TYPES OF DRAWERS FOR SUBWOOFERS The subwoofer is a complex structure with a delicate balance.

Among the mechanic al properties (membrane, suspension ...) and electric (coil, mainly) must take i nto account all the specifications to define a precise mathematical model. In fa ct, there are numerous theoretical works on the speakers but for now, would not provide too much water to our mill. Fortunately, modeling allows us to deduce a number of vital characteristics of the acoustic package. And is that without its wrapper, a subwoofer, for expensive and costs may be, is nothing. The opposite would be too simple, because the wrapper, the box exerts a crucial influence on the speaker, making him an inseparable pair. The problem is not confined only to the performance, but also, for instance, focuses on the size of the box. Optimi sm would be stupid to believe that larger box, higher benefits, which reduce the calculation load to a minimum:! Paste a subwoofer in the box any more be given to measures of trunk and you're done! But the calculation of how it should be th e housing must be in perfect agreement with the speaker characteristics, which d etermine the optimal levels. How to proceed? On this basis, the most rational me thod is to choose a model of subwoofer according to your limits to buy a subwoof er and then wake up with the available elements. Okay, not always easy to keep c ontrol after being flashed by a model and reverse repeat that suits our needs. W e have a perfect example in the JBLW15GTi, a spectacular model but, assuming you to have permitÍroslo funding for more than you would with a song in the teeth to verify the amount of load necessary for its proper functioning. Generally, th e larger the membrane surface, the greater the volume of cargo. But there are ma ny variables. Some 30 cm, for example, are content with a dozen liters to functi on at their best, while others require five times more space. In fact, the size of the membrane does not tell us anything by itself. Call the list of the parame ters of the speaker (Thiele and Small parameters), usually provided by the manuf acturer. To determine the ideal acoustic package require different data. Input r esonance frequency (Fs) outdoor speaker. Then the total voltage coefficient (Ots ), which is an average value of the coefficients of mechanical stress (Qms) and electrical (Qes) that gives an accurate indication of the behavior of the speake r to its resonant frequency. The next step is the equivalent air volume (Vas) in relation to the volume of air displaced by the membrane. We also need to know the active surface of the membrane (Sd), expressed in square meters or square c entimeters, and finally, continuous resistance (Re, not to be confused with the characteristic impedance of the speaker to 4 ohms). These parameters express all the characteristics of the speaker and are closely related. Sufficient to deter mine how the package should be sound. IT'S EASY TO SAY ... In principle we have in hand all the pieces to get to expla in without giving much can ... But we still exploit these data conveniently. The re are worksheets "simplified" to put all these values into an equation and dete rmine the whole sketch. ! Simplified! ! It gives us a laugh! Or as Saint and the estimate is too risky, or they are really accurate and the calculation process is more than annoying. The easiest way is to refer to a simulation software like the excellent Focal Works. Naturally, there are many others. Simulations can be trusted, because they overlap almost perfectly with the measurements made in a drawer, and after this one (actually, the drift of manufacturing tolerances of t he speaker in question). The method has its advantages, starting with the abilit y to customize the package to 100%, speaking about a necessary parameter. The mo st obvious drawback is that they must have access to a computer. Furthermore, ev en the most easy and intuitive programs require a good knowledge base. Even easi er and quicker is to leave the problem aside and that the seller of the day you advice. Their knowledge should be useful to you, but this way you will not have the immense joy (expressed as caffeine, nicotine, aspirin ...) have got their ha nds on the process.€Another possibility: the service of the builders can give y ou clues to the investigation, or simply make it easier for ideal height of the wrapper for each type of speaker. Finally, one may refer to the technical specif

ications that come with the subwoofer, which is generally listed numerous types of packaging with their respective heights and sizes, but this requires having a blind confidence in these policies. Do we stay here? No, because to deal with e verything there are still many types of packaging to evoke. We start again! THE DRAWER CLOSED This is the simplest package to study and perform, but not less go od. Physically, the box is limited to a perfectly hermetic cavity, lined with ab sorbent materials to remove the emitted wave behind the membrane. The single big gest flaw in this type of charge is that the yield is generally lower than that obtained with other types of packaging. To listen to "normal" (those that are no t intended to disrupt the "score" in SPL contests), this restriction is very rel ative terms, since the power of the "amps" current enough, generally, to overcom e this lack of efficiency . Moreover, the fall in gentle slope of the pass band to the severe end is often offset by the acoustics of the vehicle, as if by magic, has a tendency to realig n this. Another advantage is locked drawer is usually much less compact than the others. It is not uncommon, according to the manufacturers, found some 30 cm th at work very well in a tiny package of 10 or 15 liters. In fact, the ideal volum e is generally more consistent, but the drawer closed is very tolerant from this point of view, allowing major changes without affecting litraje bound to benefi t. This does not mean you can do anything with them, but if we can afford to inv estigate the best possible relationship between performance and drawer. In liste ning, this type of load is normally translated as a marked Hi-Fi, while neutral, balanced and well supported, of course, this is the type of cargo advised to st art at the subwoofers, with the (almost) security to get a flawless result. EL CAJON BASS-REFLEX Things are getting serious, this time with an envelope clea rly more complex to manage. The box is no longer closed, but open to the outside by an air embolus. Objective: This is not content to absorb the energy produced behind the membrane and try to recover part of it, transmitted by the piston, s o that dramatically increases performance in extremely serious. In fact, it crea tes a resonator. In contrast to the drawer closed, it is virtually impossible to do it without going through the simulator program. The size of the box and pist on dimensions simultánemanete interact, so that the mathematical formula is mor e complex to implement. But in good hands a Bass-Reflex box thunderous sounds ca n play much higher than the drawer closed. Better maintenance of power, performa nce and dialed the pass band are the representation of a dynamic and an amplitud e higher. Completing the package, but is complicated to calculate, does not gene rate, usually more trouble than the drawer closed, since there is more to do an extra hole. In contrast, the volume is often very consistent and the ends of reg ulation much wider problem: every time the volume of the box is changed, you hav e to recalculate the size of the plunger. In reality it is a box reserved for th e initiated eager thrill. THE DRAWER SYMMETRICAL In this case the complexity is proverbial. This time the speaker is enclosed in the envelope, attached to an intermediate latched and ide ntified two separate volumes: one closed and the other connected to a piston. We do not have a single parameter (the volume of closed box) or two (the volume an d the plunger to the Bass-Reflex), but three ... Inextricably linked to each oth er! Nightmare in perspective so that this time the package is much more tricky t o build. But despite that, this formula has its followers, in effect, playing wi th the proportions of the cavity front and rear, it is possible to favor one app roach over another, either by improving the response of very low frequencies at the expense of performance (which may require a facility mainly Hi-Fi), or the o pposite, concentrating on performance but on a restricted bandwidth (this config uration may be required for a competition SPL).€The technical quality and music ality are strongly under the definition of all: the best you can to surround the worst. Essential peculiarity of this type of load, the subwoofer does not arise outside and the bass is transmitted only by the piston. Only the external serio us as this package has a natural tendency to filter out frequencies below 80 or

120 Hz (it is very variable, actually), one more parameter to consider. This giv es a bell-shaped response curve, in which the symmetrical box restores only a po rtion of band. Also called box "bandpass" "pass-band in English) in some publica tions. Reserved mostly for more experienced aficionados. VARIATIONS AND DISTORTIONS I watched three most common types of packaging within the confines of the earth and its vicinity, we say that there are many variants, among which, some accumul ate the three basic principles: asymmetric dual cavity package together, wrappin g triple cavity that is, more refined, if possible. Here, more than ever, it is a work of specialists. On the other hand, we have not discussed the number of sp eakers that can be mounted in a drawer. There is a principal to withhold informa tion: when it is folded in number of speakers (necessarily the same type) is to double the volume of the box and recalculate, if any, the cohesion of the whole. The same applies if multiplied by four, eight or sixteen subwoofers, if you ask this body. Except in one case: In particular configuration of subwoofers usuall y called isobaric. In this case the two boomers are faced, so that a small volum e of air, sealed, become trapped between the membranes of each of them. Operatin g for coupling air and pushing each other, this time divide the cargo volume by two. An interesting case, this time divide the cargo volume by two. An interesti ng case for those who do not go more than enough space, but of money. THE "FREE AIR" There remains, finally, speaking of the subwoofers that work with "open air" in an infinite burden. Infinite load means a volume of air for consi stent enough not to intervene sensitively on the outcome. Put another way, subwo ofers is designed to be fixed on a rear shelf, coupled directly to the volume of the trunk. Usually, this kind of subwoofers should have precise characteristics to be exploited in this way. Sometimes, certain manufacturers offer two choices between a family of subwoofers, for mounting in a drawer and "free air". This w ill will close the chapter with a prevention message: there are no multi subwoofers, designed for operation under all possible conditions, but models more or less a dapted to a specific use in locked drawer or trailer, or even infinite burden. O ne more reason to consider when making your choice. CONCLUSION The study of the drawer of serious and steadfast partner subwoofer / box is a complicated busines s but, as you will have proven. Therefore, we do not have the intention of beati ng with things that will have to face it yourself. On the contrary, our stronges t desire is incite to take the bull by the horns. Know that the beginning is har d, but you will also have the satisfaction of having been able to resolve a comp lex issue.