of? Interactions and forces, qualitative aspect. for ces and apply the principle of superposition of interactions and forces in a sys tem and the forces in a qualitative way. principle of superposition. ? MRU assoc iates with the resultant force equal to? Pilot activities to enable it in? Zero net force (vector from a point of view and zero inertia, describes the features a system where SF = 0, obtain data, operational, MRU vector difference from thei

r observations, build charts, climbing to tweens yy ), a Newton's First Law and measurements, graphs, and solve problems extrapolations and describe the charact eristics of uniform rectilinear movement. easy on the MRU. MRU, presentation of results in oral, written and graphic and solving exercises. ? Operationally defi ned momentum and calculates the momentum of some objects. ? Bibliographic resear ch on concepts? Inertial mass and momentum. mass, momentum and inertia principle . Exercises to calculate the momentum of some objects. 2. Newton's Second Law? D esign and conduct experiments where? Second change of momentum and show the rela tionship between the force and the change in Newton's Law. momentum with respect to time. ? Experimental activity that allows students? Constant force in the di rection to obtain data, build graphs, making the movement and MRUA. interpolatio ns and extrapolations, which shows that a constant force produces a MRUA unbalan ced and description of the characteristics. ? Group discussion about the differe nces between? Differences between the MRU and MRU and MRUA MRUA. ? Experimental work to find that? MCU constant force direction requires a central force (in a s tring perpendicular to the motion: mass, rotating tie), find some MCU. MCU relat ions between magnitudes and algebraic derivation of the mathematical relationshi p ? You understand that unbalanced forces cause change in the momentum of the obje cts and she is quantified with F =? p /? t. ? Develops and interprets graphs of displacement and speed versus time of movement of objects that are under the act ion of a constant force that acts in the same direction of the velocity. Describ e characteristics and solve simple problems MRUA of MRUA. ? It sets out differen ces and similarities between the MRU and MRUA. ? Recognizes that the force may c ause changes in velocity direction. Describe the characteristics of the MCU, he uses the concepts to the MCU and 15 between the tangential speed of a particle and its acceleration MCU using a geom etric model. ? Troubleshooting? Resolution of problems concerning MRU? It uses t he First and Second Laws of Newton concerning MRU MRUA and MCU. MRUA and MCU. so lving problems in simple and clear,? Solve exercises with relationships for syst ems with constant mass, the formula F =? p /? t and F = ma F = ma, from F =? p / ? t. 3. Newton's Third Law calculated the centripetal acceleration and force on the particle. ? Identifies, in various systems, action and reaction forces betwe en two interacting objects.€? It states the principle of conservation of momentu m and will use it to explain his comments on crashes and explosions and to calcu late the velocity of a particle in the phenomenon. ? Experiment and analysis of photography? Newton's Third Law. strobe on collisions between two particles, to show the conservation of momentum and solving problems related to conservation o f momentum. ? Discussion of the video "Newton's Laws" of? Momentum conservation. the series "Mechanical Universe" The. 4. Newtonian Universal Gravitation and Synthesis? Identify the gravitational for ce as one of the? Documentary research and group discussion? Gravitational inter action and Universal Gravitation and its relation to fundamental and recognized as the cause of the movement of planets, satellites of planets and satellites mo tion. free fall of celestial motion. and comets. ? Presentation by the teacher o f Synthesis? Newtonian synthesis. ? Recognized by the laws of Newton and the Uni versal Gravitation a first synthesis of the Newtonian and group discussion of it . mechanics. 5. Mechanical energy and labor? Objects associated with the interac tion between processes? Bibliographic research on development? Energy and types of energy: energy transfer and those with historical or kinetic energy of the en ergy concept and discussion work, and resolves calculation exercises on the conc epts of potential energy kinetic energy mechanical energy I, work force and pote ntial mathematical expressions. involved. ? Experiments on conservation? Energy conservation? Understand the concepts of kinetic energy and energy transformatio n discussion of examples of potential and calculated in different systems. mecha

nics. Calculate the total mechanical energy of a system and and energy transfer and conservation and the principle of conservation of energy problem solving kin ematics from the analysis of different movements. energy standpoint. ? Answering the question: Simple Machines? And job transfer? Employs the concept of in-use for less work? discussion and quantification of energy transfer. mechanical ener gy and power. team and group. ? Know the concept of power. ? Research on the pow er of some machines 16 and calculation of power. ? Associated with the work done by the force of fricti on? Perform a trial of dissipative processes:? Energy dissipative processes. a d issipative process. Is energy not conserved? BIBLIOGRAPHY? Gamow, George. Biography of Physics, Alianza Editorial, Madrid, 19 80. ? Cetto, Ana Maria, et al. The world of physics, Trillas, Mexico, 1997. ? He cht, Eugene. Fundamentals of Physics, Thomson Learning, Mexico, 2001. ? Hewitt, Paul. Conceptual Physics, Pearson, Mexico, 1999. ? Zitzewitz, Paul W., Robert F. Neft and Mark Davids. Physics 1. Principles and Problems, McGraw Hill, Mexico, 2002. 17 THIRD UNIT. THERMODYNAMIC PHENOMENA In this Unit, students will expand their kno wledge about energy and its conservation in processes involving heat and work an d analyze the factors that determine the efficiency of these processes. The cons truction of the concepts of temperature, heat balance, heat, phase changes, and its internal energy increases by exchanges of heat and work and energy conservat ion in thermodynamic processes, the impossibility of converting 100% of the heat work will allow you to relate energy changes to the production of mechanical wo rk in the home, industry and transport, thus developing an awareness regarding t he efficient use of energy. The student will use the microscopic descriptions fo r the better understanding of some concepts studied macroscopically, such as tem perature, pressure, internal energy and changes of state. The student will devel op projects that may include the construction of devices of interest, which link concepts or principles developed in the Unit, with its implementation. PURPOSE At the end of Unity, the student:? Understand the concepts associated with therm odynamics, that will allow them a rational explanation of thermodynamic phenomen a of their environment. ? Apply the principle of conservation of energy in therm odynamic processes. ? Understand that the processes of transformation of useful energy are associated with energy dissipation phenomena involving limitations on their use and therefore the importance of rational use of energy. ? Know the us efulness of employing the particle model for better understanding of thermal phe nomena. 18 STRUCTURAL DIAGRAM THERMODYNAMIC PHENOMENA ENERGY CONVERSION AND TRANSFER HEAT INTERNAL POWER WORK FIRST LAW TEMPERATURE AND THERMAL PROPERTIES microscopic model

THERMAL MACHINES SUBSTANCE OF OPERATION SECOND LAW PROPER USE OF ENERGY 19 THIRD UNIT. LEARNING THERMODYNAMIC PHENOMENA Student:? Develop positive attitude s toward the proper use of energy and its use. ? Get an overview of the primary sources of energy, its main forms and their use. ? Understand the concepts of th ermal equilibrium, temperature and heat. ? Describe the temperature changes caus ed by energy exchange, their relationship with the internal energy and uses the particle model to explain them. ? Use specific and latent heat to calculate chan ges in the energy transferred to a system. ? Identifies the forms of heat: condu ction, convection, radiation and learn about some practical situations. STRATEGI ES 1. Transformations and transfer of energy? Discussion on use of energy and? i mplications for their employment. TIME: 30 hours THEME Forms of energy. ? Identify sources of energy and? Primary sources of energy. processing and tran sfer different? Energy consumption per capita and social development. devices, e specially household. 2. Thermal properties? Presentation and discussion of a vid eo or? Heat. simulation program to associate the temperature and internal energy with the kinetic energy of the particles. ? Research and discussion on the oper ation? Thermal equilibrium, temperature and internal energy exchange. thermal de vices, using temperature, thermal balance, internal energy and heat. ? Using the calorimeter to determine the heat? Specific and latent heats. any specific subs tance. ? Academic experience on the can collapsed. ? Discussion on how to transf er? Applications forms of heat: conduction, convection, thermal energy for heati ng or air radiation. conditioning. 3. First Law of Thermodynamics? Discussion on various forms of? Energy Conservation transform energy. Documentary research an d discussion of the Joule experiment. ? Analysis of examples of changes in energ y? Internal energy changes by internal heat through and work. heat and work. ? I mplementation of the first law of thermodynamics? First law of thermodynamics. i n solving simple problems. 4. Second Law of Thermodynamics? Documentary research on machines? Heat engines and thermal efficiency and analysis of the overall sc heme of the ideal and real machines. ? Recognizes and exemplifies the transformation of energy. ? Recognize and analy ze two forms in the energy transfer and heat work. ? It recognizes and illustrat es the first law of thermodynamics in simple processes. ? Meet the operating pri nciple of a heat engine. 20 ? It analyzes the transfer of energy through heat and work. ? ? ? Learn about the implications of the second law of thermodynamics. ? It relat es the irreversibility of processes and their relation to entropy. ? Recognize t he impact of non-usable energy as a source of contamination. ? ? ?

thermal machines to explain their theoretical foundations. Construction of a hea t engine computer and presentation to the group: Hero, Savery, pressure pumps an d suction steam, steam turbine, steam ferryboat, conference leagues. Explaining the functioning of the internal combustion engine with the existing model in the laboratory. Research and comparison of the efficiency of heat engines and some group discussion of the statements of the second law of thermodynamics. Document ary research on the concept of entropy, related to the unidirectionality of proc esses. Research on pollution sources and their relation to the use of energy. ? General scheme of thermal machines. ? Second law of thermodynamics. ? Entropy. Concept related to the irreversibilit y. ? Thermal phenomena and pollution. BIBLIOGRAPHY? Frederick Bueche, J. Fundamentals of Physics, Volume I, McGraw Hil l, Mexico 1991. ? Hecht, Eugene. Fundamentals of Physics, Thomson Learning, Mexi co, 2001. ? Hewitt, Paul. Conceptual Physics. Pearson, Mexico, 1999? Zitzewitz, Paul W., Robert F. Neft and Mark Davids. Physics 1. Principles and problems. McG raw Hill, Mexico, 2002. 21 PROGRAMME OF PHYSICS II FIRST UNIT. MECHANICAL wave phenomena This unit is intended that students know g eneralities and characteristics of mechanical waves,€relate this knowledge with the explanation of wave phenomena that occur in everyday life and have the skill s to describe these phenomena by Newtonian mechanics, since any mechanical wave can be interpreted in terms of movements and interactions between components of the medium. It is important that the study of wave phenomena enable them to diff erentiate between the behavior of a wave and a particle. It is recommended that you start the development of scholarly research projects concerning the second s emester. PURPOSE At the end of the student Unit:? Learn about the general proper ties of waves. ? Apply their knowledge of wave phenomena to explain everyday phe nomena which occur in transmission, reflection, refraction, interference and dif fraction of mechanical waves. ? Differentiate the behavior of a particle of a wa ve. ? Learn about some applications related to wave phenomena. 22 STRUCTURAL DIAGRAM MECHANICAL wave phenomena MECHANICAL WAVES PROPERTIES Wave phenomena ENERGY REFLECTION REFRACTION DIFFRACTION INTERFERENCE RESONANCE

TECHNOLOGICAL APPLICATIONS 23 FIRST UNIT. MECHANICAL APPRENTICESHIPS wave phenomena Student:? Understands the characteristics and course of the program and contribute to work in an environme nt of trust. ? Exemplifies situations where wave phenomena occur and identify tr ansverse and longitudinal waves in mechanical media. STRATEGIES 1. Mechanical wa ves TIME: 10 hours THEME? Presentation of the course. ? Presentation of the course, program and discuss the role of teacher and studen t, and the dynamics of the course and its assessment. ? Presentation and vibrato ry wave phenomena as an introduction to the study of mechanical waves using: rip ple tank, springs, ropes, hemp yarn of different thicknesses and lengths attache d to a hair cutter, reed, metal and glass rods , tuning forks, coupled pendulums , percussion instruments and wind, and glass cups. ? Documentary research on? Id entify the characteristics of waves: characteristics of mechanical waves and amp litude, frequency, wavelength and speed. Identification of the parameters that c haracterize the wave motion in the material submitted. ? Measurement and numeric al calculation of magnitudes? Solve problems involving physical length of wave p henomena. wave, frequency and speed of it. ? Group Discussion and explanation of the difference? Understand that waves carry energy. between the transmission of energy by wave motion of particles. 2. Wave phenomena ? General. ? Parameters that characterize the wave motion. ? Magnitudes for wave phenomena. ? Waves and energy. ? Describe with examples taken from life? Use ripple tank to observe? Wave pheno mena: everyday phenomena: reflection, refraction phenomena: reflection, refracti on, diffraction, reflection, refraction, diffraction, interference, diffraction and interference wave resonance. Demonstration, through the use of mechanical in terference and resonance. tuning forks, the phenomenon of resonance in waves. so und waves, and documentary research on other examples and explanation of them. O ther examples are: coupled pendulums, musical instruments or, see the video of t he collapse of the bridge Takoma (Museo Universum). Seismic investigations. ? Ex plain that sound is a longitudinal wave? Experimental activity: with the help of teacher? The sound example of the phenomenon whose speed depends on the environ ment that the students will measure the wave. transmits and assess the risks of contamination with a speed of sound pitch and sound tube. glass to be opened to change the level of 24 ? Recognizes the importance of wave phenomena in society? Unlike the wave behavi or of particles. research on water and noise pollution damage and periodic processes in the human body. ? Students will review the software: "Oscilations and Waves" as a synthes is activity. ? Investigation: ultrasound, sonar, evidence? Some technological ap plications in health. hearing, noise pollution, the biology, hearing in animals, control system applications. ? Group Discussion and explanation of the differen ce? Waves and particles. between the behavior of a wave of a particle. BIBLIOGRAPHY? Frederick Bueche, J. Fundamentals of Physics, Volume I, Mc Graw Hi ll, Mexico 1991. ? HECHT, Eugene.€Fundamentals of Physics, Thomson Learning, Mex ico, 2001. ? Hewitt, Paul. Conceptual Physics, Pearson, Mexico, 1999. ? Zitzewit

z, Paul W., Robert F. Neft and Mark Davids. Physics 2. Principles and Problems, McGraw Hill, Mexico, 2002. 25 SECOND UNIT. ELECTROMAGNETIC PHENOMENA For the student to better interpret their environment is essential to know certain elements of electromagnetics and relat ed phenomena of electromagnetic waves, the scientific discoveries made in this f ield have had an immediate practical application, have led to the development of technology and are the support of Modern Physics. This unit will meet some of t he contributions of Ampere, Faraday and J. C. Maxwell that are critical in the d evelopment of current technology. The core concepts of this unit are: load, fiel d, electromagnetic induction and electric potential changes between electricity and other energies. The structure of the unit encourages students to acquire a c omprehensive view of electromagnetic phenomena. The projects to be developed in this unit are conducive to a better understanding of the relationship science-te chnology-society. PURPOSE At the end of the student Unit:? Recognize changes in the electric power, and its importance in everyday life. ? You will learn the ba sics of electromagnetic induction. ? Understand the phenomenology of electromagn etic waves and different applications. ? Understand the importance of energy tra nsfer via electromagnetic field even in the absence of a material medium. ? Asse ss the importance of electromagnetism in technology development and its impact o n society. 26 STRUCTURAL DIAGRAM ELECTROMAGNETIC PHENOMENA ELECTRICAL LOAD ELECTRIC FIELD MAGNETIC FIELD ELECTRIC INTERACTION Electrical potential difference MAGNETIC INTERACTION ELECTRICAL RESISTANCE ELECTROMAGNETIC INDUCTION OHM POWER LAW CHANGES OF ELECTROMAGNETIC WAVES AND MAGNETIC POWER 27 EVERYDAY AND TECHNOLOGICAL APPLICATIONS SECOND UNIT. ELECTROMAGNETIC PHENOMENA LEARNING Student:? Recognizes the electri cal charge as a property of matter, associated with the protons and electrons, w hich determines another type of fundamental interaction than that of gravity. ? It uses the atomic model and the principle of conservation of charge to explain a body electrically neutral and electrically charged. ? Explaining the different ways a body can be electrocuted: friction, contact and induction, considering t he transfer of electrons. ? Understand that the electric force between two elect rified objects is proportional to the product of the magnitudes of the charges a nd inversely proportional to the square of the distance. STRATEGIES 1. Electric charge? Research on the existence and types quantization of electric charge and the discovery of the electron. ? Research on the principle of electric charge co

nservation. of TIME: 10 hours THEME? Electric charge. ? Charge conservation. ? Experimental work together to show the electrification process using materials such as plastic rods, glass, PVC and the electroscope. Construction, equipment, and an explanation of the electroscope. ? Experimental Activity: Interaction of two balloons or two electrified plates Styrofoam covered in aluminum, with one on a digital scale to find the relationship between force and distance, and betw een force and the load. 2. Field, potential energy and electric potential? Obser vation of the electric field in some simple settings and group discussion of the concept. ? Resolution of simple exercises to determine the intensity of the ele ctric field due to point charges? Calculation of electric potential energy of di fferent configurations of pairs of electric charges. Group discussion about the difference between electric potential energy and electric potential. 3. Current and potential difference? Experimental classification of materials into conducto rs and insulators. Preparation, teamwork, ? Forms of electrification: friction, contact and induction. ? Electrostatic int eraction. Coulomb's law. ? Described by the electric field drawings of simple configurations of objects e lectrified. ? Calculate the electric field intensity produced by one or two load s. ? Identifies the work load in an electric field as the change in electric pot ential energy of the system. ? Electric field. ? Electric field strength. ? Energy Potential in the electric field and potential. ? Explains electrical current from the electrical potential difference and class ifies ? Electric current and potential difference. 28 materials according to their ability to conduct electrical charges. ? Experiment ally shows the relationship between current and voltage in an electrical resista nce (Ohm's law) and applies it in a series circuit and in parallel. ? Rate the i mportance of rational use of electricity. a model to show the generation of electric current from a potential difference. ? Design and implementation of a pilot to find the relationship between voltage and current. Discussion, construction and analysis of circuits in series and in parallel. ? Discussion of the Joule effect from the point of view of energy cons ervation. Determination of the electrical energy used at home. 4. Electromagneti c phenomena? Show Oersted's experiment and observe the magnetic field lines arou nd a straight conductor, coil windings and a coil through which an electric curr ent constant. ? Experimental work in teams: a comparison between the behavior of a bar magnet and a coil for carrying a current. Observation of magnetic field l ines of a magnet and a coil, using iron filings. Observation of the interaction between the magnet and coil. ? Experimental activity to observe that two straigh t conductors through which an electric current are attracted or repelled dependi ng on the direction of its currents. To determine the magnitude of the magnetic force between two straight conductors at different distances. ? Construction of an engine and the development of a sequence of diagrams showing its operation? O bservation, using a cathode ray tube, the deflection of the electron beam in the presence of a magnetic field and its dependence on field orientation. Equivalen tly performed observing the movement of ions in a saline solution in the presenc e of a magnetic field of a magnet.

? Ohm's Law. ? Transformation of electrical energy. ? Understand that all constant current generates a static magnetic field, and de scribes the magnetic field formed around a straight conductor with constant curr ent as well as a loop and a coil. ? Drawings or diagrams representing the magnet ic field produced by magnetic dipoles: magnet, coil and coil. ? Magnetic field and field lines ? Electromagnetic interaction. ? Describe the force of attraction or repulsion is observed between two constant current drivers, and establishes the dependence of the magnetic interaction for ce between the conductors with their separation. ? Describe the operation of an electric motor. ? Know that a static magnetic field exerts a force on an electri c charge when it is moving in a direction different from the field lines. ? Magnetic interaction between drivers straight. ? Transformation of electrical energy into mechanical. ? Lorentz Force. 29 ? Describes the generation of electric current through the magnetic field variat ion near a conductor. ? Meet the operation and main uses of a transformer? Under stand the operation of an electric generator. ? Know that when a magnetic field varies creates an electric field and when you change an electric field generated a magnetic field. ? Describe the spectrum of electromagnetic waves and identifi es the visible light part of it. ? Know that the frequency of an electromagnetic wave is oscillating field frequency that causes it. ? Known that electromagneti c waves carry energy. ? Describe some uses and applications of electromagnetic w aves. ? Observation of obtaining a potential difference by moving a magnet near an ele ctrical conductor or a coil. Using the coil Thompson to show the phenomenon of i nduction and transforming effect. ? Construction equipment and explanation of ho w an electric generator. 5. Electromagnetic waves? Development of a scheme that represents the production of magnetic field due to variations in electric field and vice versa. ? Exemplifying electromagnetic induction to transmit information , preparation of a sketch showing the electromagnetic spectrum. ? Solving proble ms with the relationship? f = c, where? is the wavelength, f the wave frequency and c is the velocity of light in a vacuum. ? Use of devices to demonstrate that electromagnetic waves, including light, carry energy. ? Research on the use of different wavelengths,€essay on the impact of technology and its application in medicine, industry and home. ? Faraday-Henry Law-Lenz. ? Transformation of mechanical energy into electricity. ? Electromagnetic field? Electromagnetic waves and spectrum. ? Speed of electromagnetic waves. ? Electro magnetic field energy. ? Technological importance of electromagnetic waves. BIBLIOGRAPHY? Frederick Bueche, J. Fundamentals of Physics, McGraw Hill, Mexico, 1991. ? HECHT, Eugene. Fundamentals of Physics, Thomson Learning, Mexico, 2001. ? Hewitt, Paul. Conceptual Physics, Pearson, Mexico, 1999. ? Zitzewitz, Paul W. , Robert F. Neft and Mark Davids. Physics 2. Principles and Problems, McGraw Hil l, Mexico, 2002.

30 THIRD UNIT. CONTEMPORARY PHYSICS AND TECHNOLOGY This unit aims to help students learn the fundamentals and advances in contemporary physics and its importance i n daily life has its impact on technology and society. Promotes awareness of som e current issues, with emphasis on two theories that are the foundation of moder n physics: The Special Theory of Relativity and quantum mechanics, and it encour ages students to apply their knowledge and skills in information acquisition doc umentary research on topics of contemporary physics and technology. The proposed learning strategies provide the theoretical support of teaching, teacher interv ention should be in the sense of explaining and clarifying the meaning of the ma terial presented. The unit has a structure for teaching purposes, aimed to provi de bases for the interested student can continue with greater depth the topics c overed. The topics of the theme of this unit are three proposals for documentary research, these applications must select at least one. This activity can be an assessment on the skills achieved by students in research and oral and written c ommunication. For learning the fundamentals is important that students do team p rojects according to their interests, these projects will be supervised by the t eacher and presented to the group. PURPOSE At the end of Unity, the student:? Kn own phenomena that are not explained with classical physics. ? Understand that e very theory has its limits of validity and meet those for classical physics, sta ting the differences between it and the modern. ? Recognize the importance of Co ntemporary Physics in everyday life. ? Learn about some of the most important ap plications of Contemporary Physics in current technology. ? Use modern technolog y to improve their skills and research techniques and communication. 31 STRUCTURAL DIAGRAM CONTEMPORARY PHYSICS AND TECHNOLOGY CRISIS OF CLASSICAL PHYSICS Matter and Energy Quantization Wave-particle duality SPECIAL RELATIVITY STRUCTURE OF MATTER NUCLEAR PHYSICS ASSUMPTIONS AND CONSEQUENCES Bohr's atomic model High Energy Physics QUANTUM THEORY COSMOLOGY KNOWLEDGE OF APPLICATIONS 32 THIRD UNIT. CONTEMPORARY PHYSICS AND TECHNOLOGY LEARNING Student:? Indicates phy sical phenomena that classical physics could not explain. ? Describe the photoel ectric effect? Describes some emission and absorption spectra. ? It uses the Boh r model to explain the emission and absorption spectra. ? Meet the dual behavior of electrons. STRATEGIES 1. Quantization of matter and energy? Presentation of the unit by the teacher and documentary research on the emergence of modern phys ics. ? Investigation of the photoelectric effect and its applications. Demonstra ting the same with ultraviolet light and an electroscope. ? Observation of the e

mission spectrum of some gas discharge lamps and using a CD as a diffraction gra ting and a description of them. ? Discussion of the Bohr model to explain the em ission spectrum of hydrogen. ? Observation of corpuscular characteristics of cat hode rays and documentary research on the wave nature of particles. 2. Special r elativity TIME: 30 hours THEME ? Crisis of classical physics and quantum physics origin. ? Quantization of ener gy and photoelectric effect. ? Emission and absorption spectra of gases. ? Bohr atomic model. ? Dual nature of matter. ? He contrasts the principle of relativity of Galileo and Newton's ideas with th ose of Einstein on space and time. ? Includes some implications of the constancy of the speed of light. ? Discussion on the Newtonian view of space? Limits of applicability of classica l mechanics and the origin of and the time shown on the video "Universe The rela tivistic physics. Mechanical "Volume 11 Episode 41. ? Experiment: Determination of velocity? Postulates of special relativity and its consequences. electromagne tic waves and discuss the implications of the speed of light is constant. ? Meet the relativistic interpretation of the relationship? Discussion of key evidence ? Equivalence of mass and mass-energy and its application in energy production a nd its experimental consequences that support the theory of nuclear energy. prac tices. special relativity. ? Discussion of the video "mass-energy equivalence" c ollection "Mechanical Universe" The volume, 11, Episode 44. 33 3. Applications of contemporary physics? Describe some applications and contribu tions of modern physics to scientific and technological development: o Describe the process of fission and fusion. ? Research on the contributions of physics? N uclear physics: modern research and technological development. simulation of rad ioactive decay or "activity with dice or coins" and mass-energy equivalence: fus ion and fission processes. or Radioisotopes. o Research documentary about the ma in applications of radioisotopes. or solar energy research. or solar physics. Lists the main applications of radioactive isotopes and their impact on society. or explains the production of energy in the sun due to fusion reactions? Meet n ew materials and technologies and their applications: laser, superconductors, fi ber optics and nanotechnology. or ? Learn about the current models of the origin and evolution of the Universe. ? Research on new technologies and new? New technologies and new materials such as laser, superconductors, fiber materials: lasers, fiber optics, optics and nan otechnology. Discussion of some superconducting demonstrations: "Transmission of information by a modulated laser beam" or "Levitation of a superconducting magn et in a pill at a temperature of liquid nitrogen? Read or video "Universe in a s hell of him? Cosmology: The Origin and Evolution nut "by Stephen Hawking, discus sion and analogy, the universe. expansion of the universe with leagues and ballo ons. It is recommended that:? according to the interests of students, the teacher and the time available, students present their research topics in this unit in orde r to assess the skills developed in the search for information and in oral and w ritten communication. The allocation of the topics will be held in advance of th e development of this Unit. ? students make use of popular literature on the iss ues of Contemporary Physics, in particular the collection: "science for all" The . ? students use the Internet to research topics of this unit, the proposed dire ctions? www.cpepweb.com? www.aip.org / history? www.pbs.org / wgbh / nova / eins tein? www.maloka.org/f2000

BIBLIOGRAPHY? Giancoli, Douglas. Physics Principles with Applications, PrenticeHall Mexico, 1996. ? Hewitt, Paul. Conceptual Physics, Pearson, Mexico, 1999. ? HETCH, Eugene. Fundamentals of Physics, Thomson Learning, Mexico, 2001. ? Paul T ippens. Physics Concepts and Applications. McGraw Hill, Mexico, 2001. ? Zitzewit z, Paul W., Robert F. Neft and Mark Davids. Physics 2. Principles and Problems, McGraw Hill, Mexico, 2002. 34 ANNEXES Here are some general aspects related to concepts that need to be defined so tha t the teachers we have a common language. CONTENT AND LEARNING has been said that the purpose of teaching is to get a bach elor culture incorporating: notions and concepts, skills and abilities, attitude s and values that favor a more intuitive and better founded by Nature of science . The following statements attempt to define concepts in order to have a common language. Notions and Concepts In the case of the central concepts of physics ar e associated with large areas of historical development of physics, quantity and delimitation is reflected in the contents of the program. Skills and skills dev elopment is fundamental intellectual skills, they support the achievement of the learning content, so we must promote those intellectual skills that encourage t he construction of flexible and creative strategies, avoiding ill-considered use of algorithms or rigid, like a value in itself, is not to teach or learn physic s is reduced to use or apply formulas.€The skills listed below, are intended to exemplify those that can be most useful for Experimental Science Area and in par ticular to physics: observation, analysis, classification, abstraction, synthesi s, creativity, criticality, oral and written communication in development skills are particularly relevant skills. Skills understood as manual or psychomotor sk ills will always be with respect to knowledge and intellectual skills which woul d put at stake the student's creativity to adapt and improvise appliances or equ ipment on the observation and reproduction of phenomena that contribute substant ively to building their own research strategies. Attitudes and values within the framework of the basic culture, the development of attitudes takes on special s ignificance, since the learning is integrated. The proposed methodology aims to open the student's mind to new approaches in the search for explanations to unde rstand natural phenomena to human activity relationships with nature and impact of such activity on the environment. This allows you to take a scientific attitu de, criticism and proposals to the social, economic and environmental aspects of the country, so that learning experiences should seek the training of the afore mentioned attitudes and values inherent in them. The collective aim to foster re sponsible attitudes, respect, interest, cooperation, self-esteem and solidarity as well as the valuation of work, perseverance and honesty. 35 EXPERIMENTAL WORK IN THE CCH In physics experimental work is proposed as one of the tools to build knowledge: concerning the manipulation of concrete objects in physical reality, hence the importance of skills in the training of the student . The following describes the different activities that can be developed in the courses and activities that correspond to experimental. Each type has different purposes, and all can be made throughout the course: pilot demonstration activit ies, experimental investigations, and projects. Those experimental demonstration activities in which the student does not have to establish specifically, relati onships between variables and is only required to determine the value of some ph ysical quantity, such as the speed of sound, or when the student only make obser vations, such as observing the reflection of waves in a ripple tank. Will not ne cessarily make assumptions, the formal report will not be sufficient to register on his blog (at the discretion of the teacher), also presented findings in a pr

esentation to the group. These activities eventually the material conditions wil l have to be developed as demonstration activities by the teacher or learning ac tivities undertaken by the student but teacher-led. The number of such pilot exe rcises will depend on the thematic content is selected for the programs, and pro per planning to make your course professor. Those experimental research in which students systematically manipulated variable to determine its effect on another (response variable), ie, establishing the relationship between two variables of a system. Methodology will continue working together, must make assumptions or predictions, issued a formal report (with the structure of research published in a scientific journal). The team will be prepared to defend their findings and c onclusions to their classmates in a presentation with educational resources of t heir choice. It is suggested that these activities are carried out once or twice a semester. Development projects will be promoted in this activity that student s freely choose a theme for raising a question or problem to solve. Its developm ent is carried out with the teacher's guide, may also develop some explanation o n the operation of devices, appliances, machinery or components that require the use of concepts of physics developed in the course. Essentially contains the sa me elements as in the previous case with the possibility that the research under taken is of a documentary nature or construction of any device or prototype, as well as the possibility of developing an experiment, it is suggested one per sem ester. THE REVIEW AND ADJUSTMENT PROGRAM OF PHYSICS PHYSICS II IY Miguel Angel A lcalá Landeta, Gomez Netzi Mosqueda, Juan Ibarra Cuellar, Juan Manuel Lozano Mej ia, Raul Melendez Venancio, Edgar Mendez Pedrero, Ramon Romero Monreal Vera, Fel ipe Patiño Santander,€Porta Valentín Andrés Contreras, Zoilo Ramirez Maldonado, Javier Ramos Salamanca, Fernando Rivero González, José Antonio Sarmiento Hernánd ez, Martín Soria Lora, Alberto Vázquez Rodríguez, Roberto Villalobos Ramirez, Jo rge Alejandro Loya Wong, Enrique Zamora Arango. President: Javier Ramos Salamanc a Secretary: Enrique Zamora Arango 36