- "AUXILIARY COURSE FOR KEEPER" OBJECTIVES - To train the professional for the p roper performance of the Civil Sector

Warehouse, Aiming at the Future of Entrepr eneurship. RATIONALE - Based on relevant regulations and standards, we discuss b elow, how to run an entrepreneurial organization, whether public or private, in order to have a "QUALITY CONTROL" with promising results. 1. INTRODUCTION - The history of the Warehouse in Brazil began to emerge from 1808 with the need to de ploy a system of financial controls to knowing how much you earned and how much is spent, second, the Official Newsletter of the CFC - Federal Council of Accoun ting No. 72 circulation in July / August 2004, highlights an entire page to talk about the History of Accounting and the Brazilian Museum of Accounting - In the matter, Accounting, began with the first public demonstrations with the coming of the royal family to Brazil, where the country was still a colony of Portugal. That year, Dom Joao VI issued a warrant ordering that the bookkeeping was marke t by being the only way followed by most civilized countries due to its brevity with the handling of large sums and to be more clearly and objectively. With thi s determination, from 1830 to 1840, the Public Accounts was organized by the cou nter Alves Branco. - But the situation has come to change after 1850, when it ap peared the Brazilian Commercial Code and later was renamed the Civil Code, direc ted to any marketer or entrepreneur, going on to establish mandatory bookkeeping and maintenance of certain books on business. These demands have led to the dem and by people who knew the accounting background. - The kick to the training of counter has been the creation of the Commercial Institute of Rio de Janeiro in 1 856. In 1863, this educational institution started to offer his students the dis cipline bookkeeping in order to qualify them to practice bookkeeping. - Some tim e later, began to appear professional associations of accountants in Brazil as t he Brazilian Institute of Accountants, that already in 1915, and the Paulista In stitute of Accountants, established in 1919, which became known later as the Uni on of Accountants São Paulo. Warehouse: storage means of objects, materials and miscellaneous materials. KEEPER: Administrator responsible for the warehouse or in a public or private. 2. FUNCTION KEEPER - The warehouse is the stronghold wh ere the "inputs" required materials will support the process and production syst em, be it goods, or services. However, it goes away the time when the idea of wa rehouse suggested a kind of "old stock" of dark and foul air, where they were st ored, without distinction, with more or less order, old and new things under the responsibility of a "little man", ignored or near to which, it seems like irony , it gave the name of "keeper", when in reality it was just a simple guard or wa tchman who, beyond the mission of keeping the goods stored in a company or insti tution had yet to bear the functions of "receiving and delivery" of materials, s upplies and miscellaneous items. - Secondly, the emphasis now to the warehouse i s already being felt, both in terms of planning for their installation, both in terms of choice of the professional responsible for its management, either in th e selection of support staff for the composition of its board, considering that the highlights are noted in the classified section of the press. - The objectives of the warehouse, as well as any system of materials management , relate to the following topics: a) - have the right material, b) - the right q uantity, c) - on time, d) - in place, e) - in some specification, f) - the cost and economical price. 3. TYPES OF WAREHOUSES: 3.1 Warehouses are buildings of ma sonry, closed sides and roof, with or without lining, whose floor should be cons tructed with material resistant to the weight of materials stored. In this type of installation, install stoves, refrigerators, dehumidifiers, etc.. The total a rea is utilized as: a) - Storage Area: place reserved for proper storage and acc ess corridors to the shelves, b) - Area of services: premises for access ramps t o serving the public (users, couriers ) and the receipt of materials, c) - area of administration designated place to carry out the administrative and bureaucra tic, with toilets and clothing. 3.2 Sheds buildings are covered, sometimes close d laterally€with floor suitable for the loads they must support and uncondition al control of most environmental conditions. In addition to storage area, it can also be used as the service area. 3.3 The Open Skies or Patio land are discover ed, with level floor and drained, used only as a storage area in which there is

minimal control of any environmental condition. 4. PLANNING Planning begins from the plant to the construction of a warehouse, in large organizations such as th e warehouse or central warehouse is planned according to the distance, ease of t ransportation and distribution, as well as higher volume of consumption or indus trialization. According to the plans already made, the location of warehouses de pends on certain factors, some of its own type of operation or business activiti es, other facilities and situations due to the buildings. There are no ready sol utions and schemes that can be applied to any organization - it all depends on t he particular analysis of each case, and both should observe the following guidi ng principles: a) to adjust the location of warehouses to the needs of consumer sectors. b) Plan the location so that respond quickly to drive the flow of mater ials, even in situations of increased volume of consumption. c) The warehouses or storage areas should be located close to the consumption se ctors, in consideration of volume, size and weight of stored material, thus avoi ding the consumption of a greater number of hours to your drive. 4.1 Distributio n of areas inside the warehouse This distribution, also called "study of layout, is a major topic in the list of concerns of the organizer of warehouses. In thi s study, we can classify the most important areas: a) Area of incoming and outgo ing b) Area of stock material, c) Area of machinery and equipment; d) the area o f services and controls. 4.2 Area With the analysis of available studies for the identification and classification of materials, we define the area needed to ho use the materials to be stocked in each store. This, however, is not sufficient because it is necessary to provide a future expansion, likely as a result of exp ansion and increased productivity of the organization. The display area is made in the form of plant, which should be known by people involved in the management of warehouses. A model plant, with a suggestion of internal distribution and th e proportional area of each space, which can provide guidance to many real cases , is presented below: a) quantities of materials (items) A, B, C, D, E etc.. b) the space in square feet that the material will occupy the store d) of the film holders, shelves, pallets, etc.., where materials are stored, e) the area of shi pping materials, f) the area of entry and receipt of materials, g) the internal streets and avenues, h) the internal workshop for maintenance of proper storage; i) the services of control of materials; j) The area for expansion. According to the author, the ideal regimen of warehouse space can be viewed on t he diagram below: Assuming that the total area of this warehouse is 1,000 square meters, its distr ibution among various compartments would, ideally, as follows: Shelves and suppo rts 374 m2 of material input area 48 m2 48 m2 Output Area Streets and avenues 40 0 m2 workshop Internal Control Services 30 m2 18 m2 82 m2 expansion Areas From 1 ,000 m2 of this scheme, you get the best use of space in a warehouse that will w ork with flexibility and enable changes, expansions, and a rational and producti ve work. Warehouse To perform a proper storage, they must observe a set of rules formulated according to defined criteria. Each warehouse will, according to the peculiarities of organization and functioning, its rules of operation, whose pr ovisions must be strictly observed by operators and users of the warehouse. Howe ver, even though there is variation from one warehouse to another in different o rganizations, such rules are seeking the same objectives, namely: a) reducing losses by breakage, b) reduce accidents at work, to waive the human element of moving heavy loads, c) less time spent on handling and shipping; d) e xpansion, with better utilization of floor space for storage. In short, what is sought by the standards of storage is increasing the efficiency of storage, resu lting in the maximum expressions, your income, and expressions minimal costs. 5. In addition to the facilities warehouses warehouse goals that seeks to achieve, ie€meet the production process of goods and services, as discussed in item # 3 .2 of this text, the organization of the warehouse requires a vision of goals do mestically, responsible for the proper functioning of the sector, namely: a) rea

dy access to key items, b ) high degree of flexibility of layout, c) appropriate use of space; d) reducing the need for material handling equipment, e) minimizi ng losses due to deterioration of materials; f) minimizing losses by diverting m aterials, g) guaranteed minimum individual and collective security. The starting point for organizing a warehouse is to obtain all relevant information of each item to be stocked, which will identify the critical factors to facilitate locat ion of products. For these factors and identify the relative influence they exer t over the storage, it is necessary to study taking as a starting point question s as: What is the space needed this respect, it takes into account: for each pro perly store material? a) prediction of the maximum quantity to be stored, b) the lot size of each requ est, c) packing conditions. What is the frequency or: How often is ordered by da y, week, etc..? use the material? What are the consumer centers and which ones use most every type of material? What type of facility best suited for the storage of material? Here, take into a ccount the following characteristics: weight, volume, fragility of the material and / or its packaging format of the material and / or its packaging, preservati on (perishability) and the ease or difficulty of handling. What are the difficul ties of storing material with other materials due to their incompatibility? What are the security requirements required for their storage, such as individual an d collective security, hygiene and work safety, property security and "social" i n the case of storage of flammable or explosive materials? After obtaining the a nswers to the items listed above, there remains the planner to suggest two or mo re distinct solutions to the problem of storage, each of which has a certain cap acity to meet the goals. For each of these solutions should be estimated the tot al cost of storage (cost of planning and operational), and the choice falls on t he lower cost alternative. The criterion which takes into account the cost-benef it analysis is one that best suits the study. 6. - ORGANIZATION 6.1 Organisation of Warehouse - First, it is necessary to mention the functions performed by the warehouse manager, grouped in the following activities: a) - re ceive materials, b) - store materials, c) - locate materials, d) - ensure materi als, e) - preserving materials, f) - to deliver materials. - These functions can be divided into two major groups with distinct characteristics from each other. In one group summarizes the planning activities of the warehouses, which are fu ndamental to the performance of its functions and activities considered primaril y operational, whose study is one of our concerns in this work. - Roughly speaki ng, all the above mentioned activities have characteristics of functions of plan ning and operational functions. However, the group suggested for this study take s into account the characteristics more prevalent, so that the activity of locat ing materials predominantely planning, while the reception, storage and delivery of materials can be characterized as operational. - The safety and preservation have characteristics of both groups and for these reasons are considered in bot h. - But it is important to point out an activity not yet mentioned, the control materials. She is represented by the services of physical and financial control of the movement of inventory within the warehouse, and has operating characteri stics significantly. - However, considering the data, information and reports generated by other acti vities, which constitute subsidies guiding the planning process, it can be, with out a shadow of doubt, consider this activity as part of planning. - In summary, the organization of a warehouse brings together all the responsibilities, tasks and interrelationships that generate the planning of the facilities and warehou ses encompassing the activities of: a) - location of materials, b) - Material sa fety c) - preserving materials, which are viewed mainly in planning functions, w hile: a) - receipt of materials, b) - Material safety;€c) - preserving material

s, d) - saves materials, e) - delivery of materials, constitute the group of act ivities with which it proceeds to the operation of warehouses. - In other words, the function of the warehouse manager is to plan these sectors (locate, preserv e and secure) in order to operate it, (receive, store, deliver and track), prese rving the material damage and deviations. 6.2 Areas of storage The storage areas of study aims to meet the needs of all sectors of the organization. To get the best and most appropriate structure is necessary to examine the possibilities of installing several warehouses and a supply center, as well as characteristics t hat differ the most. These features may be so enrolled: a) heavy materials handl ing and transport difficult, b) small materials very diverse and frequently used , c) materials with high frequency and low output volume. 6.3 Character Analysed these features, you arrive at the type of storage needed for a perfect understa nding between stocks and consumer centers, or even as a result of this survey, y ou will reach the situation where the warehouse will meet all needs. So in this case, attention must turn to a better use of space, "No matter how full the ware house, but if we want, whenever we can make that fit with other materials" liste d some important items for a good organization: a) space required; b) type of fitting, c) distribution of stocks in areas that best serve the consu mer, d) means of transportation, e) type of control to be adopted; f) number of employees to maintain inventories. 7 CRITERIA FOR STORAGE Among the most common criteria that guide the development of standards for storage, can be enumerated as follows: a) rotation of materials, b) the volume and weight, c) order entry / exit; d) similarity, e) value, f) unit load, g) packaging and packaging materia ls 6.1 Turnover Among the items of material held in stock, there are those who h ave more movement in relation to others, because of its use by many users, or an y other reason. In these materials into and out more frequently should be given special treatment in relation to the location in the warehouse, or store them ne ar the doors (areas of shipping and packing). This procedure offers the followin g advantages: a) minimizing the number of trips between the areas of storage and shipment, b) the traffic congestion of the internal warehouse, c) better utiliz ation of labor, domestic work, with less physical stress of operators d) maximiz ing the time spent on the dispatch of material, etc.. 6.2 Volume and weight of t he material the same way, the more bulky and heavy items should be near the door s not only to facilitate their preservation, but also its handling, and placed o n pallets or pallets (special type of platform that we will see ). 6.3 Order Ent ry / exit Store, noting that criterion, means obeying the chronological order of output, t aking into account their time of entry. That is to say, the units stored for lon ger must leave first, so that will not be situations of forgetting items in stoc k, which can cause oxidation, deterioration, obsolescence, loss of physical prop erties, hardening, dryness and other situations that result in loss of material (essential for the storage of drugs). 6.4 Similarity Where possible, materials s hould be stored considering its similarity to other items, which can be done mor e easily with the help of the catalog of materials. The grouping of materials wh ich have physical characteristics, applications or similar nature on adjoining s ites facilitates their location, movement and even the score. 6.5 The value of t he material financial value that represents a specific material for stock define s its storage form. The rules do not differ greatly from those commonly used for other items, but it should be noted that the site should be appropriate and pro vide greater security condition. To control inventory using the method called "A BC" or "ABC curve, we can say that the items of material covered here are part o f the letter" A ". 6.6 The test unit load cargo unit is based on the constant ne ed for rationalization of useful storage space, with the maximum utilization of the concept of scaling. However, coupled with the rationalization of space,€the cargo unit favors greatly the proper handling of the material, the speed of loa ding and unloading and, consequently, the reduction of costs. This method consis ts in the arrangement or composition of small items - smaller packages or units - in volumes scaled weight scaling and larger quantity. You can also say that th

e criterion of unit load means transforming the simple units in multiple. 6.7 Pa cking and packaging The opening of the boxes or packages received from the suppl ier of materials purchased for the conference is a practice. But after that, it should be lacralo again, with the use of the package itself. Of course, only to be left unpacked the number of units required for the delivery period. This proc edure brings the same benefits in the discretion of the unit load, because it ha s a great similarity with it. 6.8 Equipment for storage also called storage unit s, these devices include: a) frames, b) the type pallets pallets; c) crates d) containers. 6.9 Stacking / Frames shelves are manufactured with str uctures of steel or wood in standardized units, according to the needs of wareho use and storage. In the construction of shelves, one must take into account, bes ides the intended goals, the proportions and positions studied in the lay-out. M ost warehouses use small wooden shelves manufactured in the organization's own w orkshop, stocked because the quotas are made of light materials, small volume, s uch as office supplies, cleaning, etc.. However, in recent years has seen a grad ual replacement of wooden frames for steel structures, even in small warehouses. The metal surfaces have a number of additional advantages compared to wood, are immune to insects and rodents, support more weight, are easier to be assembled or disassembled and have great durability. 6:10 bedsteads As a unit of storage, the pallets or pallets revolutionized the methods and storage techniques, radica lly changing the design of transportation and material handling in force until r ecently. Consist mainly made of wood pallets with standard measures on which are mounted unit loads, enabling efficient guard and / or materials handling, throu gh internal transport equipment. This storage system also called a system of blo cking. He allowed a better use of vertical space with the help of steel shelves, pallets port calls, with the advantage of the benefits provided by the movement of unit loads. There are cases where it may relieve the structural steel door-p allets, for example, in uniform loads that form an airfoil, which allow the over lapping of several blocks palletized. There is also there to optimize the utiliz ation of vertical space of the warehouse just blocks superimposed. Types and siz es of pallets There are various types and sizes of pallets that meet the specifi cations of usage, but with side openings for input and support of the forks of f orklifts and carts to transport. The measures adopted by the ASME (American Soci ety of Mechanical Engineers), with slight variations by ISO (International Organ ization for Standardization), are: a. Bedsteads rectangular 60 cm x 80 cm 80 cm 90 cm x 1,00 m x 1,05 m 80 cm x 1,20 m 90 cm x 1.00 mx 1.20 m 1 .20 m 1.20 m 1.20 mx 1.50 mx 1.80 mx 2.70 m 2.20 m b. B edsteads square 90 cm x 90 cm 1.05 m 1.20 mx 1.05 mx 1.20 m 7. TRANSPORT 7.1 cra tes pallets are fitted with side shields. Lend themselves to guard and transport materials, due to the fragility of packaging and / or irregularity of their sha pe, do not allow the use of pallets. Stents or 7.2 Containers are known as ("rec eptacles"), is presented in the form of a rectangular metal box, coated sheet st eel, aluminum or fiberglass, sealed and stamped, used for packaging (not to conf use with packaging) and the intermodal freight consolidated (from the manufactur er to the consignee or importer). However, the term "contenedor" has been extend ed to other forms of construction, application and purpose, and there is a varie ty in the market for industrial, commercial and multi-purpose, such as plastic b oxes for storing and transporting milk, meat, beverages , fish, etc.. which, aft er all, are manufactured so as to enable an efficient stacking. of of 7.3 Transport of materials This function includes all tasks,€responsibilities a nd relationships used in the movement / displacement of materials demanded by th e process of creating goods and services. By their nature, one can say that it i s done within the production system to move materials: a) delivery to the wareho

use, b) the warehouse to the production unit, c) a production unit to another d) a unit of production to the warehouse, e) of the warehouse of finished products to order. 7.4 Choice of transport equipment First of all, one must take into ac count that the choice of equipment for the material must be preceded by a study based on the criterion of cost-benefit analysis, whereby it seeks to adopt the b est solution among feasible alternatives, which involves choosing the least cost alternative among those who meet the minimum requirements of transport. The mai n factors that influence the cost are: 7.4.1 The nature of the material) physical state: solid (bulk or unit), liquid, gas, b) form, size, weight and perishability, c) type of packaging. 7.4.2 The de mand of material ⠢ number of units handled in each interval. 7.4.3 With regard t o storage and use a) points of origin and destination of the materials, b) open area for movement, c) and height-ceilinged warehouse or shed, d) barriers in war ehouses or sheds, as beams , columns, etc.. e) dimensions of the access doors an d exit. The Brazilian market has many options and models of equipment, already s tandardized according to details of safety, economics, usability, etc.. However, one should not discard the discretion of the lowest cost. 7.4.4 Examples of equ ipment: a) car manual traction, b) manual and motorized forklifts; c) crane manu als and automotive d) car porch, e) tractors warehouse f) pulleys; g) cranes; h ) elevators; i) conveyors; j) suction ducts and conducting grains, etc.. 7.2.6 S ome types of machinery and equipment for carrying cargo - We present below some of the major types of machinery equipment for cargo transportation of materials in a warehouse. Legislation and Standards Control Material - On 17.03.1964, the then acting Pres ident Joao Goulart signed Law No. 4.320/64 which deals with the application when the average price per unit of output material warehouse public is Internal or f or any other unit (Item III of Article No. 106) - On 25/02/1967, President Humbe rto de Alencar Castelo Branco, signed Decree-Law No 200/67 determining the funct ion responsible for warehouse and inventory (Articles 12 and 88) - On 30/10/1990 , President Fernando Collor de Melo, signed Decree No. 99.658/90 providing for t he recycling, handling, disposal and other ways to reduce waste material from st ockroom or by losses, transfer or maturity to decay; On 11.14.1996, the then Sec retary of the Treasury, Murilo Portugal Filho, signs the Normative Instruction N o. 12 regulating macrofunções on the Financial Management System - 2:12:06 and 2:11:01 dealing with handling reports of warehouse (RMA (RMB) - On 08/04/1988, THE CHIEF MINISTER OF THE DEPARTMENT OF PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION OF THE PRESIDENCY OF THE REPUBLIC - SEDAPAR / PR, Sr. Aloizio ALVES, considering SEDAPAR that is t he organ of the Central System of General Services SISG (Decree No. 75 657 of 24 .04.75), responsible for directing regulatory bodies sectoral members of that sy stem, RESOLVES: Download the Normative Instruction No. 205 in order to streamlin e and minimize costs for use and handling of material in general such as: AT REQ UEST / PURCHASE, RECEIPT, STORAGE, AND DISTRIBUTION REQUEST, loading and unloadi ng, TYPES OF CONTROLS, STOCKS AND MINIMUM MAXIMUM, HANDLING, INVENTORY PHYSICAL, AND CONSERVATION OF LIABILITY.