IMPLEMENTATION OF BASIC EDUCATION IN Toponymy AND MIDDLE: PROPOSED THEORETICAL-D IDACTIC Alexandre Melo de Sousa (UFAC) Abstract This

paper aims to present propo sals for activities to implement Toponymy in elementary and high school. It is b elieved that the interdisciplinary character of the discipline inherent in the s creen allow the approach of multiple knowledge (linguistic, geographical, histor ical, antropoculturais among others) allowing the student to an interconnection between articulating and integrating knowledge, so that information passing betw een different areas knowledge, such as directing the National Curriculum Paramet ers (1998, 2000). PRELIMINARY CONSIDERATIONS The language as a social institutio n, reflects the socio-cultural manifestations, the worldview and ideals of a peo ple. The study of language, therefore, enables the discovery of historical episo des, the knowledge of físicogeográficas characteristics of a region, identifying the mythic-religious beliefs of a people related in this way, different fields of knowledge: Linguistics, History, Geography, Anthropology, among others. For B iderman (1981, p. 134), "the collection of verbal language is the result of a pr ocess of categorization and even ancient secular culture", obtained by the inter action of human experience, either with the physical environment, either with th e cultural milieu. Culture, to Lyons (1982, p. 274) is the set of socially acqui red knowledge, ie "the knowledge that a person has by virtue of membership in a particular society." For him, "Every company has its own culture and different s ubgroups within a society can have their own distinctive subculture." Given the postulate that the authors above, one can infer that each social group, which ha s cultural characteristics, designs, names chosen to identify the places, aspect s of their cultural, social, historical, geographical, physical etc. The linguis tic discipline that studies the etymology and meaning of names of places is Topo nymy. This is a sub-area of onomastics, which, in turn, is scoped to the study o f proper names in general. Although clearly the importance of studies Toponymic since its interdisciplinary feature favors the acquisition of multiple skills, t heir application has been restricted at most to the academies. Thus, this work p resents an application of Toponymy in Primary Education. Miramar-in model in Val ea (2003), which proposes the implementation of studies in this area onomastics in schools of Galicia - Spain. The theoretical assumptions used, in turn, are ba sed on studies undertaken by Dick (1990, 1992, 1996). Toponymy 1: DEFINITION, FI ELD AND OBJECT OF ACTION According to Dick (1990, p. 19), Toponymy is "a huge co mplex lingual-cultural, in which data from other sciences necessarily intersect, and not exclusively. The proposal of Toponymy, according Rostaing (1969, p. 05) is "Rechercher l'origine et la signification des noms de lieux et aussi d'étudi er leurs transformations." Complementing the definitions presented above, it is worth mentioning SalazarQuijada (1985, p. 18): [A Toponymy is] aquella rama de l a Onomastics dealing integral del estudio, en el espacio y en tiempo, de los asp ects: geo-historical, socioeconomic and anthropo-linguistic, which allows us a permitiron y nombre y originates from pla ce remains. The toponym - Toponymy object of study - to be created as a living b eing, is subject to the consequences of time: the influences, variation, and eve n the disappearance of its original meaning, since it escapes the consciousness or memory of the people. These aspects can state that the Toponymy has a dual di mension: the geographical spatial referent (toponymic function) and the related temporal (memory toponymic). Dick (1990, p. 24) explains: [...] toponym's approa ch to the concepts of icon or symbol, suggested by the very nature of the accide nt named, [...], will highlight other characteristics of onomastic toponymic, wh ich is not only the identification of places but the precise details of its phys ical or antropoculturais contained in the denomination. Therefore, considering t he multidisciplinary nature of the sign toponymic, we can say that it is a means to know: a) the history of human groups who live or have lived in the region, b ) the physical-geographical region, c) the particular socio-cultural of the peop le (the denominator), d) extracts of different origin of language that is used c ontemporaneously, or even languages which have disappeared;€e) the relations bet ween human groups and the environment. It is seen therefore that the toponymy es tablishes a close relationship with the cultural heritage of a people, and their

preservation is the perpetuation of history (there involved all aspects of phys ical geography and socio-historical and cultural implications) and values of tha t group. André Malvoaux, cited by Legros (2007) states: [...] son los hombres lo s han who acquired it from responsabilidad respectively, of hacer las indestruct ibles indivisible and works on both physical and physical del patrimonio, los sn atch that Deben de la muerte del olvido, sites, monuments, ceremonies, songs so that it incorporates the author, nombre de la humanidad atesora places them cuál es les pertencen and identifican. As Dick (2007, p. 144) posits, the toponym, as sign language "with an expressive form and content or bi-univocal, is incorpora ting itself, the characteristics of the space names", ie the point of semantical ly, the "name and thing are named to signify the same data." 2 Toponymy AND TEAC HING According to the National Curriculum Parameters (PCNs now) - a document pre pared for the purpose of naming these practices applied by educators in the teac hing-learning in primary and secondary levels - is a function of the school prov ide the student from didactic and pedagogical practices appropriate subsidies (i nstrumentalization theory and practical) for the effective exercise of citizensh ip, ie, live and understand the critical time in their different socio-cultural. As for mother tongue teaching, NCPs Portuguese Language (1998, 2000) present di scussions of the content, objectives and practices related to that field of know ledge, and propose a change of focus in the teaching of mother tongue: over-rule s and traditional structure for the various discursive practices. The document d irected to the elementary school (3 and 4 cycles), PCN (1988, p. 23) notes that "education committed to the exercise of ci tizenship need to create conditions for the student to develop their discursive competence." Between guidelines and proposals contained in the PCN (1998, 2000), we are interested in, especially, which concerns the treatment interdisciplinar y teaching of Portuguese. The document directed to the school, PCN (2000, p. 21) states: In the school perspective, interdisciplinarity is not intended to creat e new disciplines or knowledge, but to use knowledge from different disciplines to solve a specific problem or understand a phenomenon from different points of view. In sum, interdisciplinarity has an instrumental function. This is to bring a useful and usable knowledge directly to answer questions and to contemporary social problems. Indeed, what is proposed is a relational approach, ie an interc onnection between knowledge, complementing them, converging them, diverging them , articulating and integrating, thus passing information between different areas of knowledge. From this perspective, the inclusion of studies in school curricu lum Toponymic among the subjects covered in the classes of Portuguese, allows th e application of that guidance, since this discipline onomastics is characterize d exactly by interdisciplinarity inherent and necessary for the analysis and und erstanding of the meaning which the toponym has. Working with toponymy articulat e knowledge geographical, historical, biological, anthropological, and, of cours e, linguistic knowledge. 3 the toponymy NO SCHOOL: PROPOSED ACTIVITIES Working w ith Toponymy in basic education can be accomplished through projects that will b e divided basically into two phases: the first is proposed collection (selection ) and storage (cataloging ) those appointed, in the second, the classification a nd analysis of toponyms collected. Design steps are described below. 3.1 Present ation of the proposed work toponymic students in this initial moment, the teache r will provide information on science toponymic (part of Onomastics studying the names of places) and establish the difference between it and Antroponímia (part of Onomastics studying the names people) Even at this stage, it is important to define the object of study of toponymy (geographical name) and clarify that tha t designator identifies (names) human accidents (municipalities, districts, stre ets, villages, slums etc.). and physical accidents ( rivers, mountains, lakes et c.).. Finally, from a debate, the teacher will make the students understand: a) the importance of research toponymic (for example, to avoid designating as motiv ators to get lost in time,€not exactly have a record, a search that the rescue), and b) the contribution that they will, as researchers Toponymic for the commun ity present and future, preservation of heritage toponomástico. 3.2 Familiarizat ion with the basic terms used by the researcher toponymic this second stage, the

teacher should submit and propose activities that involve the basic technical v ocabulary used by the researcher toponymic: a) place names (or toponomástica) di scipline that focuses on proper names of places; b) toponym: name that identifie s, appoints the places, ie physical and human geographic features; c) macrotopônimo (and macrotoponímia): t oponym that identifies a more extensive, and for other less extensive. For examp le, the toponym that identifies a municipality will be a macrotopônimo compared with place names that identify the districts that are part of it. d) microtopôni mo (and microtoponímia): toponym that identifies an area less extensive compared to other more extensive that it forms part. The toponym designating a neighborh ood will be a microtopônimo compared to the toponym of the municipality to which it belongs. e) nature toponymic (Toponyms Nature Physics and Nature Toponyms An tropocultural): Category greater that divides the place names according to their motivation. If the reason is a physical aspect of the place itself, we have a k ind of physical character, however, if the motivation is an aspect linked to the human element: culture, history etc.., We have a toponym antropocultural nature . f) taxonomies toponymic (taxes) categories that classify the place names accor ding to their semantic load, which in turn relates to the influences that motiva ted the denominator at the time of appointment. g) nominator: the one who baptiz ed (attached) toponym given to a particular place. h) term generic toponym: elem ent and appointing the accident of geography in general, eg, river, mountain, po nd, city (municipality) rubber etc. i) specific term toponym: is the element tha t differentiates the accident. It is the toponym itself. For example, the phrase Jurua River: River is the generic term and Juruá, the specific. j) Informant: i s the person who gives information about the toponym. It is the respondent. k) t opographic maps (and map): representation (drawing) on a flat surface, the geogr aphic areas and their natural elements, generally identified by scales 1: 250 00 0, 1: 1 000 000 etc.. 3.3 Process for determining the areas of work of each rese archer (or group of researchers) and the mode of action This step is devoted to the choice of where the investigators (researchers) will act. The choice should be, preferably, for locations near the residence of the researchers, it is impor tant that both researchers as informants are knowledgeable about the common plac es (accident) selected for research. It is important that the teacher sets the s ize of the area to be searched, and accidents which will be addressed. Can be sq uares, streets, towns etc. At first, the issues to be investigated are: a) the n ame by which the informant knows the place is the same that is officially regist ered? b) the place in question, once had other names besides the current one? Ea ch investigator (or group) must first take the field, acquire and study the loca tion of sites of action in topographical maps, preferred scale 1: 25 000. From t here, the group should: a) identify their place of work, b) verify that the data contained in the maps are complete and correspond with the knowledge they have of the place, c) list the names of geographical places on which they will resear ch (interview), d) record all that there are inaccuracies or omissions in the ma ps - if any. By listing the geographic names, researchers have at hand a source for: comparing the information from informants with those contained in the maps, make sure that the place names that are shown on the maps are still "alive." 3. 4 Handling of topographic maps, document useful working tool required for any se arch toponymic, letters topographic allow the exact location and precise definition of the geographic sp ace (and the toponym) selected for research. At this stage, it is necessary the intervention of a geography teacher, explaining the relationships between scales and to identify the factors mentioned in the document, such as subtitles. 3.5 P resentation of taxonomic categories this stage, the teacher should explain about the place names and categories on the motivation inherent in the toponym. A goo d model is that proposed by Dick (1992),€since it was prepared for the reality t oponymic Brazil. Sousa (2007), describes and illustrates the taxes proposed by t hat toponymist: 3.5.1 Taxonomy of Nature Physics a) Astrotopônimos: toponyms rel ating to celestial bodies in general. Ex Cruzeiro do Sul (AC), b) Cardinotopônim

os: toponyms relating to geographic locations in general. Eg East-West Avenue (E C), c) Cromotopônimos: toponyms on the chromatic scale. Ex Igarapé Black (AC) d) Dimensiotopônimos: toponyms relating to the dimensions of geographical features . Long Bar (MG), e) Fitotopônimos: toponyms related to plants. Ex Flores (PE), f ) Geomorfotopônimos: toponyms related to topographic forms. Ex Hills (MA), g) Hi drotopônimos: Hydrographic toponyms on accidents in general. Ex Cachoeirinha (RS ) h) Litotopônimos: toponyms for minerals in the formation of soil. Ex Areia (PB ); i) Meteorotopônimos: toponyms related to atmospheric phenomena. Ex Drizzle (R S) j) Morfotopônimos: toponyms related to geometric shapes. Ex Volta Redonda (RJ ) l) Zootopônimo: toponyms referring to animals. Ex Cascavel (CE) 3.5.2 Taxonomy of Nature Anthropology, cultural) Animotopônimos (or Nootopônimos): toponyms on the psychic life, the spiritual culture. Ex Vitória (ES), b) Antropotopônimos: toponyms relating to individual names. Ex Barbosa (Brazil), c) Axiotopônimos: to ponyms for the titles and dignities that accompany individual names. Ex Colonel Ezekiel (RN), d) Corotopônimos: toponyms relating to names of cities, countries, states, regions and continents. Ex Seringal Quixadá (AC), e) Cronotopônimos: to ponyms on indicators chronological represented by adjectives new (), old (a). Eg New Dawn (GO), f) Ecotopônimos: toponyms relating to housing in general. Ex Cha let (MG), g) Ergotopônimos: toponyms relating to aspects of material culture. Ex Raft (MT) h) Etnotopônimos: toponyms relating to ethnic elements isolated or no t (people, tribe, caste). Ex Capixaba (AC); i) Dirrematopônimos: toponyms consis ting of sentences or linguistic statements. Ex Pass and Stay (RN) j) Hierotopôni mos: toponyms on the sacred names of various faiths, the religious anniversaries , religious associations and places of worship. Ex Chapel (AL). This category is subdivided into: i. Hagiotopônimos: names of saints or holy hagiológio Roman Ca tholic. Ex Santa Luzia (Bahia) ii. Mitotopônimos: mythological entities. Ex Exu (PE), l) Historiotopônimos: toponyms on the movements of a historical nature, it s members and anniversaries. Ex Plácido de Castro (AC); m) Hodotopônimos: topony ms relating to communication routes urban or rural. Ex High Bridge (SC), n) Nume rotopônimos: toponyms related to adjectives numerals. Eg Two neighbors (PR) o) P oliotopônimos: toponyms related words by town, village, town, village, camp. Ex Vila Nova Mamore of (RO), P) Sociotopônimos: toponyms relating to professional a ctivities, to workplaces and meeting places of the community, human settlements. Ex Pracinha (SP), q) Somatopônimos: toponyms metaphorically related to the part s of human or animal body. Ex Arm trombudo (SC). After the explanation, the teacher should propose exercises to see if the studen ts had learned the process of classification of place names, the nature and on t he taxonomy. 3.6 Preparing the informant's chips and chip-place names and lexica l instruction fills this point, the teacher should present a model "uniform" for information about the informant and the plug-toponymic lexicographic (or produc e the chips in conjunction with the class), in which they recorded the informati on gathered during the fieldwork. It is important that the plugs are the same fo r all teams, and contain the following key data: a) the informant's statement: t he researcher's name, name of informant (atribuindose an identification code), a n activity which exercises (and the possible relation between the activity resea rched with the accident), where the research was conducted (in the house of the informant, on the riverbank, the beach, in the workplace of the informant), stat e and county where the search is being performed, the informant's age, length of housing on the site, date search, registration of place names and information a bout them (origin, for instance), educational level of the informant, general co mments on the information obtained (See Valea, 2003, p. 14-19) b) plug-in lexico graphical toponymic: toponym location (municipality), the toponym, popular name (if any), previous designs, type of landform (F: physical or H: human), taxonomi c classification and nature,€etymology, historical background (obtained from the search with the informant), sources (literature), name (s) (s) of researcher (s ), date of collection. (See DICK, 2004, p. 130) After prepare (or make) the chip s and educate students as to whether it is positive for students request an inte rview the pilot, how to check their performance in relation to obtaining informa tion and subsequent cataloging of the data. This is the time to take questions a

nd make the proper repair techniques. It is noteworthy that some of the items li sted in the schedule-lexicographical toponymic are filled with the intervention of the Portuguese Language teacher in the classroom, assisted, if possible, by a professor of history: etymology, historical, etc. context. 3.7 Field Operation in this phase the students will make field surveys to obtain data. The time devo ted to this step will depend on the sites for the collection of information. The teacher may, during the time devoted to research, allocate time for monitoring of activities: ask questions, make corrections etc.. 3.8 Treatment of linguistic material collected Armed with the data, the teacher will give instructions on t he procedures of linguistic analysis (lexical and semantic) of the place names: a) morpho-syntactic structure of the toponym: toponym with simple structure (for med by a single word: [neighborhood] Forest), toponym with composite structure ( formed by more than one element: [Avenue] East-West), consisting of statements t oponym language: [rubber] Who-Will-Want, toponym formed by derivation prefixal: [city] Discovered - MG, toponym formed by derivation suffix: [council] Acrelândi a - AC among others, b) composition of the toponym semantics: in this case, one must rely on taxonomic categories, as the semantic aspect of the toponym is dete rmined by motivating that influenced the denominator in the act of nomination, which can be: a nostal gia for his homeland, religious, cultural, historical or political tributes etc. 3.9 Socialization experiences and results: seminar presentation is important th at the experiences of each group and the results are socialized into the classro om so that groups know the difficulties they have experienced and so can others think and suggest new other strategies for field research. It's a way, too, appr eciate the work and results. It is proposed, in this case, a time for oral prese ntation of the groups. 3:10 The documentation of the research project may have a point of culmination production (record) of the final literature as a means of documenting the information collected groups, making them available, for example , in the school library, to serve as material consultation to the general public . CONCLUSION Through the proposal for the implementation of basic education Topo nymy outlined here could be seen the multidisciplinary character of this science and the importance they have reached the research of this nature: besides invol ving multiple competencies to achieve their goals, contributes to toponomástico heritage preservation and cultural needs of a region, a people. Here it is worth citing the words of Marques (1950, p. 12), for whom language: [...] is a reflec tion of the life of a people, the more it progresses in the culture of science, literature and the arts, the more it enriches their language, the language is po lished mirror that reflects the civic and moral qualities, usages and customs th at are perfected, and all activities that relate to man, it transpires. REFERENCES BIDERMAN, M. T. C. The structure of the mental lexicon. In: Studies i n philology and linguistics: In honor of Isaac Nicholas Salum. New York: T. A. Q ueiroz, 1981, p. 131-145. BRAZIL. Primary Education Department. The national cur riculum. 3 and 4 cycles of primary school - Portuguese. Brasilia: MEC / SEF, 199 8, BRAZIL. Primary Education Department. The national curriculum. High School Portuguese. Brasilia: MEC / SEF, 2000. DICK, M. V. P. A. The motivation toponymi c and reality. Sao Paulo, State Archives, 1990, 387p. __________. Toponymy and A ntroponímia in Brazil. Collection of studies. Sao Paulo, the Graphic FLCH / USP, 1992, 258p. __________. Toponymic Atlas: a case study. São Paulo, Ed Pleiade, v . June, 1996, p. 27-44. __________. Knowledge network and field lexical: hydroni c and hidrotopônimos onomastics in Brazil. In: ISQUERDO, A. N.; KRIEGER, M. of G . (Eds.) The science of the lexicon: lexicology, lexicography, terminology. Camp o Grande - MS: Editora UFMS, 2004, p. 121-130. __________. Atlas toponymic Brazi l: Theory and Practice II.€In: Revista Trama. Paraná: UNIOESTE, v. 3, n. May, 20 07, p. 141-155. LEGRIS, G. V. La interpretación toponymy as an object of the env ironment. Villa Clara: Felix Varela Pedagogical University, 2007. [Available at: http://www.villaclara. cu/UserFiles/File/Portal 20prov./infolegam/2007no2/La%%% 20topo Nimia 20como 20o

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