BOXES OF CHANGE OF LAST GENERATION Transportation Working Nieva José Manuel Ruben Garcia Reizabal Ripa Lizaur Aitor

Ugarte Diego Ignacio Gonzalez Simon Bartholomew Yarza Gearboxes Transport latest 2 CONTENTS: 1 2 3 4 5 6 Introduction ______________________________________________________ 3 Role of gearboxes convencionales_____________________________________ ________ ______________________________ 4 Boxes 5 Boxes Automatic Automatic rotation opti on secuencial____________ clutchless manual 11 Boxes 13 Boxes __________________ _____________________ automatic operation manuals _________________________ 14 6.1 6.2 6.3 _____________________________________________________14 Ferrari F355 F1 Alfa Romeo's Selespeed _______________________________________________15 ___ _______________________________________________15 BMW M-Sequential 7 Boxes continuously variable CVT (Continuous Variable Transmission )______ 17 7.1 7.2 7.3 M6 Hyper-CVT Nissan Audi Multitronic CVT ___________________________ ____________________18 extro ________________________________________________18 Nissan CVT __________________________________________________20 Gearboxes Transport latest 3 1 Introduction In this paper we try to describe the operation of automatic gearboxes new genera tion. To do this, we will see what the function of the gearbox in the transmissi on systems of cars and why they are essential. Then make a short description of the conventional automatic gearboxes with emphasis on the principles of its oper ation in addition to pointing out the advantages and disadvantages resulting fro m its use. To conclude this section describes the various automatic systems have been used in recent years as well as their specificities and development over t ime. The following paragraphs 4, 5, 6 and 7 describe the main variations that ha ve developed various commercial firms. These boxes can drive automatic with sequ ential clutchless manual transmissions, manual gearboxes and boxes with automati c drive continuously variable CVT (Continuous Variable Transmission). With all r eal cases are attached car currently mounted such transmissions and the descript ion of the technical solutions applied in each case. Gearboxes Transport latest 4 2 Role of gearboxes Internal combustion engines used in cars, whether gasoline or diesel carry certa in restrictions. These stem from the fact that the engine performance depends on the regime that is turning. This is so even under a relatively high number of t urns, usually around 1300 rpm the engine stops working properly until the point that opposing resistance to a minimum. This is what is called the engine stallin g. It is therefore easy to see that we will find it impossible to start a vehicl e of considerable weight. In fact, the speed range in which the motor operates p roperly and providing high performance is relatively small. It is clear the need to vary the gear ratio from motor shaft to the output shaft so that the vehicle

enjoys the ability to develop the widest possible range of speeds with the pair s that make it possible to meet various requirements load , slope, etc.. Therefo re, we need a system that enables the vehicle flow from zero velocity at maximum speed while maintaining high tractor effort and reducing fuel consumption. Ther e were two different types of solving this problem. The first, common in Europe is the use of clutch and manual gearbox. The clutch is a mechanical system that allows for a speed differential between the engine and the input shaft of the tr ansmission. Thus while the engine runs at a speed that is capable of generating sufficient torque, the torque is transmitted to the output bit by bit. It also f acilitates the transmission ratio changes decoupled motor and transmission. The second option is widely used in the U.S. and Japan, is composed of the torque co nverter and automatic gearboxes. Have now been introduced in the market hybrid f unds, which are used technology manuals and automatics. Of these we will speak i n the following chapters. Gearboxes Transport latest 5 3 Boxes conventional automatic The history of these changes began in England in 1930 with the introduction of t he use of hydraulic clutch to provide a smoother motion transmission from the en gine to the wheels. Soon after, around 1940 began to market in America different models of automatic change shape at the market so that the mid-fifties 70% of v ehicles sold in this country had this type of transfer. But what is this we call hydraulic clutch? All we realized when we started to drive the difficulty of th e car boot and leave a gradual, without hitches, but without our shooting or exc essive clutch slippage. To mitigate this effect and that the car comes in a prog ressive manner was introduced in cars (at that time some ships used it already) or turbo clutch hydraulic clutch. As can be seen in figure clutches such consist s of two opposing a so-called drive turbines, which receives the movement of the engine, and another called rotor that is connected to the gearbox, both mechani cally decoupled. Turbines are immersed in an oil bath which is what makes it possible to transmit the move ment just as air does when you move a mill located in a stream. The impeller to be rotated by the engine by centrifugal force pushes the oil to the outside as s hown in Fig. This movement of oil forms a toroidal vortex that enters the rotor or driven element (the average donut is opposite) with an angle that depends on the inclination of the blades, and thus the oil to hit led fins at an angle of i ncidence, a couple passes. Gearboxes Transport latest 6 The operating principle of this type of clutch has the following advantages:? ? The elements that make up the transmission (gears, shafts etc.) Suffer less beca use the loads are applied in a less abrupt something, the more favorable from th e point of view of fatigue of materials. ? ? It has been shown in practice that this type of clutch transmits torque in full. ? ? Below 500 rpm the slip (differ ence between the revolutions of the rotor and impeller) is total, so allowing th e engine is running at idle with the car stopped. ? ? No danger of stalling the car. ? ? Lets go into higher gear at low speed and having the greatest efforts r otors. ? ? It does not prevent using the engine as a brake. But not all are adva ntages to this type of clutch, also has some drawbacks? ? Produced a greater yie ld losses the higher the slippage due to the heating that occurs in the oil. Thi s loss affects performance increased consumption of gasoline is about 5%? ? On t he other hand, this progression with which the engine delivers its power that th e acceleration does tend to be worse in models with this type of clutches. ? ? N

ot suitable to be directly coupled to a gearbox general performance because it p roduces a thrust that oppresses the sprockets and makes it impossible to insert the relationships manually. The types of cases that have been using this device so far are: 1. Turbo-clutch gearbox semi-automatic sliding control and a dry disc clutch. Such changes Gearboxes Transport latest 7 is no longer in use and therefore we will not detail its operation. 2. Automatic gearbox epicyclic trains chains. It is the automatic gearbox most used so far a nd consists of a hydraulic clutch and a series of epicyclic trains that change t heir speed ratio braking or releasing some of these trains. These changes are ma de in a completely automatic and driven by hydraulic force commanded by an elect ronic control unit which interprets the car's speed and throttle position to ins ert the appropriate gear. The following is how it works one of these three-speed transmission with automatic gear box: first gear. When operating the clutch for ward gears, the engine (red arrow) pulls the first crown. This turns the planet in the opposite direction. The second planet carrier (light gray) is fixed, so t hat the satellites rotate the second crown and the output shaft. Gearboxes Transport latest 8 Automatic transmission: second gear. When operating the clutch forward gears, th e engine pulls the first crown.€The common planetary corona is braking and spin ning satellites and the planet carrier, whose axis is also the output, so it onl y made a reduction. The second train (dark gray) rotates around the planet witho ut load. Automatic Gearbox: third gear. When pressing the forward drive clutch, the engin e pulls the first crown. The reverse clutch is also operative and connects the i nput shaft to the planetarium, which both rotate at the same speed. Gearboxes Transport latest 9 Automatic Gearbox: reverse. The forward drive clutch does not work and unloaded first tour crown. The running back into action, and the engine pulls the planeta rium. The second planet carrier is stopped, and the planetary satellite spins, i t causes the rotation of the second crown in the opposite direction. Subsequently, the hydraulic clutch has evolved to what is known as torque conver ter. Actually, the differences between them are not very large. As can be seen i n the figure the torque converter also has intercalated freewheel reactor (S) which is a kind of turbine whose function is to direct the flow of oil on the rotor blades according to the slip. What this i s achieved is that the oil affects a more favorable direction on making this rot or vanes more efficient mechanism especially high slips where does that output torque is multiplied with respect to the input. Thus the torque converter will be easier t o start the movement with a long march. Nowadays such changes are made up with 5 speed and all also have a parking position (P) used to lock the axle through th e

Gearboxes Transport latest 10 reaching movement to the drive wheels, allowing these vehicles without the parki ng brake. They also have different driving programs:? ? Program "Winter": Used w hen the soil is frozen and what one does is engage in top gear to transmit less torque torn down and thereby prevent slippage. ? ? Program "economic": When the driver wants to practice economic driving gear the program to quickly to keep th e engine rev up too much and thereby save on fuel? ? Program "sports": The progr am stops the engine kicks into high gear before changing gears. The main disadva ntages of the gearbox with respect to the manuals in addition to those mentioned on consumption and performance are the high manufacturing cost and increased we ight and volume. Gearboxes Transport latest 11 4 Boxes drive automatic with sequential possibility Automatic changes so congealed in the U.S. than just about the entire American f leet have this type of transfer. But in the European market have not been so acc epted either by the increase represents the final price of the car or the driver because Europe likes to share a little more driving. For the latter did not pos e a problem is created automatically changes with sequential operation have two modes: a fully automatic when the car is responsible for entering the optimal an d one manual that you can insert in driver progress and whenever you want with a small tap on the joystick. This mode is controlled electronically to prevent wr ong operation by the driver as inserting a way too short at such a rate that wou ld exceed the maximum speed etc. Such changes appeared first in 1990 by Porsche who introduced its highly successful 911 model with Tiptronic and soon name bran ds such as Audi, BMW, Mitsubishi, Honda, Chrysler etc., Began manufacturing thei r own versions . Tiptronic change was developed jointly by Porsche, ZF and Bosch , the first put the idea, made the ZF gearbox and Bosch was in charge of electro nic control. In 1995 appeared a new version of this change called Tiptronic S, w hich also has steering wheel controls with which the driver can change gears wit hout losing concentration on the road. But the fact that these changes are contr olled from the steering wheel or a touch on the shifter does not mean you gain i n speed because these changes still have the disadvantages of the conventional a nd the torque converter makes will slow the delivery of power and are therefore slower than the manuals. Gearboxes Transport latest 12 Electronics and automatic electronic Today has also reached the latest changes m aking these much more refined and in addition to the typical driving programs ru nning on ice, economic and sports and talk of the adaptive that As its name sugg ests, adapts the manner of driving of each driver. So if the driver likes to dri ve in a relaxed way introduce the program soon unstretched much gear motor and i f you like is conducted in a sportsmanlike manner the engine will rev up long be fore you insert the following March. Some of these programs have a driver's reco gnition mode using the key as well as opening and who is key to unlock the car, adjusting the mirrors, seat and driving program. Gearboxes Transport latest 13

5 boxes clutchless manual This type of manual gearboxes are conventional. However, the driver has no clutc h pedal. They have an electronic clutch system. The operating mode is as follows . When we change gear lifted the throttle and go directly to the gear lever. A p ressure sensor detects that we intend to shift gears, so the clutch disengages a nd then mail allows you to move the lever. Once the lever has reached its positi on and pressure is stopped, the system in gear and continue the march. Saab Syst ems Sensonic, Renault Zoom, Alpina B10, A-class Mercedes and Smart MCC are examp les of this type of technology. Gearboxes Transport latest 14 6 boxes with automatic operation manuals These gearboxes are very similar internal architecture to the conventional manua l gearboxes. The difference is that in the conventional driver is responsible fo r the clutch and change gears, while in such cases a drive changes the speed whe n the driver press a button or lever. These gearboxes also allow automatic opera tion when the car changes speed without the driver worry about more than acceler ating and braking. The main advantages are its price, small size and speed of ch ange, at least as fast as the manual. However it should be noted that the change is a bit sharper than the automatic. Let's look a little more carefully the bes t known cases with this type of technology. Ferrari F355 F1 6.1 The Ferrari acce lerates from 0-100km in 4.7 sec. This figure shows that there is no loss of perf ormance, which is an important advantage over the Tiptronic shift. Ferrari syste m is based on a 6-speed manual gearbox, which has introduced an electronic clutc h actuator and a high pressure for change. It has three modes of operation. ? ? Fully automatic mode, usually used for urban driving, in which a computer is res ponsible for changing the speed taking into account the engine speed, load and t hrottle position. This operation is not as smooth as a box with torque converter . ? ? Sport mode, in which the gearbox is available to the driver. The gear shif t is performed by pulling paddles that are located in the steering column just b ehind the wheel. Gearboxes Transport latest 15 Right up speed and left the floor. You can reach r.p.m. 8000 The change to a hig her gear is carried out in just 0.15 seconds., Thanks to high pressure actuator and the electronic clutch. ? ? Semiautomatic mode. It is almost like the sport m ode, in which the driver pulling the paddle gear. However, if we exceed 6000 rpm , the computer takes care of switching to a higher speed. In this way, we reduce the acceleration, but we get a smoother shifts. The new Ferrari 360 Modena has been tweaked a bit of computer software, particularly when we reduce a march, th e motor accelerates the speed gear before, achieving a smoother change. 6.2 Alfa Romeo's Selespeed This technology has been inherited from Ferrari. The operatio n is almost equal, but some modifications have been introduced since the nature of the Alfa Romeo is not as sporty as the Ferraris. The main differences are tha t is mounted on a 5-speed gearbox and the change is smoother but slower. Changes are made by means of buttons on the steering wheel. When you press a button on the other hand, the injection engine power reduced after the clutch works, then the hydraulic actuator is responsible for engaging the next speed€re-engage and the engine continues to power. There are three modes of operation. ? ? Normal m ode, in which the process of change is between 1 and 1.5 sec. ? ? Sport mode, in which the process of change is made in 0.7 sec. This mode is automatically acti vated if we exceed 60% throttle travel or surpassed the 5000 rpm ? ? Automatic m ode simulates a fully automatic box. BMW 6.3 BMW M-Sequential with manual gearbo

x output semiautomatic Ferrari introduced the box in the M3 E36. The operating s ystem is very similar. However, gears are changed by a sequential lever. Next to the lever has a button that introduces the possibility of fully automatic manag ement. This box has a worse Gearboxes Transport latest 16 performance than the manual that is mounted in the same car. However, it allows the driver to concentrate more on driving, the throttle and brakes. Gearboxes Transport latest 17 7 boxes continuously variable CVT (Continuous Variable Transmission) In theory, gearboxes continuous variation are the perfect design, as they vary t he speed ratio continuously, so that we can say that it is an automatic transmis sion with an infinite number of relationships. As a result, in each case you can choose the most appropriate gear ratio for optimal performance in both accelera tion and consumption. We can move around the maximum power curve, something impo ssible with manual or automatic gearboxes, in which there was a staggering betwe en different speeds. The theory of operation of these mechanisms is very simple, as will be explained in the following figure: The secret lies in a belt transmi ts motion between two pulleys. The drive pulley is coming from the engine's outp ut and is conducted leading to the shaft. The pulleys are not fixed, but will co nsist of two mobile plates expand or shrink as shown in Fig. When we set the pla te of the motor shaft, the pulley is inserted between the plates, so the seconda ry pulley closes. The result is a low gear ratio. By contrast, when the plates a re closed primary, the radius of the orbit in primary belt is greater, so the tr ansmission ratio increases. Therefore, controlling the opening of the dishes of the pulleys can get different combinations of speeds. In addition it is a contin uing relationship, and we can make the dishes displacements as small as we want. Notice that when the radius of a pulley varies, so does the other, because the length of the pulley is fixed. This produces the effect of a change of speed rat io is multiplied. However, this type of gearbox has two important drawbacks in i ts implementation: Gearboxes Transport latest 18 ? ? The belt is subjected to a very high voltages. ? ? It is very difficult to g et a perfect grip between pulleys and belt. These problems have been solved with the introduction of chain pulleys instead of rubber. The chains are formed by c ross pieces which are responsible for securely grip the pulleys and other pieces lengthwise, they get to hold your tension the chain is subjected. In the 80s, u sed this system changes in small-displacement cars, because the string only resi sted the stresses caused by low torque motors. Today has been made to resist pee r networks of large displacement engines. We will now focus on describing three types of gearboxes that varies on the market and analyze their advantages and di sadvantages. 7.1 M6 Hyper-CVT Nissan Nissan was known as the leader in the field of transmissions, especially after the launch of its Hyper-CVT M6. This gearbox , in addition to the automatic mode like all the CVT is equipped with a manual m ode that simulates a 6-speed gearbox, which is well suited to all types of drivi ng. At its launch was a revolution because it was mounted with an engine of 170 hp and more than 1200Kg. Its advantages are its price, its lightness and its siz e, where the automatic exceeded. However, it was faster than the machines could not be mounted engines with a high value of torque and especially rubber produce

d an effect: when pisabas the throttle, the engine revolution until the number o f maximum power, thus noise level, until the car began to accelerate. 7.2 Audio Multitronic CVT As noted in the introduction of CVT boxes,€they must offer lowe r fuel consumption and greater acceleration boxes Gearboxes Transport latest 19 manuals. However, until it was released the Audi Multitronic not performed bette r. Now in the A6 can see the improvement in the performance: less consumption an d more acceleration. 0-100km 8.2 sec. 9.4 sec. 8.1 sec. Consumption 9.9 l / 100km 10.6 l / 100 km 9.7 l / 100km A6 with 5-speed manual transmission 5-speed Tiptronic A6 A6 Multitronic CVT The differences that Audi has introduced to achieve this performance are:? ? Use a string instead of a belt to transmit torque between the two belts. The chain consists of steel plates 1025 and 75 pairs of pins can withstand voltages greate r than 1.6 tons. It is almost as flexible as the belt, but much stronger. ? ? It has a torque sensor that ensures that the drive to work in an almost automatic. This sensor works similarly to a valve to limit torsional torque and thereby cl ose or open water, power drills automatically generating balance between torque and force transmitting pressure. This factor is an import ant prerequisite for the changes to be exceptionally fast drive. But Multitronic is also an intelligent system. Sensorised the engine revs to eliminate the effec t of CVT previous rubber. In addition, a sensor detects the accelerator pedal wh en the driver wants a good acceleration and low power consumption, using the app ropriate relationship. Finally you Gearboxes Transport latest 20 the possibility of a 6-speed sequential gearbox, which are obtained with six fix ed positions in the diameter of the pulleys. Importantly, these changes occur wi thout transitions and shake-free very quickly thanks to a continuous adaptation. For management can be used both as the gearshift buttons on the steering wheel. Nissan CVT 7.3 extro extro system gearbox is continuously variable throughout a revolution in such cases. Instead of using a strap or chain to vary the gear ra tio, it uses two pairs of rollers. It will explain its functioning by the follow ing figure. As can be seen, the rollers bind the input shaft (from the rotation of the engine) and the output shaft (which goes to the driveshaft). By varying t he angle of the rollers can get different ratios. For example, low relations, the roller sits on the input disk near its i nner diameter, the smallest, so that the roller sits on the output disc at the p eriphery. This results in the output disc rotate much more slowly than the input disc. If we compare this system with the belt or chain, the rollers can handle more torque. Furthermore, as the input and output shafts are coaxial gearbox is much more compact, so it can be mounted longitudinally. Gearboxes Transport latest

21 A system electrohydraulic roller movement is responsible. One of the designed oil especially allows the transmission of traction between the disks at the same time reduces friction and wear. It is also possible to drive six-speed sequential. The bigges t problem with this gearbox is its cost and limited in the speed ratio used.