COURSE OF ORCHIDS By Michele Cesca de Leiva and Maria Angelica Leiva Cesca HISTORY OF ORCHIDS Hardly anyone knows

the story of the beautiful orchids began in Greece took plac e in Greek mythology orchis meets the entourage of Dionysus, is a wonderful woma n and wants to possess her immediately, she called ulcerated beasts to be killed . Once a woman sees her beautiful body implores the gods to return to life, they moved by the despair she revived, but transforming it into beautiful orchids. T he history of orchids in Colombia began in earnest in the eighteenth century, wi th Professor José Celestino Mutis, who was born in Cadiz in 1732 and died in Bog otá in 1808. He was a doctor, naturalist and botanist, was also distinguished as an astronomer and mathematician. He was a man of superior intelligence. He foun d the machine that served as the antibiotic until the early twentieth century. M utis was director of the Royal Botanical Expedition of the New Kingdom of Granad a through which found thousands of plants and orchids that were reproduced on pl ates in a precise and beautiful. Mutis was director of the Expedition 25 and lef t unpublished scientific papers. In 1816 he was transferred quickly to Spain: 64 80 scientific papers began to be published in 1954. ORCHID SEEKERS: Aimé Bonplan d: Born in France in 1773 and died in San Borja, a small town in Uruguay in 1858 . He studied medicine and was also a surgeon. He met Baron Von Humboldt in Paris. He agreed to accompany him on a scientific expedition to Vene zuela, Colombia, Ecuador, Peru, Mexico and Cuba. 6000 Bonpland collected plant s amples. It was an extraordinary but regular field collector of botanical and Hum boldt. He meant that his work was slow. Bonpland sent his work to Humboldt and w as the nephew of this that I draw it. Bonpland was then superintendent of Malmai son. Soon he returned to Argentina as Director of the Museum of Buenos Aires. As in the year of 1821 was collecting orchids near the border of Paraguay, was arr ested as a spy by the dictator of Paraguay and was in prison nine years. Then sh e married and moved to San Borja in Uruguay. In those ancient times the castaway s were common and that all material was lost, if there was any problem dumped in to the sea captains in part or in whole plants. Also, when they reached Europe, put them in greenhouses heated with stoves the most because they thought they ha d to play the tropical heat, kitchens and lots of plants were lost. John Lindley : Born in 1799 and died in London in 1865. English horticulturist. From an early age became interested in horticulture, botany and entomology. In 1822 he worked with horticultural society was its soul and motor. It is justly considered the father of modern Orchid Reichenbach and Schlechter formed with the trilogy's mos t important botanists of the nineteenth and first half of the twentieth century in systematics and taxonomy of orchids. Jean Linden: Born in 1817 and died in 18 98. Brussels was commanded by British companies to Mexico, Guatemala, Cuba, the United States and Colombia. His specialty was orchids and cold weather to Europe sent huge quantities of these plants. At this time it used to falsify the origi n of rare and beautiful species in order to confuse collectors. Frederich Carl L ehmann: Miner, explorer and orchid. Born in 1850 and died in 1903. Shortly after 1870 came to Colombia in search of gold, ornamental plants and orchids. It was established in Popayan and married Maria Josefa Mosquera. It was German Consul in this city for 25 years. It was a day to look for gold in the m ine and was beaten on the head and thrown into river. Heinrich Gustav Reichenbac h: Born in 1823 and died in 1889. Distinguished Professor and German botanist. H e was director of the botanical garden in Hamburg. He published his works in var ious magazines of the time. Rudolf Schlechter: This eminent botanist born in Ber lin in 1872 and died in the same city in 1925. He traveled to Asia and Africa co llecting plants and orchids. Discovered more than 1,000 species of plants. All w ork and herbarium were finished during the bombings of World War II. It was only in the twentieth century when massively exported orchids of Colombia. In the 40

s, entire populations of cattleyas, Miltonias, Odontoglossums and Oncidiums were extinguished and predation of orchids has continued until today. Thus, we frien ds of these wonderful plants we have to keep them in their natural environment a nd cultivate good because predation on them has made orchids are currently in th e process of extinction.€THE ORCHID AND THE PARTIES TO THE COMPLIANCE: Orchids a re made up of three sepals, one dorsal and two lateral. They also have three pet als, two lateral and the third is the lip which is a modified petal. The sexual organs are fused to form a column. They have an inferior ovary. Most of them hav e pseudo bulbs are the organs that keep food and water. The leaves serve the fun ction of organs of respiration and to carry out photosynthesis. Growing orchids: Growth can be monopodial or sympodial, monopodial plants grow v ertically as apical or Phalenopsis. Sympodial plants grow horizontally until you reach the edge of the pot, reproducing by lateral buds. It is now time to divid e and then passed to a wider pot if you want a big kill. CLASSIFICATION OF ORCHI DS BY THEIR PLACES OF GROWTH: Epiphytes: Orchids have adapted to grow in tropica l forests from 3 million years ago, standing on the branches of trees, some of t he lowest because they do not need much light to grow and need more moisture, th e other branches are placed on mid-rise because they need both a little shade an d a little light and the others were found above the tree situation where they h ave sun and air. In general on these branches are humus, which promotes growth. Lithophytic: They are at the base of trees or growing on rocks, these sites can enjoy organic matter, moss and water. Some of them are in places where they have to endure long days of drought using their storage organs such as the pseudo bu lbs and fleshy leaves. Land: Here in Bogotá and its surroundings there are two s pecies of terrestrial orchids: the cymbidiums and Masdevallias. Being that all o rchids need a base where their roots can develop freely and take air, then the g round where they grow these orchids should be very light. PRINCIPLE OF GROWING ORCHIDS Growing orchids require special care, but it is something from another world. As orchids grow from sea level up to subpáramos and Colombia are more than 3,000 i s difficult to generalize about the rules of the crop but there are basic and es sential aspects to take into account to ensure success. Temperature: The first a spect to be taken into account, such as orchids grow on every floor heat are col d-climate orchids originating from areas between 1,800 and 3,000 meters above se a level as Masdevallia, cymbidiums Odontoglossums and among other species, these orchids do not support strong temperature changes, as a warm and dry can lead t o the plant dry and die for lack of humidity. We also find orchids mean climate, from areas between 1,000 and 1,800 meters above sea level such as cattleyas of unique beauty and to represent the flora of our country and the Dendrobiums whic h are of Asian origin and are very beautiful plants in the United States are pop ular, others are orchids that grow in warm weather from 1,000 meters to sea leve l. Usually orchids come from these climates can be easily adapted to climates li ke that of Bogotá, in a greenhouse or indoors and near a window to what it can n ot adapt to extreme temperatures. There are elements to measure the temperature as the maximum and minimum thermometer that contribute to know the causes of why a plant does not bloom or why I removed the small flowers do not last. Sometime s with just a degree or 2 degrees higher temperature the plants bloom well and t hey look strong. Light: Another aspect to consider is the light, for many species of orchids need very b right days to flower as cymbidiums very popular for beauty and durability of its flowers and there are other orchids that by contrast need shadow, plus a light very intense or very intense shadow also can lead to burn the plant or the leave s to turn yellow or dark, in their natural environment are orchids that grow on the lower leaves of trees or on the tops of them. Therefore it is recommended th at before purchasing an orchid, wonder how climate is and what intensity of ligh t needs. If plants are to be in the greenhouse, it is best to put shade cloth fo

r species that require more shade. There are devices such as light meters used t o measure the intensity of light. Water: This is the aspect that requires paying any attention;€as for all living beings. Orchids generally need between 40 and 70% relative humidity. Most orchids grow in moist forests where water passes thr ough them and the wind dried roots, preventing the spread of fungi, some come fr om very dry where there is prolonged drought, so too is the importance of asking the source of the plants. There is no general rule as to irrigate the orchards but check it each time if watering an orchid is wet or not through a pencil, sti ck or hygrometer sinking about 2.5 cm. This allows us to measure the humidity le vel. Do not put a saucer under the pot as the ladies tend to do, then concentrat ed moisture and this causes fungal diseases that kill the orchid quickly. Water is recommended for orchids is the rain that has a slightly acidic pH of 5, you can irrigate with tap water but at least once with rain water to remove sal t and chlorine can burn the roots. In our culture we have in mind throughout the year, if the weather is very rainy irrigation is less than when the weather is very dry and when the weather is very hot, we water the floor to provide humidit y and lower temperature . As a general rule it is recommended for all species of orchids watering twice a week without forgetting that most orchids are killed b y excess water than lack of it. Ventilation: The air is one of the most importan t aspects to consider for the orchid roots to dry and prevent fungal diseases, s o it is not advisable to grow them indoors or contaminated, because the pollutio n makes the buttons dry and the flowers to wilt prematurely. Medium seed: Most o rchids are epiphytes and should not be grown on land, although as in every rule there are exceptions as some semi-terrestrial orchids. In the wild they grow att ached to trees, so you can grow them in pieces of coffee tree, gourd or elder. I t also can be grown in pots of clay or plastic, the latter more preferred becaus e they retain more moisture, are lightweight and are not as expensive. They are also used wooden crates, bamboo or wire to provide good aeration to the roots. There are different materials that can be used to obtain a suitable planting med ium that retains moisture, sufficiently porous, provide nutrients to plants, pla nt a firm support for loose, dead plant, also the means must be free of pathogen s, not have a high level of salinity, should be slow decomposition and have an a cid or a pH of 5-7. The materials that can be used to success with orchids are: • Trees that have an irregular crust, cracked, spongy, thick as the elder, the c himinango, gourd, coal and coffee among others, with the exception of those like the pine cypress, eucalyptus and ficus that are harmful resins for the roots of orchids. The trees provide good support and good aeration. • Charcoal is also u sed to plant orchids is light, does not degrade quickly, retains water in modera te amounts and has the ability to absorb excess acids and salts. • • The rice hu sk is another material, is lightweight, allows good drainage and can provide pho sphorus when it is burned. The shredded bark like cedar, pine pátula or various species of hardwoods can be used as components in mixtures of cultivation for it s low cost, light weight and availability. Keep in mind that when fresh, may con tain toxic materials that may affect the roots, for it is recommended chopping t he bark and immersed in water for three days, then exposed to the sun and rain f or a week. This material gives good support and good aeration. • Coconut fiber i s very good for covering wire baskets, the plant provides very good support, has good water retention and has good nutrient content. It is noteworthy that must be processed by its high sodium content. To this can be left soaking in water fo r two days. The first day to apply hot water. • Humus is a very good material to use, is derived from the decomposition of organic materials. There are differen t types, such as compost that retains moisture, contains nutrients but quickly l oses its structure and does not allow good aeration, another type of humus is the litter that has high moisture retent ion but the medium breaks down very quickly, the earthworm has a good moisture r etention€provides drainage and minerals but it is mixed with other substrates be cause compact and does not allow good aeration. • Peat moss is another material

that can be used in species that like to be continually wet. This kind of peat m oss comes from a sphagmun called, has a high capacity to retain moisture, contai ns a small amount of nitrogen and minerals. Fungistatic substances and has high acidity. • The polystyrene is a material used most of all, in the bottom of pots to provide good drainage. Finally we must remember that orchids, mosses and som e ferns like the back boba are in danger of extinction, for this we recommend no t to take plants from nature but acquire them at fairs and farmers responsible. Fertilizer: Fertilizer is important for good plant development since they in the ir natural environment are all the time sheets or pieces of wood that will provi de the necessary nutrients for optimum growth. For fertilization is generally re commended a complete fertilizer that has minor elements, pH neutral, that the el ements have equal percentages for example: 18-18-18 and is to prevent leaf burn roots and facilitate their absorption. It should be remembered fertilize plants only after a good watering. NOT fertilize when the sun is too intense or given d irectly to the plant. A dose of one teaspoon per gallon of water every week or t wo is enough.