VISUAL ACUITY Def: Measurement of the resolving power of the eye, including its ability to dis tinguish letters

and numbers to a given distance. Visual Acuity The ability of an eye to perceive objects. Visual acuity is determined by the fu nction macular area of greater differentiation of the retina. It requires the pr oper functioning of the entire visual system: visual field. Normal Vision The optical system, consisting of the different structures of the eyeball (retin a, lens and vitreous humor), deflects the light rays incident (the images we see ) these are focused exactly on the retina, usually the focus of the best visual acuity. €€€€ €€€€ €€€€ €€€€ €€€€ €€€€ €€€€ €€€€ €€€€ €€€€ €€€€ €€€€ €€€€ €€€€ €€€€ €€€€ €€€€ €€€€ Refraction. The diversion of incident light rays is called: Refraction and is measured in di opters. A proper refraction will see clear images and normal. Anomalies of visual acuity. These anomalies, called refractive errors (or ametropia) are, in order of freque ncy: myopia, hyperopia and astigmatism. Visual Acuity AV by far in adults and school children About certain posters are used. AV is considered the row of smaller letters or f igures that can distinguish the paciante prederterminada seated at a distance Snell Letters Visual acuity for near vision It is a reading, at a distance of 33cm normal reading position is with arms at r ight angles. If you wear glasses the test is done with them the AV paragraph let ter is smaller than the patient can distinguish. using the scale of the result J aeger Jaeger noted as I, II, III or VII Jaeger Primer Visual acuity and multiple pinhole pinhole By taking the VA with this instrument refractive error vanishes. If a patient ha s low visual acuity with pinhole agujeo would be determined as if he had a corre ction with glasses. If the VA does not improve the defect is not only refractive but tmb is a pathology of the fundus or n. Optical. And multiple pinhole pinhole Visual acuity color vision Terminology is used to name the colors: red Deut Protan Yellow Tetra The partial deficit are anomalies anopia Refractive Errors Emmetropia: absence of refractive error Tritan Blue Green The total deficit

Ametropia: presence of refractive error Presbyopia Loss of accommodation that occurs with aging. This is because: Loss of elasticity of the crystalline lens of the lens curvature Loss Loss of ci liary muscle force Presbyopia Inability to read small nearby objects or discriminate about 44-46 years of age worse in low light intensity, temrapno in the morning or end the day feeling sle epy when reading symptoms increase until about 55 years old when Presbyopia Is corrected with lenses to compensate for loss of crystal glasses for reading ( with wide open eyes) bifocal lenses (for reading and distance) Trifocal Lenses ( third sup, med e inf) Presbyopia MYOPIA Myopia is a refractive error. In a myopic eye focuses the image in front of the retina, this causes difficulty seeing distant objects Causes may be caused by the eyeball is too long or because the lens has a focal length too short Epidemiology Myopia usually develops during childhood and adolescence as the eye grows, makin g an exaggerated. It is usually at school age when it becomes apparent poor dist ance vision Epidemiology is equally affect men and women There seems to be a familial predisposition Clinical Picture Poor distance vision but good near vision. Blurred vision of distant objects ocu lar Tension Headache Increased number of facial wrinkles (pinhole effect) Diagnosis Visual acuity both at distance (Snellen) and near (Jaeger) Refraction test to de termine the correct prescription for glasses for color blindness test to check f or color blindness tests the muscles that move the eye intraocular pressure meas urement, retinal exam Treatment Glasses Advantages: It has no effect on the eye Disadvantages: Aesthetics, sport s, occupation, activities, etc. Treatment Contact Lenses Advantages: Best corrected visual spectacles, aesthetics, etc. Di sadvantages: Intolerance, corneal ulcers and infections Treatment LASIK surgery permanently changes the shape of the cornea by removing corneal ti ssue precisely in order to correct the shape and achieve a better approach. Treatment It measures the curvature of the cornea and the size and position of the pupils.

Also measured the thickness of the cornea (to ensure there is enough tissue onc e the cornea is cut and given new shape). Hyperopia Is difficulty seeing near objects. It's a defect of the eye in which it is small er than normal and is usually congenital. It occurs when the visual images do no t focus directly on the retina, but behind it Symptoms Blurred vision of close objects eyestrain headache eye pain while reading strabi smus (crossed eyes) in children Examinations Refraction visual acuity test glaucoma eye movements slit lamp examination of th e retina Treatment Farsightedness is easily corrected with glasses or contact lenses and surgical t echniques to correct those who do not wish to use these elements. Latent hyperopia Gets clear retinal image by accommodation is the degree of farsightedness that i s overcome by accommodation is detected by refraction ventilation depsués cyclop legic drops MO ASTIGMATIS ASTIGMATISM Astigmatism is a problem in the curvature of the cornea, which prevents the clea r focus of objects near and far. This is because the cornea, instead of being ro und, flattens at the poles and appear different radii of curvature in each of th e principal axes. So when light falls through the cornea, you get distorted imag es. NORMAL VISION ASTIGMATISM ETIOLOGY The root cause may be hereditary, although in some cases may occur after a corne al transplant or cataract surgery. The ordinary causes are abnormalities in the shape of the cornea. TYPES When the principal meridians are at right angles, and the axles are within 20gra dos horizontal and vertical, the astigmatism is divided into: ASTIGMATISM RULE: in which the greater refractive power is in the vertical meridian. + In young AS TIGMATISM AGAINST RULE: in which the greater refractive power is in the horizont al meridian. + In elderly TYPES Oblique astigmatism is regular astigmatism in which the principal meridians are not within 20 degrees of horizontal and vertical. Irregular Astigmatism: the ori entation of the principal meridians travez changes of the pupillary aperture. SYMPTOMS The most common symptom of astigmatism is the perception of distorted images. It can cause headaches or eye discomfort because the eye tries to compensate for t he defect with accommodation, resulting in muscle strain addition, depending on age, amount and type of astigmatism symptoms may be different, and sometimes not

affect vision. TREATMENT Cylindrical lens, usually combined with spherical lenses. Contact lenses, even i f they cause a unit to use, besides requiring hygiene and maintenance that some people find it impractical. Laser surgery corrects astigmatism and glasses and contact lenses, and free from dependence on other methods of correction. However, the economic cost is higher , and carries some risk during surgery PROCESSING Refractive surgery is a series of surgical procedures consisting of different te chniques that allow patients using permanently glasses or contact lenses, stop d oing so immediately. Refractive surgery is an intervention without pain. This is possible through the use of Lasers in operations performed under local anesthes ia, non-lethal methods and a stay in the operating room just five minutes. The p atient is removed to see normally. . TREATMENT During the brief surgery, the patient must be calm and you will not feel any pai n. Should be staring at a light when prompted and you will hear a faint sound pr oduced by the laser. Upon completion of the operation, which only takes about 30 seconds, you see normally. FACT: The brain is able to adapt to visual distortion AN ERROR CORRECTED astigma tism, the glasses do not correct the AN ERROR might cause temporary disorientati on, PARTICULARLY IN AN APPARENT BIAS OF THE IMAGES ... Anisometropia Difference in refraction between the eyes, with the resulting difference in rank ing may be presented in three different conditions: - uniocular ametropia - bino cular refractive error of the same type but different degree and - different typ es of binocular refractive error etiology. congenital, secondary to eye damage a nd the correction of ametropia can trigger or exacerbate the anisometropia. Cause amblyopia,€because the eyes are arranged independently and the more hypero pic eye is chronically blurred vision correction is complicated by the differenc e in size of retinal images (aniseikonia) and oculomotor imbalance due to the di fferent degree of correction lenses When the difference in strength is greater than 2 diopters is considered high an isometropia CC: very good vision, or amblyopia, headache specially marked one of the two sides, one eye more irritated than the other treatment: correction - Ey e Occlusion less defect to compensate for the correction - glasses (unlike retin al image size of 25%) - Contact Lenses (size difference of 6%) - Intraocular len ses (difference <1%) GLASSES Safest method of refractive correction was made in the form of meniscus lean for ward CONTACT LENSES Rigid lenses: gas-permeable, cellulose acetate butyrate, silicone or polymers ar e used for correcting the refraction: changing the curvature of the anterior sur face of the eye refractive power "back of the curvature of the lens-hard core (d epends on material) -* difference between its front and rear curvature Are selected according to corneal curvature, keratometry or trial settings front

curvature is calculated based on the results of over-refraction with trial lens es or glasses refraction of the patient corrected for the corneal plane Soft lenses: plastic made from hydrogel, adapt to the shape of the cornea refrac tive power, "the curvature difference between front and rear INTRAOCULAR LENSES Made of polymethylmethacrylate and loops (haptic) of the same material or polypr opylene. • Developing hydrogel foldable lenses made of plastic to reduce the wou nd to remove the cataract • The safest position for your lens is inside the caps ular bag apparently Determination of the need for intraocular lens: an empirical method: IOL power = A - 2.5L - 0.9KA - constant for the particular lens K - average keratometer rea ding L - axial length in millimeters