Drawing II Standards for Technical Drawing Prof.

Carlos Antonio Vieira 2003 1 Contents Chapter 01 - Standardization of Technical Drawing 1.1 - Standardization of Technical Drawings _____________________________ 3 1.2 - Standards of ABNT_______________________________________________ 3 1.3 - Forma t of paper - NBR - 5984/1980 (DIN 476) ______________________ 5 1.4 - 6 1.5 ____ __________________________________________________ Legend - Scale NBR 8196/1983 (DIN 823) __________________________________ 7 1.6 - 8 Lines ___________________ _____________________________________ 1.7 - Applications and Crossings _________ _______________________________ 9 1.8 - October 11 Views auxiliary _____________ ___________________________________ 1.9 - Cortes _______________________________ _________________________ 1.10 - Sections ______________________________________ __________________ 12 1:11 - Views in situations especiais______________________ _________________ 13 1.12 - Concordances in the intersection of 14th superfícies ____________________________ 1.13 - Rotating details oblíquos___________________ ____________________ 15 1.14 - Breaks __________________________________________ _____________ 15 1.15 - Graphical Representation of Cotas_______________________ _____________ 16 1.16 - Schematic Representation in Technical Drawing __________ ___________ 19 Chapter 02 - Indication of Surface State in Technical Design 2.1 - The Standard - NBR 8404 _______________________________________________ 22 2.2 - Indicate on the drawings ______________________________________________ 23 2.3 - 25 Aplicaçõ es________________________________________________________ Chapter 03 - Geometri c tolerances. 3.0 - Geometrical tolerances - Introduction ______________________ __________ 3.1 - Tolerance of geometric shape. _________________________________ ___ 3.2 - Geometric Tolerance guidance _________________________________ 3.3 - T olerance of geometric position. ____________________________________ 3.4 - Toler ance batimento_____________________________________________ 27 28 36 42 47 Chapter 04 - Welding Symbols Basic 4.1 - Symbols for Welding Ans _______________ ______ 52 Chapter 05 - Reading of Drawings Sets 5.1 - Sets Bibliography ________ ________________________________________________ 59 ____________________________ ________________________ 67 2 Chapter 01 - Standardization of Technical Design 1.1 - Standardization of Techni cal Drawings To transform the technical drawing in a graphic language was necessary to standa rdize procedures for their graphical representation. This standardization is don e through technical standards that are followed and respected internationally. T echnical standards are the result of the cooperative effort of stakeholders in s etting technical codes which regulate relations between producers and consumers, engineers, contractors and customers. Each country draws up its technical stand ards and these are adopted throughout its territory by all those involved, direc tly or indirectly, in this particular industry. In Brazil, the rules are approve d and released by the Brazilian Association of Technical Standards - ABNT, found ed in 1940. To encourage the development of international standards and facilita te the exchange of goods and services between nations, the bodies responsible fo r standardization in each country, meeting in London in 1947 created the Interna

tional Organization for Standardization (International Organization for Standard ization - ISO) when a technical standard proposed by any member country, was ado pted by all countries that make up the ISO, this standard is organized and publi shed as international standard. The technical standards governing the Technical Drawing are rules issued by the ABNT, registered INMETRO (National Institute of Metrology, Standardization and Industrial Quality) and Brazilian standards NBR-a nd are in line with international standards approved by ISO. 1.2 - Rules of ABNT The implementation of technical drawings and fully normalized by ABNT. The proce dures for implementation of Technical Drawings are general rules that address fr om the denomination and classification of drawings by the forms of graphical rep resentation, as is the case of NBR 5984 - NORMA GENERAL DESIGN TECHNICIAN (Forme r NB 8) and NBR 6402 - IMPLEMENTATION OF TECHNICAL DRAWINGS OF MACHINERY AND MET ALLIC STRUCTURES (Former NB 13) as well as specific rules that address the issue s separately, as the following examples: NBR 10 647 - DESIGN TECHNICIAN - GENERA L RULE, whose goal is to define the terms used in design technician. The standar d defines the types of design with regard to its geometrical aspects (design pro ject and not designed), the degree of elaboration (Sketch, Preliminary and Final Design)€the degree of detail (Drawing Details and sets) and on the technique of execution (freehand or using a computer) 3 NBR 10 068 - SHEET DRAWING AND DIMENSIONS Layout, which aims to standardize the dimensions of the leaves used for the implementation of technical drawings and s et its layout with their margins and legend. NBR 10 582 - PRESENTATION OF TECHNI CAL SHEET FOR DESIGN, which normalizes the distribution space of the drawing she et, set the area for text, the space for drawing, etc. .. As a general rule you should organize the drawings distributed on the sheet so as to occupy the whole area, and arrange the texts above the caption near the right bank, or left the l abel just above the bottom margin. NBR 13 142 - TECHNICAL DESIGN - Folding COPIE S fixing the form of folding of all formats of drawing sheets, which to facilita te the attachment in folders are folded to the dimensions of A4. NBR 8402 - IMPL EMENTATION OF CHARACTERS FOR WRITTEN IN TECHNICAL DRAWINGS, that the uniformity and clarity in order to avoid loss in clarity of design and avoid the possibilit y of misinterpretation, fixes the characteristics of writing in technical drawin gs. NBR 8403 - APPLICATION OF LINES IN DRAWINGS - TYPES OF LINES - width of the lines NBR10067 - GENERAL PRINCIPLES OF REPRESENTATION IN DESIGN TECHNICIAN NBR 8 196 - Technical drawings - EMPLOYMENT OF SCALES NBR 12 298 - REPRESENTATION OF A REA OF CUT THROUGH TECHNICAL DESIGN IN Hatch NBR10126 - Dimensioning in NBR8404 DESIGN TECHNICIAN - INDICATION OF SURFACE STATE IN TECHNICAL DRAWINGS NBR 6158 TOLERANCES AND SYSTEM SETTINGS NBR 8993 - REPRESENTATION OF PARTIES Screw CONVE NTIONAL DESIGN TECHNICIAN -

There are regulations governing the preparation of drawings, and aims to cater t o a particular type of engineering. As an example we can cite: the 6409 NBR that normalizes the implementation of electronics designs, NBR 7191 that normalizes the implementation of designs for works of plain concrete or reinforced, NBR 11 534 which normalizes the representation of gears in Technical Drawing. A query t o the catalogs of ABNT show many other standards related to the implementation o f some kind or some specificity of Technical Drawing 4 1.3 - Paper sizes - NBR - 5984/1980 (DIN 476) The basic format of the paper, called A0 (A zero), is the rectangle with sides m easuring 841mm and 1.189mm, and the area of 1m2. The basic format, derived from the other formats. 5 1.4 - Legend The caption should be in the lower right in A3, A2, A1 and A0, or along the widt h of the drawing sheet in A4 format. The caption consists of: 1 - title of the d rawing 2 - 3 - 4 scale - Company 5 - 6 date and name - Description of components : - quantity - description - part - equipment, standards, dimensions 6 1.5 - Scale NBR 8196/1983 (DIN 823) Scale is defined proportion between the size of a piece and its respective desig n. The design of a machine element can be in: - full-scale 1:1 - 1:5 scale reduc tion - magnification scale of the drawing 1:5 2:1 Measure Measure real part In the representation through drawings executed in natural scale (1: 1) the dime nsions of the part corresponding to equal value to those in the drawing. In the representation through drawings executed on a scale of reduction, the dimensions of the drawing is reduced in a proportion defined in relation to the actual dim ensions of the pieces. 1: 2, 1: 5, 1: 10, 1: 20, 1: 50, 1: 100; On the scale 1: 2 means that 1mm on the drawing corresponds to 2mm in part real. 7 In the representation through drawings executed in magnification scale, the dime nsions of the design increases at a rate defined in relation to the actual dimen sions of the pieces. 2: 1, 5: 1, 10: On a scale 5: 1, means that 5mm 1mm in the drawing correspond to the real part. 1.6 - Lines The lines of any design should be done all in pencil or ink, uniformly black, de nse and crisp. You need three thicknesses of line: coarse, medium and fine to co arse thick encyclopedia, the average half the thickness of thick and thin with h alf the thickness of the average. NB-8, 1950 recommends that when the thick line is less than 0.4 mm thick, uses a thin line with a third of equal or thicker th an average. All the requirements of engineering design can be met using these th icknesses of lines. Table A1 shows the various types of lines approved by BS308 with their applications, while Table A2 shows the lines as stated in the NB-8. 8 1.7 - Applications and Crossings

9 1.8 - Auxiliary Views Examples: 10 1.9 - Cortes Fig.1.1 - Cutting total Fig.1.2 - Medium cut Fig.1.3 - Partial cut Fig.1.4 - Cut into deviations 11 Fig€1.5 - Cuts deviations Fig.1. 6 - Cuts deviations 1.10 - Sections Application examples: Fig.1.7 - Sections of a wheel Fig.1. 8 - Sections of a winch 12 Examples of sections Figure 1.9 - Sections of axes Fig1. 10 - Sections of axes Fig 1.11 - Set Mounted 1:11 - Views in special situations Fig.1.12-View Special Fig.1.13 - Vista Special 13 1.12 - Concordances intersecting surfaces Fig 1:14 Fig 1:15 Fig.1. 16 Fig 1:17 Fig 1:18

Figure 1-19 14 Fig 1:20 Fig.1. 21 1.13 - Rotation obliquely details Fig.1.22 - Support Fig.1. 23 - Flywheel 1.14 - Breaks Fig.1.24 - Cylindrical Components Fig.1.25 - Components plans 15 1.15 - Graphical Representation Quotas The quota row Figure 1.26 - Representation of lines of quotas. Figure 1.27 - Position of quota Fig 1.28 - Dimensioning referred to the intersection of two lines of constructio n. 16 Fig 1:29 Indications and notes Figure 1.30 - Position of quota Fig1. 31 Dimensioning of rope, development of arc, chamfers and angles. 17 Fig 1.32 - Dimensioning of arcs of circle Fig 1.33 - Dimensioning and circles of radius Fig.1.34 - Dimensioning in reduced space Fig.1.35 - Dimensioning in drawings 18 1.16 - Schematic Representation in Technical Drawing Springs 19 20 21 Chapter 02 - Indication of Surface State in Technical Drawing 2.1 - ABNT - NBR 8404 fixed symbols and additional information for identifying t

he state of the surface in technical drawings. 22 These symbols can be combined together or used in combination, or with symbols t hat have an indication of the main characteristic of the roughness Ra. Indications of the state of surface on each of the symbol status indications of surface and disposed in relation to the symbol. a = value of the roughness Ra in mm, or class of roughness N1 to N12 b = method of manufacture, treatment or coating c = length of sample in mm (cut off) = d = direction of grooves and machining allowance for machining in mm f = other rough ness parameters (in parenthesis) 2.2 - Statement on the drawings The symbols and inscriptions should be oriented so that they can be read both by drawing in the normal position as the right side. 23 Directions of the streaks. If it is necessary to define a direction of the streak that is not clearly defin ed by one of these symbols, it must be described in the drawing for an additiona l note. The direction of stripes is the predominant direction of surface irregul arities, which often result from the manufacturing process used. 24 2.3 - Applications Fig.2.1 Fig.2.2 Fig.2.3 Fig.2.4 Fig. 2.5 Fig.2.6 25 Fig.2.7 26 Chapter 03 - Geometric tolerances. Introduction Despite the high level of technological development, it is still impossible to o btain surfaces perfectly accurate. So always keep a limit on action. Still, it's common parts with surfaces appear outside the bounds of tolerance, due to vario us faults in the machining process, the instruments or measurement procedures. I n this case, the piece has errors of form. An error in a corresponds to the diff erence between the actual surface geometry of the part and theoretical. The form of an element is correct when each of its points is equal to or less than the t olerance given. The difference in shape should be measured perpendicular to the theoretical geometric shape, taking care that the piece is properly supported on the device for inspection, not to get a false value. The causes of the errors o f form are for: vibration, imperfections in the geometry of the machine, defects

in the bearings and trees etc.. Such errors can be detected and measured with c onventional instruments and verification, such as rulers, micrometers, comparato rs or specific apparatus to quantify these deviations. Basics - Definitions, according to NBR 6405/1988. · Surface real: the surface that separates the body from the environment. · Surf ace geometry: ideal surface prescribed in the drawings and error free. Examples: flat surfaces, cylindrical, spherical. Effective · Surface: surface raised by t he measuring instrument. It is the actual surface, deformed by the instrument. W ith instruments, it is not possible to take an entire area at once. Therefore, i t examines a cut of that surface each time. Thus, we define: real »Profile: cut the surface real. »Profile geometric: cut the surface geometry. »Profile effecti ve: cut the surface effectively.€The differences between the actual profile and geometric profile are the errors presented by the surface under examination and are generally classified into two groups: · macrogeométricos Errors: detectable by conventional instruments. Examples: curl wide, tapering, etc. ovalizaçãoo. · Errors microchannels: detectable only by Roughness measurers, etc. perfiloscópio s. They are also defined as roughness, Chapter 02. 27 Notation and symbology of errors macrogeométricos 3.1 - Tolerance of Geometric Shape. 3.1.1 Rectilineal - Symbol: It is a condition in which each line should be limited within the specified tole rance value. If the value of tolerance (t) is preceded by the symbol Æ, the fiel d of tolerance is limited by a cylinder 't' as shown. 28 Straightness - measurement method 29 3.1.2 - Flatness 30 It is observed by. Latter figure, the flatness tolerance is independent of the d imensional tolerances specified by the limits of measurement. It is concluded th at the tolerance zone in shape (flatness) can vary in any way, within the dimens ional limits. Even so, meet the specifications of tolerance. The flatness tolera nce is an important application in the construction of machine tools, mainly gui des a car seat, head etc.. Usually, errors occur due to the flatness factors: Variation of hardness of the piece along the plane of machining. Premature wear on the cutting edge. Disabili ty fixing part, causing unwanted movement during machining. Bad choice of locati on and setting points of the play, causing deformation. Gap in guides of the mac hine. Internal stresses arising from machining, deforming the surface. The flatness tolerances of the most accepted are: Turning: Milling: Grinding, 0. 01 to 0.02 to 0.005 a 0.03 mm 0.05 mm 0.01 mm 31 3.1.3 - Circularity - Symbol: It is the condition under which any circle must be within a range defined by two concentric circles, distant in the specified tolerance value. Normally, you need not specify tolerances of circularity because if the errors s o they are within the dimensional tolerances, they are small enough to get the p

roper assembly and operation of the part. However, there are cases where errors permissible, due to functional reasons, are so small that the only dimensional t olerance not meet the security functional. If this occurs, you must specify tole rances of circularity. It is the typical case of cylinders for internal combusti on engines, in which the dimensional tolerance can be opened (H11), but the circ ularity tolerance has to be close, to avoid leaks. Circularity: methods of measurement The roundness error is found in production with a measuring device between cente rs. If the part can not be measured between centers, this tolerance is difficult to verify because of the infinite variety of form errors that may occur due to the difficulty of establishing a standard surface, with which the surface could be compared. In general, adopts a prism in 'V' and a dial gauge or a dial gauge that can make measurements at three points. 32 A more appropriate measure of circularity is made by special devices for measuri ng circularity used in metrology, whose schema is shown below. The center line of rotation is perpendicular to the face of the part, and passes through the center determined by two perpendicular diameters of the part (consi dered as a plane of the face). When machining in production, we can adopt the va lues of circularity: Turning: Boring up to 0.01 mm, 0.01 to 0.015 mm Retificação o: 0.005 to 0.015 mm 33 3.1.4 - Cylindricity It is a condition in which the tolerance zone specified is the radial distance b etween two coaxial cylinders. The circularity is a particular case of roundness, when considering a section of the cylinder perpendicular to its generatrix. The tolerance of roundness includ es: · tolerances allowable in the longitudinal section of the cylinder, comprisi ng taper, concavity and convexity. · Tolerance permitted in SECTION I cross the cylinder, which is the circularity. Roundness: the measurement method. To measure the tolerance of roundness, it uses the device below. The piece is me asured in various planes of measurement, and in any length. The difference betwe en the maximum and minimum indications shall not exceed, at any point of the cyl inder, the tolerance specified. 34 3.1.5 - Form a line either. The field of toler6ancia is limited by two lines involving circles whose diamete rs are equal to specified tolerance and whose centers are situated right on the geometric shape of the line. 3.1.6 - Form of a Surface whatsoever. The field of tolerance is limited by two surfaces involving spheres of diameter equal to the specified tolerance and whose centers are located on a surface that has the correct geometrical shape. 35

3.2 - Tolerance of geometric orientation The tolerance of position studies the relationship between two or more elements. This establishes the amount allowable tolerance variation of an element of the piece in relation to its theoretical position, established in the design of the product. In the study of differences in position will be assumed that difference s in the shape of the associated elements are negligible in relation to differen ces in their position. If not, it will require a separation between the type of measurement, so that makes the detection of one or other diversion. The differen ces in position, according to ISO R-1101, are classified into two elements assoc iated orientation and position of associated elements. The tolerances of positio n for guidance are summarized below: 3.2.1 - Parallel Parallelism is the condition of a line or surface is equidistant to all points o f an axis or plane. 36 The parallels are always related to a length of reference. In the figure below, is sketched the correct way to measure the parallelism of the faces. It is assum ed for accuracy of measurement, the surface taken as reference is sufficiently f lat. 37 3.2.2 - Perpendicularly It is a condition in which the element should be within the angular deviation, t aken as a right angle between a surface or a line, and having as an element of r efer6encia a surface or a line, respectively. Thus, one can consider the followi ng cases of perpendicularity: a) - perpendicularity tolerance between two lines - the tolerance field is limited by two parallel planes off in the specified val ue 't', and perpendicular to the line of reference. 38 b) - Tolerance of perpendicularity between a flat and straight - The field of to lerance is limited by two parallel planes off in the specified value and perpend icular to the line of reference. Perpendicularity tolerance between a surface and a straight line. c) - perpendicularity tolerance between two planes - the perpendicularity tolera nce between a surface and a plane used as a reference is determined by two paral lel planes, apart from the specified tolerance and respectively perpendicular to reference. 39 3.2.3 - Slope There are two methods to specify tolerance angle: 1. The angular v ariation, specifying the maximum angle and minimum angle. 2. An indication of tolerance guidance by specifying the element to be measured and reference. Tolerance slope of a line for a line of reference - the field of tolerance is limited by two parallel lines, whose dist6ancia is tolerance, and t ilted from the straight reference specified angle. 40

Tolerance of inclination of a surface for a straight draw on the tolerance field is limited by two parallel planes, a distance equal to the value of tolerance, and inclined angle in relation to the specified reference line. Tolerance of inclination of a surface over a plane. The field of tolerance is li mited by two parallel planes, whose distance is the value of tolerance, and incl ined to the surface reference 6angulo specified. 41 3.3 - Tolerance of geometric position. The tolerances for position associated elements are summarized in below. 3.3.1 - Position of an element The tolerance of position may be defined generally as tolerated deviation of a g iven element (point, line, plane) in relation to its position teórica.É importan t application of this tolerance position to specify the relative positions, for example, holes on a substrate so that it can be installed without any need for a djustment. Considers the following tolerances position of an element: a) - Toler ance of point position. Tolerance is determined by a spherical surface or a circ le whose diameter measures the tolerance specified. The center of the circle mus t coincide with the theoretical position of the section considered (nominal meas ures). 42 b) - Tolerance of position of the line. The tolerance of position is determined by a straight cylinder with a diameter "t"€center line of which is straight at i ts nominal position, where their numerical indication be preceded by the symbol Æ. When the design of the product indicate positioning of lines which between them can not vary beyond certain limits in relation to their nominal dimensions, the tolerance of location will be determined by the distance of two parallel lines, arranged symmetrically to the straight line considered nominal. 43 c) Tolerance of position of a plane. The tolerance of position of a plane is det ermined by two parallel planes distanced from toler6ancia specified and arranged symmetrically in relation to the plan considered normal. Tolerances of position , taken in isolation as a deviation from pure positions can not be adopted in mo st practical cases, as in you can separate them. 3.3.2 - Concentricity Concentricity is defined as the condition whereby the axes of two or more geomet ric shapes such as cylinders, cones etc.. Are coincident. In reality there is no such coincidence theory. There is always a variation of the axis of symmetry of the figures in relation to one another axis taken as a reference, featuring an eccentricity. Can be defined as the concentricity tolerance of eccentricity you seen in a plane perpendicular to the axis taken as reference. In this plan, we h ave two points that are the intersection of the reference axis and the axis that you want to know the eccentricity. The second point must be contained in a circ le of radius I, having as center the point considered the reference axis. 44

The diameter B must be concentric with the diameter of A, where the center line of the diameter B is inside the circle diameter you, whose center is at the cent er line of diameter A. The tolerance of eccentricity can vary from point to poin t, to move the measuring plane parallel to itself and perpendicular to the refer ence center. It follows therefore that the deviations of eccentricity are a part icular case of deviations of coax. 3.3.3 - coaxial The tolerance of a coaxial line over another, taken as reference, is defined by a cylinder of radius ct, with the straight generatrix of reference within which to meet other straight. The tolerance of coaxial should always be referred to a length of reference. The diversion of coaxial can be verified by measuring the d eviation of concentricity at some points. 45 3.3.4 - Symmetry The tolerance of symmetry is similar to the position of an element, but used in independent condition, ie, does not take into account the magnitude of the eleme nt. The field of tolerance is limited by two parallel lines, or by two parallel planes, distant in the amount specified and arranged symmetrically about the axi s (or plane) reference. 46 3.4 - Tolerance of beating In machining of parts of revolution such as cylinders or holes, found variations in their shapes and positions, which causes errors of roundness, taper, eccentr icity etc.. in relation to their axes. Such errors are acceptable up to certain limits, provided they do not affect its operation. Hence the need to establish a n appropriate design for the elements. Besides these differences, it is difficul t to determine in part the real axis. In this case, measurement or inspection sh ould be made from other references that are related to the axis of symmetry. Thi s variation of reference often leads to a combination of errors involving the su rface as the reference surface and the center line theory. To be able to make a conceptualization of the errors made, are set to beat the deviations, which are nothing more than diversions compound of form and position of surface of revolut ion, when measured from an axis or reference surface. The beat is the maximum al lowable variation of the position of an element, considered by rotating the part of a rotation around an axis of reference, without axial displacement. The runout tolerance is applied separately for each posção measure. If there is no indi cation to the contrary, the maximum variation allowed should be checked from the point indicated by the arrow in the drawing. The beat may define errors of circ ularity, coaxial, eccentricity, flatness and squareness, since its value, which represents the sum of all accumulated errors, is contained in the specified tole rance. The axis of reference should be made no errors of straightness and angula rity. The tolerance of beat can be divided into two main groups: 3.4.1 - Radial Runout - The tolerance for radial run is defined as a field of di stance t between two concentric circles, measured in a plane perpendicular to th e axis considered. 47

Methods for measuring radial run a) The piece is supported by prisms. The figure shows a cross section of an axis on which you want to measure the deviation of beat. The LTI indicate a composit e error consisting of radial deviation of beat, added to the error caused by cha nge of position of the center. 48 b) The work is supported between centers. When making the measurement of the par t leased between centers, it has the correct positioning of the center line and, therefore, LTI is really the heartbeat of radial deviation. The measurement, performed well, independent of the dimensions of the piece, whe ther it is in the condition of maximum material (diameter) or minimum material ( smaller diameter, in the case of axis). 3.4.2 - Beat axial - axial run-out toler ance t is defined as the field of tolerance determined by two surfaces parallel to each other and perpendicular to the axis of rotation of the piece, within whi ch should be the actual area where the piece make an back, always referred to it s axis of rotation. Axial run-out tolerance errors are included compounds form (flatness) and positi on (perpendicularity of the faces in relation to the centerline). Methods for me asuring axial beat - To measure the axial run-out tolerance, it is to turn the p lay around an axis perpendicular to the surface to be measured by blocking its m ovement in the axial direction. 49 If there is no indication of the region in which the measurement must be done, i t will apply to any surface. The difference between the information Amax. - Amin . (Obtained from the reading of a dial gauge) determine the axial deviation of b eat, which should be less than or equal to tolerance ta. Amax. - Amin. £ ta Typi cally, the axial deviation of beat is obtained by means of mounts listed below. The figure shows the measurement made between points. In figure b, the reference surface is supported by a prism into V. 50 51 Chapter 04 - Basic weld symbols. 4.1 Siting of the standard elements of a weldin g symbol 52 4.2 - Standard formats available for bonding laminates 53 54 55 56 57 58

Chapter 05 - Reading Sets Figure 5.1 - bolted joints Figure 5.2 - Drive shaft 59 Figure 5.3 - Drive shaft (A) (B) (C) (D) Figure 5.4 - Mounting of bearings: (a) The ball bearing, (b) the rolling ball in X (c) tapered roller bearing and O and (d) X 60 Figure 5.5 - Axis of a circular saw for wood Figure 5.6 - 4 kW Three Phase Electric Motor - 3000rpm Figure 5.7 - Shaft port knives to chop wood 61 Figure 5.8 - Shaft and pinion tapered transmission car Figure 5.9 - Water Pump 62 Figure 5.10 - Transmission shaft truck Figure 5.11 - Differential 63 Figure 5.12 - Car crane 64 Figure 5.13 - Engine rotation (DEMAG). the starter b lantern c casting gear with secondary transmission of front wheels; d output shaft motion of the central wh eel, and wheel spin ball (with jagged inner) f brake shoes with two stopping dev ice; g h drive hydraulic cylinder (brakes) and spring / (trigger brake shoes); / : support cushions metal oscillation. 65 Figure 5.14. Diesel Truck Mercedes Benz OM 352

Figure 5.15 - Jet engine Rolls-Royce Avon. 15 compressors, 8 combustion chambers at the periphery, two-stage turbine 66 Bibliography P.B. Ferlini, Standards for Technical Drawing, Editora Globo, Porto Alegre, 1977 O. L. Augustine, Principles of Manufacturing Engineering Mechanics: Tolerances, Adjustments, Variations and Analysis of Dimensions, Editora Edgard Blücher, São Paulo 1981 G. Manfo, Handbook of Mechanical Engineering Drawing, Books Renewed Cultural Ltda. F. Provenza, machinery design, Pro-tec, São Paulo, 1978. Dubbel, Handbook of Mechanical Engineer, Hemus Livraria Editora Ltda, Sao Paulo 1980. J. Oberg, Manual of Universal Mechanical Engineer, Hemus Livraria Editora Ltda, Sa o Paulo 1979. 67