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Archaeological Services in Relation to Marine Designation

HMHS Anglia

Marine Geophysical Survey Report

Prepared for:
English Heritage
Fort Cumberland
Fort Cumberland Road
Eastney
Portsmouth
PO4 9LD

Prepared by:
Wessex Archaeology
Portway House
Old Sarum Park
Salisbury
WILTSHIRE
SP4 6EB

www.wessexarch.co.uk

December 2014

Report Ref: 83803.39

Wessex Archaeology Ltd 2014, all rights reserved


Wessex Archaeology Ltd is a Registered Charity No. 287786 (England & Wales) and SC042630 (Scotland)
Archaeological Services in Relation to Marine Designation
HMHS Anglia

Quality Assurance

Project Code 83803 Accession N/A Client EH 6552


Code Ref.
Planning N/A Ordnance Survey UTM31N:
Application (OS) national grid 382174 E
Ref. reference (NGR) 5657436 N

Version Status* Prepared by Checked and Approvers Signature Date


Approved By
v01 I S. Arnott

File: 83803_Anglia_geophysics_shla_2014_12_02.docx
v02 E S. Arnott Toby Gane 04/12/2014

File: 83803_Anglia_geophysics_2014_12_04_v2.1.docx
v03 F S. Arnott Toby Gane 08/12/2014

File: 83803_Anglia_geophysics_2014_12_08_v3.0.docx

File:

File:

* I = Internal Draft; E = External Draft; F = Final

DATA LICENSES
This product has been derived in part from material obtained from the UK Hydrographic Office with the
permission of the UK Hydrographic Office and Her Majestys Stationery Office.
Crown Copyright, 2014. Wessex Archaeology Ref. HA294/007/316-01.
The following notice applies:
NOT TO BE USED FOR NAVIGATION
WARNING: The UK Hydrographic Office has not verified the information within this product and does not
accept liability for the accuracy of reproduction or any modifications made thereafter.

DISCLAIMER

THE MATERIAL CONTAINED IN THIS REPORT WAS DESIGNED AS AN INTEGRAL PART OF A REPORT TO AN INDIVIDUAL CLIENT AND WAS
PREPARED SOLELY FOR THE BENEFIT OF THAT CLIENT. THE MATERIAL CONTAINED IN THIS REPORT DOES NOT NECESSARILY STAND ON
ITS OWN AND IS NOT INTENDED TO NOR SHOULD IT BE RELIED UPON BY ANY THIRD PARTY. TO THE FULLEST EXTENT PERMITTED BY LAW
WESSEX ARCHAEOLOGY WILL NOT BE LIABLE BY REASON OF BREACH OF CONTRACT NEGLIGENCE OR OTHERWISE FOR ANY LOSS OR
DAMAGE (WHETHER DIRECT INDIRECT OR CONSEQUENTIAL) OCCASIONED TO ANY PERSON ACTING OR OMITTING TO ACT OR REFRAINING
FROM ACTING IN RELIANCE UPON THE MATERIAL CONTAINED IN THIS REPORT ARISING FROM OR CONNECTED WITH ANY ERROR OR
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BUT IS NOT LIMITED TO, ANY LOSS OF PROFITS OR ANTICIPATED PROFITS DAMAGE TO REPUTATION OR GOODWILL LOSS OF BUSINESS OR
ANTICIPATED BUSINESS DAMAGES COSTS EXPENSES INCURRED OR PAYABLE TO ANY THIRD PARTY (IN ALL CASES WHETHER DIRECT
INDIRECT OR CONSEQUENTIAL) OR ANY OTHER DIRECT INDIRECT OR CONSEQUENTIAL LOSS OR DAMAGE.
Archaeological Services in Relation to Marine Designation
HMHS Anglia

Archaeological Services in Relation to Marine Designation


HMHS Anglia

Marine Geophysical Survey Report

Contents

Summary ........................................................................................................................................iii
Acknowledgements.........................................................................................................................iv

1 INTRODUCTION............................................................................................................... 1
1.1 Background....................................................................................................................... 1
1.2 Aims and Objectives.......................................................................................................... 1

2 THE WRECK .................................................................................................................... 2

3 METHODOLOGY.............................................................................................................. 3
3.1 Data Sources .................................................................................................................... 3
3.2 Geophysical Data Technical Specifications .................................................................... 4
3.3 Geophysical Data - Processing ......................................................................................... 4
3.4 Geophysical Data Anomaly Grouping and Discrimination............................................... 6

4 RESULTS ......................................................................................................................... 6
4.1 Seabed Features Assessment .......................................................................................... 6

5 DISCUSSION.................................................................................................................... 8

6 REFERENCES................................................................................................................ 11

APPENDIX I ANOMALIES OF ARCHAEOLOGICAL POTENTIAL........................................... 13

Tables
Table 1: Wreck location provided in WGS84 and projected to UTM zone 31N
Table 2: Criteria for assigning data quality rating
Table 3: Criteria for discriminating archaeological importance of features
Table 4: Sites of potential archaeological interest within the study area
Table 5: Classification of sites with archaeological potential

Figures
Figure 1: Survey Area Location and Trackplot
Figure 2: Images of the Anglia
Figure 3: Sidescan Sonar Mosaic and Gridded Magnetometer Data
Figure 4: Multibeam Bathymetry Data
Figure 5: Sites of Potential Archaeological Interest
Figure 6: WA ID 7000 HMHS Anglia (UKHO 13522)

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Figure 7: Detailed Sidescan Sonar Images of the Wreck of the Anglia Colour Schemes
Highlight Different Features
Figure 8: Archaeological Interpretation of the Geophysical Data of the Wreck of the Anglia
Figure 9: Upper Deck Plans of TSS Anglia (Denny Collection, National Maritime Museum,
London)

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Summary
Wessex Archaeology (WA) was commissioned by English Heritage (EH) through the NHPP
Heritage at Risk contract to undertake a geophysical survey over the wreck of HMHS Anglia
(UKHO 13522), approximately 7km south of Dover. The survey acquired high resolution sidescan
sonar, magnetometer and multibeam bathymetry data in order to determine the location of the
wreck with certainty, establish its extent and assess its character.

Wessex Archaeology mobilised the survey vessel Neptune at Dover, Kent on 9th and 10th October
2014. Following a day when the sea was too rough to acquire data the survey was undertaken on
12th October. The magnetometer and sidescan sonar data were acquired by WA and the
multibeam bathymetry data were acquired by Swathe Services under the supervision of WA. The
vessel was demobilised the same day after completing the survey.

A total of 13 features of archaeological potential were identified in the geophysical data within the
250m x 250m study area around the wreck. These features include the wreck itself, seven items of
debris and five magnetic only anomalies which may represent buried debris.

The wreck of the Anglia appears upright and mostly coherent with a few items of debris lying
nearby. It is oriented approximately north-south with the bow to the north. The wreck appears
partially buried in some areas with sediment built up along both sides and with scours at both ends.
The top of the superstructure appears to have been removed and a large amount of structural
detail is visible within the wreck itself. The remains of the funnels are clearly visible with some
other features identifiable. The remaining structure appears rather broken up and chaotic.

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Marine Geophysical Survey Report

Acknowledgements
The survey was commissioned by English Heritage and Mark Dunkley provided assistance with
several aspects of the project.

Wessex Archaeology is grateful to skipper David Batchelor and crew Brian Robinson of the survey
vessel Neptune. Both assisted with the mobilisation of the vessel and the survey. The assistance
of Dr Peter Marsden is also gratefully acknowledged.

The geophysical survey was conducted by Dr Stephanie Arnott and Rachel Chester of Wessex
Archaeology and Ben Jones of Swathe Services. The geophysical data were processed and
interpreted by Stephanie Arnott and Rachel Chester. Stephanie Arnott wrote the report with
archaeological input from Graham Scott and Toby Gane and figures provided by Ken Lymer.
Quality control was provided by Dr Louise Tizzard and Toby Gane. The project was managed for
Wessex Archaeology by Toby Gane.

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1 INTRODUCTION

1.1 Background
1.1.1 Wessex Archaeology (WA) was commissioned by English Heritage (EH) through the
Heritage at Risk (HAR) contract to carry out a geophysical survey and associated
archaeological assessment of the wreck site of His Majestys Hospital Ship (HMHS)
Anglia (UKHO 13522). EH has received an application to designate the remains of the
Anglia and required a geophysical survey of the wreck in order to determine its position
with certainty. The Anglia was a liner that was requisitioned as a hospital ship. The vessel
was mined in November 1915 and sank with the loss of well over a hundred lives.

1.1.2 The geophysical survey was conducted during October 2014 with sidescan sonar and
magnetometer data collected by WA and multibeam bathymetry acquired by Swathe
Services under the supervision of WA.

1.1.3 The wreck site is located in the eastern English Channel, approximately 7km south of
Dover, Kent (Figure 1). The wreck position was obtained from the United Kingdom
Hydrographic Office (UKHO) record as WGS84 geodetic coordinates. The survey vessel
skipper also provided a position for the wreck, again in WGS84 latitude and longitude, as
he sometimes takes divers to the site. WA projected both coordinates to UTM zone 31N
using Quest geodetic calculator.

Position source Latitude Longitude Easting Northing


(WGS 84) (WGS84) (UTM31N) (UTM31N)
UKHO 51 03.372 N 001 19.120 E 382168 E 5657419 N
Vessel skipper 51 03.39 N 001 19.13 E 382180 E 5657452 N
Midpoint 51 03.381 N 01 19.125 E 382174 E 5657436 N

Table 1: Wreck location provided in WGS84 and projected to UTM zone 31N
1.1.4 A study area 250m by 250m was devised to cover the wreck site, centred on the midpoint
of the two locations (Figure 1). Although it was desirable to run the main survey lines with
a north-south orientation, parallel to the wreck, this was not possible owing to the strong
tidal stream in the area. The main lines were therefore run parallel to the tidal stream
direction with a southwest-northeast orientation. Cross-lines were oriented northwest-
southeast.

1.2 Aims and Objectives


1.2.1 A geophysical survey of the Anglia was required in order to determine the position of the
wreck with certainty so as to assist with the designation casework of EH.

1.2.2 The objectives were as follows:

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y Undertake documentary research on the site as appropriate, to inform geophysical


survey;
y Undertake high resolution multibeam sidescan sonar and magnetometer surveys to
assess the position of the heritage asset, and to establish its extent, stability and
character.
y Produce a structured record of field observations.
1.2.3 The scope of this document does not include an assessment of the importance of the
wreck.

2 THE WRECK

2.1.1 The Twin Screw Steamer (TSS) Anglia (Figure 2) was built by William Denny and
Brothers Limited in their shipyard in Dumbarton, Scotland. She was one of a pair of cross
channel passenger steamers (the other being the Hibernia) built for the London & North
Western Railway Company for the Holyhead-Dublin ferry service. The Anglia was
launched on 20th December 1899 and entered into service on 13th April 1900. She was a
steam driven vessel powered by two triple expansion four crank engines with eight 160lb
SE boilers. Her shipyard number was 619 and she had a gross tonnage of 1862 tons
(National Maritime Museum 1972). TSS Anglia was used on the Holyhead-Dublin route
until 1908, and then the Holyhead to Kingston ferry route.

2.1.2 Shortly after the declaration of war the Anglia was commissioned by the Admiralty as an
armed boarding steamer. This role was undertaken until late April 1915 when she was
converted into a hospital ship (McGreal 2008). The Anglia was assigned to transport
servicemen wounded in France and Belgium from French ports back to Dover. The vessel
became well known during November 1915 when King George V had a riding accident
during a visit to the Western Front and was brought home on the HMHS Anglia (McGreal
2008; This Intrepid Band 2009; Reed 2012).

2.1.3 HMHS Anglia was sunk only a few days later on 17th November 1915 by striking a mine,
one of four laid by the German submarine UC-5 on the night of 16th-17th November 1915.
She was returning from Boulogne with hundreds of casualties. The Anglia was reportedly
struck on the port side, forward of the bridge at approximately 1230 at 1 mile east of
Folkestone Gate (English Heritage 2007; McGreal 2008). The captain of the Anglia at the
time of the sinking was Lionel John Manning. One of the survivors, he gave evidence at
the inquest into the death of Richard Roberts, the chief steward aboard the ship. He
estimated that the Anglia went down within 20 minutes of striking the mine (McGreal
2008).

2.1.4 The first two wards were under water almost immediately as the ship began to sink by the
bow. The lifeboats were ordered out and the first got clear with approximately 50 persons
on board. After this the ship listed heavily and sank within 10 minutes (English Heritage
2007; Reed 2012). The wreck settled almost upright with the tops of her masts visible
above the water (McGreal 2008; Reed 2012).

2.1.5 The collier SS Lusitania was in the vicinity and proceeded to assist with the recovery of
the survivors. However, she too struck a mine and was sunk (McGreal 2008; Reed 2012).
The majority of survivors were rescued by the destroyer HMS Ure. Other vessels that
assisted with the rescue include the Submarine Depot ship HMS Hazard, War Department
vessel Langton, HM Torpedo Boat No. 4 and the SS Channel Queen (McGreal 2008;
Reed 2012).

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2.1.6 Estimates of the number of persons on board vary. Reed (2012) states that the ship was
carrying 13 officers and 372 other ranks as patients, in addition to the vessel crew and
medical staff, while an account given by a Sister on board the Anglia at the time of the
sinking, quoted on This Intrepid Band (2009), states that about 500 patients had been
taken on board. Reed (2012) reports that approximately 164 people are thought to have
died. This included 1 Nursing Sister, 9 R.A.M.C. Staff, 4 Army Officers, 125 Other Ranks
and 25 Crew. The Anglia was the first hospital ship to be sunk during the First World War
(McDonald 1994).

2.1.7 A third victim of the mines laid by UC-5 followed two days later. The trawler HMT
Falmouth III was hired by the Royal Navy as an armed trawler and was serving as a
minesweeper in the Dover Patrol. On 19th November 1915, the Falmouth III struck one of
the remaining mines and apparently actually sank on top of the wreck of the Anglia. The
Falmouth III was blown in half by the explosion and remained on top of the wreck of the
Anglia for several days until she was dislodged by a storm (English Heritage 2007;
Coastal Heritage accessed 2014). The UKHO records the position of a wreck identified as
possibly the Falmouth III approximately 1.4km to the south-southeast of the Anglia.

2.1.8 Canterbury Divers (accessed 2014) note that the wreck of the Anglia lies in around 30m of
water on a sandy seabed and although much broken up is still an interesting dive.
McDonald (1994) reported that the wreck lay in 25m of water with her bow to the north.
The wreck was well sunk into the sand-mud but some parts of the central portion stood up
to 6m proud. In 1983 divers found dinner plates bearing the inscription London and North
West Railway Company within the wreck (McDonald 1994; UKHO). Various items have
been recovered from the Anglia and reported to the Receiver of Wreck. These include
several portholes, a sink and backplate and the port bower anchor (English Heritage
2007).

3 METHODOLOGY

3.1 Data Sources


3.1.1 The geophysical data were acquired on 12th October 2014. Wessex Archaeology
acquired the sidescan sonar and magnetometer data. The multibeam bathymetry data
were acquired by Swathe Services. The survey vessel used was the Neptune, operated
by Datum Marine Services Limited. Mobilisation of the vessel occurred on the 9th and
10th of October. The weather was unsuitable for survey on the 11th so the survey took
place the following day.

3.1.2 The geophysical data used for this report were assessed for quality and their suitability for
archaeological purposes, and rated using the following criteria:

Data Quality Description


Data which are clear and unaffected by weather conditions or sea state. The
dataset is suitable for the interpretation of standing and partially buried metal
Good
wrecks and their character and associated debris field. These data also provide
the highest chance of identifying wooden wrecks and debris.
Data which are affected by weather conditions and sea state to a slight or
moderate degree. The dataset is suitable for the identification and partial
Average interpretation of standing and partially buried metal wrecks, and the larger
elements of their debris fields. Wooden wrecks may be visible in the data, but
their identification as such is likely to be difficult.
This category contains datasets with the quality of individual lines ranging from
Variable good to average to below average. The dataset is suitable for the identification of
standing and some partially buried metal wrecks. Detailed interpretation of the

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wrecks and debris field is likely to be problematic. Wooden wrecks are unlikely to
be identified.

Table 2: Criteria for assigning data quality rating


3.1.3 The sidescan sonar data have been rated as mostly Average with some lines as Good
using the above criteria. The positioning accuracy of the sonar towfish was relatively poor
due to a combination of tidal currents experienced during the survey and the length of
towed cable used (itself a function of water depth and current strength).

3.1.4 The marine magnetometer data have been rated as Good using the above criteria. The
data were clear with very little spiking or background noise.

3.1.5 The multibeam bathymetry data have been rated as Good using the above criteria.
However, total vertical errors of approximately 0.4m are present in the data.

3.2 Geophysical Data Technical Specifications


3.2.1 The sidescan sonar data were acquired using a Klein 3900 high frequency digital system
deployed off the port quarter of the vessel. The system was operated at 900kHz with a
range of 30m per channel. An initial line spacing of 20m was used, with additional lines
run if necessary to provide full data coverage. Towfish positioning information was
provided by manual layback during processing. Data was recorded digitally using
SonarPro software as .xtf files.

3.2.2 The marine magnetometer data were acquired using a Geometrics G-882 Caesium
Vapour magnetometer operating at a cycling rate of 10Hz. It was deployed piggybacked
behind the sidescan sonar towfish on a 10m cable. The data was digitally logged in
Geometrics MagLog software as .GEOMAG files, and later converted to .txt files for
processing and interpretation.

3.2.3 The 2014 multibeam bathymetry data was acquired simultaneously with the sidescan
sonar and magnetometer data by Swathe Services Ltd using a R2Sonic 2022 system,
operated at 700kHz. Motion reference was provided by an R2Sonic Integrated Inertial
Navigation System and velocity profiling by a Valeport Monitor SVP. The data were
recorded digitally in QINSy, and provided to WA as gridded and ungridded .pts, points
files. The data were provided cropped to approximately 4m around the outside of the
study area.

3.2.4 Positioning for the survey was also provided by the Inertial Navigation System. All
positions for the survey were recorded as WGS84 geodetic coordinates. These
coordinates were projected into UTM 31N eastings and northings during data processing
and all interpretation was carried out using projected coordinates.

3.2.5 Although the wreck lies approximately north-south the main survey lines were acquired
with a southwest-northeast orientation in order to run parallel to the strong tidal stream in
the area. This was necessary for the skipper to keep to the survey lines and to minimise
the towed survey equipment being swept to the side by the strong tide. At slack water
three lines were run parallel to the orientation of the wreck in order to obtain images of the
entire wreck in individual lines of sidescan sonar data to enable more detailed
interpretation of the wreck in this dataset.

3.3 Geophysical Data - Processing


Sidescan Sonar

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3.3.1 The sidescan sonar data were processed by WA using Coda GeoSurvey software. This
allowed the data to be replayed with various gain settings in order to optimise the quality
of the images. The data were interpreted for any objects of possible anthropogenic origin.
This involves creating a database of anomalies within Coda by tagging individual features
of possible archaeological potential, recording their positions and dimensions, and
acquiring an image of each anomaly for future reference.

3.3.2 A mosaic of the sidescan sonar data is produced during this process to assess the quality
of the sonar towfish positioning. The survey lines are smoothed, and the navigation
corrected by applying individual fixed laybacks as recorded during the survey. This allows
the position of anomalies to be checked between different survey lines and for the layback
values to be further refined if necessary.

3.3.3 The form, size, and/or extent of an anomaly is a guide to its potential to be an
anthropogenic feature, and therefore of its potential archaeological interest. A single,
small, but prominent anomaly may be part of a much more extensive feature that is largely
buried. Similarly, a scatter of minor anomalies may define the edges of a buried but intact
feature, or it may be all that remains of a feature as a result of past impacts from, for
example, dredging or fishing.

Magnetometry
3.3.4 The magnetometer data were processed using Geometrics MagPick software in order to
identify any discrete magnetic contacts which could represent buried metallic debris or
structures. The software enables both the visualisation of individual lines of data and
gridding of data to produce a magnetic anomaly map.

3.3.5 The data were loaded into MagPick and laybacks added as with the sidescan sonar data.
The data were then smoothed, a trend fitted to the results, and then the trend values
subtracted from the smoothed values. This was carried out in an attempt to remove
natural variations in the data (such as diurnal variation in magnetic field strength and
changes in geology). The processed data were then gridded to produce a map of
magnetic anomalies, and individual anomalies tagged and images taken in a similar
process to that undertaken for the sidescan sonar data.

3.3.6 The form and size of a magnetic anomaly is a guide to its potential to be an anthropogenic
feature. Generally distinct magnetic anomalies with amplitudes of over 5nT identified
along a short distance are interpreted to be of anthropogenic origin.

Multibeam Bathymetry
3.3.7 Swathe Services processed the multibeam bathymetry data before providing it to WA.
Local tidal observations were recorded and used to reduce the data to Lowest
Astronomical Tide (LAT). The true heave was applied to the raw data to correct for heave
artefacts. The raw data were then cleaned using QLOUD, a 3D area based cleaning
software which is part of QINSy. All obvious data anomalies were removed with extra care
taken to not remove any real data from the areas in the immediate vicinity of the wreck
site. The individual lines were then combined to create a grid which was used to further
analyse the areas surveyed. Adjacent lines were used to determine areas of uncertainty
giving a final grid which was exported to points files at 0.5m and 0.2m resolution.
Ungridded data were also provided for individual lines as points files.

3.3.8 The multibeam bathymetry data were fully analysed to identify any unusual structures of
the shipwreck or other anthropogenic debris. The gridded data were analysed using IVS
Fledermaus software, which enables 3-D visualisation of the acquired data and geo-

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picking of seabed anomalies. The data gridded to 0.2m provided much greater detail of
the wreck and was used for the interpretation.

3.4 Geophysical Data Anomaly Grouping and Discrimination


3.4.1 The previous section describes the initial interpretation of all available geophysical data
sets. This inevitably leads to the possibility of any one object being the cause of numerous
anomalies in different data sets and apparently overstating the number of archaeological
features around the wreck site.

3.4.2 To address this fact, the anomalies were grouped together, allowing one ID number to be
assigned to a single object for which there may be, for example, a magnetic response and
multiple sidescan sonar anomalies.

3.4.3 Once all the geophysical anomalies have been grouped, a discrimination flag is added to
the record in order to discriminate against those which are not thought to be of an
archaeological concern. These flags are ascribed as follows:

U1 Not of anthropogenic origin


Non-
U2 Known non-archaeological feature
Archaeological
U3 Non-archaeological hazard
A1 Anthropogenic origin of archaeological interest
A2 Uncertain origin of possible archaeological interest
Archaeological
Historic record of possible archaeological interest with no
A3
corresponding geophysical anomaly

Table 3: Criteria for discriminating archaeological importance of features


3.4.4 All the features that have been identified from around the wreck sites are presented in
Appendix I and discussed in this report.

3.4.5 The grouping and discrimination of information at this stage is based on all available
information and is not definitive. It allows for all features of potential archaeological
interest to be highlighted, while retaining all the information produced during the course of
the geophysical interpretation for further evaluation should more information become
available.

4 RESULTS

4.1 Seabed Features Assessment


4.1.1 The wreck of the Anglia appears upright and mostly intact with scouring at each end and
some sediment build-up along the sides. There are several items of debris close to the
wreck and others further away that may be unrelated to the wreck. An extremely large
magnetic anomaly of 68,915nT is associated with the wreck (Figure 3).

4.1.2 A total of 154 sidescan sonar anomalies, 30 magnetic anomalies and nine bathymetric
anomalies were interpreted within the geophysical data. These were grouped to produce
13 sites of potential archaeological interest within the study area (Appendix I and Figure
3). The 13 sites of archaeological potential were discriminated as follows:

Archaeological
Number of Sites Interpretation
Discrimination
A1 4 Anthropogenic origin of archaeological interest
A2 9 Uncertain origin of possible archaeological interest
Total 13

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Table 4: Sites of potential archaeological interest within the study area


4.1.3 These 13 sites have been given the following classifications:

Classification Number of Sites


Wreck 1
Debris 7
Magnetic 5
Total 13

Table 5: Classification of sites with archaeological potential


4.1.4 The wreck of HMHS Anglia, 7000 (Figure 6), is located in approximately 24m LAT water
depth. The centre-point of the wreck is located 10m northwest of the UKHO recorded
position. The wreck appears mostly intact and forms a coherent site with little outlying
debris. It lies oriented 345/165, approximately NNW/SSE. The northern end of the wreck
appears slightly dissociated from the main body, with a break in the structure on the
western side of the wreck, 28m from the northern end. The northern section has an
orientation of 355/175, approximately N/S.

4.1.5 The wreck has dimensions of 107.8m x 13.0m x 6.0m. The southern end appears rather
broken up and the wreck appears partially buried/covered in sediment in places.

4.1.6 Within the wreck itself a great deal of structural detail can be observed (Figures 7 and 8).
It appears that the top of the superstructure has been removed in places, exposing the
internal structure. A description of the individual features observed within the wreck and
their archaeological interpretation is given in Section 5 below.

4.1.7 There is a build-up of sediment against both sides of the wreck, making the width of the
wreck itself an estimate. On the western side of the wreck the sediment right next to the
wreck has been scoured away in places. The wreck here is revealed as sheer sided and
rather more upstanding than the eastern side.

4.1.8 There are two scours associated with the wreck, one at each end. The larger of the two
extends to the northeast from the southern end of the wreck. It has dimensions of
approximately 90m x 60m and has a maximum depth of 2.3m below the adjacent seabed.
The other scour has a more elongate form and extends to the southwest of the northern
end of the wreck. It has dimensions of approximately 85m x 25m x -2.8m. Both scours are
parallel to the tidal streams that sweep across the wreck site.

4.1.9 A very large magnetic anomaly is associated with the wreck. With a magnetic amplitude of
68,915nT it is observed over much of the study area, potentially masking smaller
anomalies associated with other features nearby.

4.1.10 Approximately 10m to the east of the centre part of the wreck lies a large item of debris,
7001. Approximately circular or spherical in form it has dimensions of 4m x 3.4m x 1.8m. It
appears in the multibeam bathymetry data as a steep sided mound. In the sidescan sonar
data a bit more detail is observed with a darker reflector forming a ring around the outside
of the feature. There is also an indistinct feature in the centre that may indicate a small
protrusion on the top of the object.

4.1.11 A rectangular piece of debris, 7002, lies on the eastern side of the wreck, close to the
southern end. The object has dimensions of 5.3m x 0.9m x 0.2m and is oriented east-
west. The shape of the shadow in the sidescan sonar data indicates there is some height
variation along the object.

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4.1.12 7004 and 7006 are similar elongate features located adjacent to the wreck. 7004 has
dimensions of 1.2m x 0.4m x 1.1m and lies close to the western side of the wreck
approximately midway along it. It is located on the built up sediment adjacent to the wreck
here. 7006 has dimensions of 1.4m x 0.4m x 0.1m and lies close to the southern end of
the wreck.

4.1.13 7005 is a rather larger feature located adjacent to the western side of the wreck near the
northern end. It is a diffuse anomaly oriented east-west with dimensions of 2.6m x 1.6m x
0.3m. The feature has a rounded irregular shadow in the sidescan sonar data that shows
some variation in height. An elongated depression is observed before it, on the western
side.

4.1.14 Two items of debris, 7007 and 7008, are observed that may well not be associated with
the wreck owing to their distances from it. 7007 is a small elongate object with dimensions
of 1.5m x 0.4m x 0.4m. It is located approximately 50m southeast of the southern end of
the wreck. This feature has a magnetic anomaly of 100nT associated with it, indicating
that it contains ferrous material. 7008 is a larger elongated feature with dimensions of
3.8m x 2.2m x 0.6m that lies in a scour or depression approximately 0.5m deep. 7008 lies
approximately 100m southwest of the southern end of the wreck.

4.1.15 Of the five magnetic only anomalies, 7003, is the largest with an amplitude of 778nT. It is
observed in a survey line 20m to the west of the wreck and may be associated with part of
the wreck. Alternatively it may represent buried ferrous debris nearby.

4.1.16 Magnetic only anomalies 7009, 7010 and 7011 are all located to the southeast of the
wreck. 7010 is the closest at approximately 35m away and has an amplitude of 81nT.
7009 (77nT) and 7011 (32nT) both lie approximately 70m away. The fifth remaining
magnetic anomaly is 7012. It has an amplitude of 87nT and lies approximately 75m
northwest of the northern end of the wreck. All are likely to be indicative of a small quantity
of buried ferrous debris, which may or may not be related to the wreck.

5 DISCUSSION

5.1.1 The wreck of HMHS Anglia appears mostly intact with a good deal of structure present.
The centre-point of the wreck is located 10m northwest of the UKHO recorded position.
The wreck is reported by the UKHO to be lying with the bow to the north and this is borne
out by the interpretation of the geophysical data. The plans of the vessel were obtained
from the National Maritime Museum and compared to the structure visible in the
geophysical data (Figures 8 and 9). Although the vessel was converted to a hospital ship
the internal structure of the vessel is likely to have remained substantially unchanged with
only rudimentary alterations to the accommodation (McGreal 2008).

5.1.2 While the wreck is coherent with little outlying debris there are areas of significant damage
with little of the upper levels of superstructure remaining. The Anglia had four main decks
(Figure 8) and it is not always clear which deck the observed features are from. The
highest part of the wreck appears in the central section where it appears part of the Boat
Deck and the funnel structure remains. The Flying Bridge at the forward end of the Boat
Deck is no longer present and there is a large amount of structure missing in this area,
where it is reported the vessel struck the mine. The lower Awning Deck remains mostly
intact to aft of the engine space. Astern of here the wreckage slopes down steeply to the
stern.

5.1.3 At the northern, bow, end of the wreck a linear feature can be seen projecting from the
wreck toward the northwest (1). This comprises an unknown structure. It is possible it may
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HMHS Anglia

be part of the over bottom plates of the hull that have become partially torn away from the
hull, possibly as a result of impact damage when the vessel sank. The ship went down by
the head so the bow would have taken the initial impact on the seabed.

5.1.4 Just aft of the bow is a low lying section of the wreck (2) where it appears that the awning
deck has collapsed and there may be some sediment cover as little is seen in the way of
individual features here. At the southern extent of this area is an upstanding feature (3)
that approximates to the position of the anchor windlass in the vessel plans. This feature
appears as an indeterminate mound in the bathymetry data and as an unclear upstanding
feature in the sidescan sonar data.

5.1.5 To the south of (3) lies a much more upstanding feature (5) that has dimensions of 3.2m x
3.2m x 2.0m. An approximately square feature, it corresponds with the position of the
cargo winch. In between these two features lies a lower area with three well defined sides
(4). This is interpreted as being the well in the Awning Deck that would have been covered
by a hatch.

5.1.6 Aft of the feature interpreted as the cargo winch are two distinct upstanding features. (6) is
an approximately circular feature lying on the centreline of the vessel. It corresponds with
the position of the mast on the Awning Deck plan. To the west of this lies an oval shaped
feature (7) which is an unknown structure. It lies at the position of the forward end of the
Boat Deck (8) and may be a portion of this that survives.

5.1.7 The majority of the forward section of the Boat Deck and Awning Deck superstructure
below it has been removed, probably as a result of the vessel striking the mine as the
impact is reported to have taken place at this location. A break in the hull of the wreck (9),
28m from the bow, can clearly be seen in both the bathymetry and sidescan sonar data.
Comparison with the plans shows that the Flying Bridge would have occupied this position
on top of the Boat Deck here. No superstructure is evident in this area and it appears that
part of the Awning deck may also have collapsed or been removed.

5.1.8 Aft of this area there is more structure remaining. A linear feature running parallel to the
length of the wreck (10) may be part of the boundary bulkhead for the forward
accommodation on the Awning Deck. The position of the fore funnel is not clearly visible
in the bathymetry data but may be discerned as a raised curved feature (11). It is more
visible in the sidescan sonar data where it appears as a curving linear reflector very
similar to that of the aft funnel. Just aft of the fore funnel is a raised area that appears to
be part of the Boat Deck (12). It is not complete and in several places structure of the
Awning Deck can be seen below. A rectangular feature with a triangular feature on the
northern side (13) protrudes above the remainder of the Boat Deck and is interpreted as
possible hatch casing associated with the fore funnel. It appears to be displaced as it lies
at an angle rather than directly across the wreck. It comprises a hollow rectangular
structure with external dimensions of approximately 5.0m x 4.0m x 1.8m. The triangular
extension on the northern side of this feature has dimensions of 5.6m x 3.2m x 1.8m.

5.1.9 The aft funnel is a much more obvious feature than the fore funnel as the remains are
upstanding and semi-circular in shape (15). It lies approximately 10m to the south of the
fore funnel and has dimensions of 3.8m x 3.1m x 2.0m. Between the aft funnel and the
fore funnel hatch casing lies the position of the 16 berth Ladies Cabin on the Awning Deck
(14).

5.1.10 A distinctive right-angled feature (16) on the eastern side of the wreck approximately level
with the aft funnel may be the remains of a collapsed ventilator or air trunking for the fans.

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The space between the funnels on the Main Deck, underlying the Ladies Cabin on the
Awning Deck, is occupied by a fan space.

5.1.11 Aft of the aft funnel the Boat Deck deteriorates and structure below can be seen. At the
position of the 20 berth Gentlemens Cabin on the Awning Deck (17) is a rectangular
feature with some internal structure visible. It has dimensions of 4.2m x 3.4m x 1.0m and
is a hollow rectangular structure that is divided into three sections by two diagonal linear
features across its width.

5.1.12 Beyond this lies a square feature that corresponds to the position of the engine space on
the Awning Deck (18). Within this lies a rectangular gridded feature (19). In the sidescan
sonar data it appears as a set of four cells. In the multibeam bathymetry data rather more
detail can be observed and it is possible that the structure originally consisted of two rows
of five cells when complete. The remaining section has dimensions of 5.0m x 2.6m x
1.2m. It is possible that this may be the collapsed remains of the skylights or vents in the
Boat Deck that originally overlay the engine space. These consisted of two rows of five
rectangular features. Alternatively (19) may be the remains of a hatch within the engine
space.

5.1.13 At the aft corners of the engine space are two raised features, (20) and (21), which are
interpreted as the remains of vents. The aft end of the Boat Deck would originally have
been located here too (22). Just aft of here, on the port side of the wreck, lies a linear
feature (23). This is interpreted as the possible remains of the aft mast or its derrick.
Alternatively it may be a collapsed ventilator. On the starboard side of the wreck there is
an unidentified structure projecting from the side of the vessel (28). A square feature with
a raised central section (24) corresponds to the winch base located just forward of the
position of the base of the main mast.

5.1.14 South of here, towards the stern the wreck becomes much more broken up with the height
of the wreck decreasing quite steeply. It is not possible to interpret much of the remains in
this area. The fore and aft extents of the Shade Deck are indicated as (25) and (27)
respectively. The shade deck was equivalent in height to the Boat Deck and overlay the
officers accommodation. There is an approximately rectangular feature (26) that fits within
the extents of the Shade Deck and therefore may be the remains of this accommodation.
It is located to the starboard side of the wreck rather than centrally as shown on the vessel
plans and it may have collapsed over to this side. Aft of this feature the stern of the vessel
appears to have collapsed (29).

5.1.15 Approximately 10m off the starboard side of the wreck, to the east, lies an unidentified
cylindrical object (30). A local diver in conversation with the crew of the survey boat stated
that there is a mine approximately 10m from the wreck but he did not know in which
direction. It is not known if there is a mine nearby and the crew of the survey vessel, who
has dived on the wreck, has not observed one. There is no evidence from the geophysical
data that this feature is a mine. At 4m across this object is larger than a mine would be
expected to be, and it is more likely to be part of the wreck, probably a section of funnel
casing.

5.1.16 The interpretation of many of the features observed in the geophysical data is not definite
and groundtruthing by diver or ROV would be required to confirm or amend the analysis.
Earlier this year Canterbury Divers offered to groundtruth the geophysics by carrying out a
video survey as a club. As the geophysical survey was not undertaken until mid-October
they were unable to do so but they may be willing to undertake such groundtruthing
activities next year.

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5.1.17 The Anglia is unusual in that there are photographs available of the sinking (Figure 2).
The National Maritime Museum hold a number of photographs of the vessel and her
identical sister ship the Hibernia which could be obtained and may be useful in assisting
with the archaeological interpretation.

5.1.18 The Imperial War Museum also holds a full-hull model of L.N.W.R. steamer TSS Anglia,
which would also be a useful aid to interpretation of the wreck site (IWM catalogue
number: MOD 78).

5.1.19 It is increasingly recognised and worth noting that the Anglia now rests in an important
submerged First World War landscape, where the density and scale of losses on both
sides is probably unparalleled. Individual wrecks aside, there is a high level of group and
landscape value over a wide area of the Dover Straight and beyond that would warrant
further study, especially so in the context of FWW commemoration and in the light that
most of the wrecks in this category are likely to be the final resting place of merchant
mariners and servicemen and women.

6 REFERENCES

McDonald, K., 1994. Dive Kent. Underwater World Publications Ltd, Teddington.

McGreal, S., 2008. The War on Hospital Ships 1914 1918. Pen & Sword Maritime,
Barnsley.

National Maritime Museum, 1972. The Denny List: Part 2, p456.

Online resources

Canterbury Divers, accessed 2014. Wrecks: Anglia, accessed online 30th November 2014
http://canterburydivers.org.uk/wrecks.html#anglia

Coastal Heritage, accessed 2014. H.M. Hospital Ship ANGLIA Sunk off Folkestone on
17th November 1915, accessed online on 30th November 2014
http://www.coastalheritage.org.uk/Anglia.htm

Coastal Heritage, accessed 2014. 19th November 1915 H.M. Trawler Falmouth III sunk
off Folkestone, accessed online on 30th November 2014
http://www.coastalheritage.org.uk/

English Heritage, 2007. English Heritage Monument Record, Anglia, English Heritage
National Record of the Historic Environment Monument Record 1082107,
accessed online via PastScape on 21st November 2014
http://www.pastscape.org.uk/hob.aspx?hob_id=901788

KSH History Forum: South-East History Boards, accessed 2014.The loss of hospital ship
Anglia off Dover, 17th November 1915, accessed online on 1st December 2014
http://sussexhistoryforum.co.uk/index.php?topic=1919.0

Reed, P., 2012. Sinking of the Hospital Ship Anglia 1915, accessed online on 28th
November 2014 http://www.epsomandewellhistoryexplorer.org.uk
/HMHSAnglia.html

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This Intrepid Band, 2009. The sinking of the hospital ship Anglia, accessed online on
30th November 2014 http://greatwarnurses.blogspot.co.uk/2009/11/sinking-of-
hospital-ship-anglia.html

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APPENDIX I ANOMALIES OF ARCHAEOLOGICAL POTENTIAL

Magnetic
WA Class- Archaeological Length Width Height External
Easting Northing Latitude Longitude Amplitude Description
ID ification Discrimination (m) (m) (m) References
(nT)

Wreck of the hospital ship HMHS


Anglia, sunk by a mine on
17/11/1915. The position given is for
the centre of the wreck and is
located only 10m NW of the UKHO
position. Coherent wreck, lying
upright. No scatter of debris but a
few outlying objects. Oriented
NNW/SSE, 345/165. The northern
end appears somewhat 'bent' with a
break in the structure on the western
side. The northern end of the wreck
UKHO
7000 Wreck 382158 5657423 51 3.374N 01 19.112E A1 107.8 13.0 6.0 68915 lies with an orientation of 355/175.
13522
Lots of structure is visible in the
interior of the wreck. There is a
build-up of sediment on both sides of
the wreck, making the width an
estimate. On the western side in
places the sediment has been
scoured away right next to the
wreck. The wreck here is sheer
sided and is rather more upstanding
than the eastern side. The seabed in
the area is irregular with some
sandwaves and depressions.
Distinct almost circular anomaly
located approximately 10m to the
east of the wreck. Some structural
7001 Debris 382177 5657424 51 3.375N 01 19.128E A1 4 3.4 1.8 - -
features visible in the sidescan data
including a ringed protrusion.
Defined sub-oval shadow visible.
Distinct rectangular anomaly with a
clear curved oblong shadow visible
showing some height variation.
7002 Debris 382180 5657386 51 3.354N 01 19.131E A1 5.3 0.9 0.2 - -
Orientated east-west on the east
side of the wreck, close to the
southern end.
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Magnetic
WA Class- Archaeological Length Width Height External
Easting Northing Latitude Longitude Amplitude Description
ID ification Discrimination (m) (m) (m) References
(nT)

Large magnetic anomaly that


appears in a survey line close to the
wreck of the Anglia, 20m to the west,
7003 Magnetic 382140 5657382 51 3.351N 01 19.097E A1 - - - 778 and may be associated with part of -
the wreck. It is also possible that it
may represent a quantity of buried
ferrous debris close by.
Distinct elongate anomaly situated
7004 Debris 382151 5657411 51 3.367N 01 19.106E A2 1.2 0.4 1.1 - close to the western side of the -
wreck.
Diffuse anomaly orientated east-
west adjacent to western side of
7005 Debris 382143 5657446 51 3.386N 01 19.098E A2 2.6 1.6 0.3 - wreck. Rounded irregular shadow -
shows some height variation with an
elongated oval depression before.
Distinct elongated anomaly with an
7006 Debris 382177 5657372 51 3.347N 01 19.129E A2 1.4 0.4 0.1 - oblong shadow located at the -
southern end of the wreck.
Distinct elongated anomaly with a
diffuse shadow. Located
approximately 50m southeast of the
7007 Debris 382217 5657337 51 3.328N 01 19.164E A2 1.5 0.4 0.4 100 -
wreck. A magnetic anomaly
indicates that the object contains
ferrous material.
Elongated object in scour which is
approximately 0.5m deep.
7008 Debris 382265 5657322 51 3.321N 01 19.205E A2 3.8 2.2 0.6 - -
Approximately 100m southwest of
southern end of the wreck.
Small magnetic anomaly identified
on more than one survey line.
7009 Magnetic 382211 5657315 51 3.316N 01 19.159E A2 - - - 77 -
Possible small piece of buried
ferrous debris.
Small magnetic anomaly indicating
7010 Magnetic 382202 5657352 51 3.336N 01 19.151E A2 - - - 81 the possible presence of a small -
quantity of buried ferrous debris.
Small magnetic anomaly indicating
7011 Magnetic 382223 5657322 51 3.320N 01 19.169E A2 - - - 32 the possible presence of a small -
quantity of buried ferrous debris.

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Magnetic
WA Class- Archaeological Length Width Height External
Easting Northing Latitude Longitude Amplitude Description
ID ification Discrimination (m) (m) (m) References
(nT)

Small magnetic anomaly indicating


7012 Magnetic 382111 5657539 51 3.436N 01 19.069E A2 - - - 87 the possible presence of a small -
quantity of buried ferrous debris.

Notes
1. Co-ordinates are in WGS84 UTM31N and WGS84 Lat/Long.
2. Positional accuracy estimated 5m for the wreck and 10m for the outlying anomalies.

15
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382000

382100

382200

382300
5657500

5657400

Sidescan Sonar Mosaic


382000

382100

382200

5657500 382300

5657400

Gridded Magnetometer Data (1000nT)

0 200 m
Study area

Date: 05/12/14 Revision Number: 0


This material is for client report only Scale: 1:2500 at A4 Illustrator: KL
Wessex Archaeology.
No unauthorised reproduction.
Path: W:\Proj\83803\Anglia & Rooswijk Geophysics\GIS\FigsMXD\Anglia\Fig02.mxd

Sidescan Sonar Mosaic and Gridded Magnetometer Data Figure 3


382100

382200

382300
5657500

5657400

Depth
Metres LAT
(lowest
astronomical tide)
-19.50

0 50 m
Study area
-27.99

Gridded multibeam bathymetry data

Depth Metres LAT


(lowest
astronomical tide)
-19.50

-27.67

Oblique image, facing west, 1x vertical exaggeration

Depth Metres LAT


(lowest
astronomical tide)
-20.00

-27.00

Oblique image, facing northeast, 1x vertical exaggeration

This material is for client report only Wessex Archaeology.


No unauthorised reproduction.

Date: 05/12/14 Revision Number: 0


Scale: Gridded bathy 1:2500 at A4 Illustrator: KL
Path: W:\Proj\83803\Anglia & Rooswijk Geophysics\GIS\FigsMXD\Anglia\Fig04.mxd

Multibeam Bathymetry Data Figure 4


382100

382200

382300
5657600

7012

5657500

7005

7000 7001

7004

5657400

7002
7003

7006

7010

7007

7011 7008
7009

5657300

0 100 m

A1 - Anthropogenic origin of archaeological interest


Study area
A2 - Uncertain origin of possible archaeological interest
Wreck boundary
Date: 05/12/14 Revision Number: 0
This material is for client report
only Wessex Archaeology. Scale: 1:1500 at A4 Illustrator: KL
No unauthorised reproduction.
Path: W:\Proj\83803\Anglia & Rooswijk Geophysics\GIS\FigsMXD\Anglia\Fig05.mxd

Sites of Potential Archaeological Interest Figure 5


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