The periodic table What is the periodic table?

The periodic table of elements is the organization depending on several criteria , different chemical elements distributed according to certain characteristics. Usually attributed to Dimitri Mendeleev table who ordered the items based on com putational variation of the chemical properties, while Julius Lothar Meyer, work ing separately, conducted a system from the physical properties of atoms. History of the periodic table The history of the periodic table is closely related to several things, key to t he development of chemistry and physics: • • • the discovery of the elements the study of common properties and classification of the elements the notion of atomic mass (initially called "atomic weight") and , subsequently, as in the twentieth century, atomic number and atomic mass relat ions (and, later, the atomic number) and the periodic properties of elements. • The discovery of the elements before 1669, were known 12 elements: iron, copper, silver, gold, mercury, carbon, tin, lead, arsenic, antimony, and sulfur. But ov er time, they were adding more and more elements: 1669 Phosphorus (P) was discov ered by German alchemist Hennig Brand in 1669 in Hamburg to distill a mixture of urine and sand (used 50 cubes) while looking for the philosopher's stone; urea obtained by evaporating a white material that glowed in the dark and burned like a bright flame, and since then, substances that glow in the dark without burnin g are called phosphorescent. 1735 Platinum (Pt): The Discovery "modern" Platinum is attributed to the Spanish conquerors in the seventeenth century. In fact, th e name Platinum comes from the Spanish word, platinum (silver less). The Spanish discovered the rare metal placers blank when exploring for gold mines in the re gion of Choco in Colombia. 1737 Cobalt (Co): The element was discovered by George Brandt. The date of disco very varies in different sources between 1730 and 1737. Brandt was able to show that cobalt was responsible for the blue color of the glass that was previously attributed to bismuth. Its name comes from the German kobalt or kobold, evil spi rit, named for the miners by their toxicity and the problems arising as well as nickel polluted and degraded the elements wanted to extract. 1746 Zinc (Zn): Zin c Although, it was used centuries ago by the Semites and the Greeks, the discove ry "modern" was until 1746 the 1751 Zinc Nickel (Ni): Frederik Axel Cronstedt In 1751, trying to extract copper niquelina obtained a white metal called nickel m iners since Hartz attributed to "old Nick" (the devil) that some copper ores cou ld not work, and the metal responsible for it turned out to be discovered in Cro nstedt niquelina or Kupfernickel, devil's copper, as the mineral is still called in German. 1766 Hydrogen (H): In 1766, Henry Cavendish was the first to admit h ydrogen gas as a discrete substance (formerly simply ignored and not thought to be a new element), identifying the gas produced in the reaction metal - acid as "inflammable air" and discovering that the combustion of gas generating water. C avendish stumbled on hydrogen when experimenting with acids and mercury. Althoug h wrongly assumed that hydrogen was a liberated component of mercury and acid, w as able to accurately describe several key properties of hydrogen. Traditionally , Cavendish is considered the discoverer of this element. In 1783, Antoine Lavoi sier gave the name of the element hydrogen (in French hydrogène, from the Greek ὕδωρ, ὕδᾰτος, " a e " an γένος-ου, "ge erat r") whe he f d (with Laplace) th e disc very f the c mb sti Cave dish water ge erated gas.

¥

¥

1772 Nitr ge (N): Nitr ge is c sidered t have bee

f rmally disc vered by Da

¤¦¥

¤

¤

¤

¥

¥

¤

¤

¤¥

¤¥

¤ ¥

¥ ¦ ¥ ¢ ¡   £

¤ ¥

¥

iel R therf rd i 1772 whe it releases s me f its pr perties. H wever, at the same time als e gaged i its st dy that is lated Scheele, Cave dish, a d Pries tley. 1774 Oxyge (O): Carl Wilhelm Scheele (1742-1786) Swedish chemist a d phar macist (alth gh f Germa rigi ), describes the disc very f xyge , pr d ced d ri g its w rk betwee 1772 a d 1773, i his b k Chemische Abha dl ge v de r L ft d dem Fe er (Chemical Treatise Air a d Fire) i 1777. Traditi ally, this disc very has bee attrib ted t the A gl -America chemist J seph Priestl ey (1733-1804), wh disc vered it i depe de tly i 1772,€b t the first t p blis h a w rk the gas a d gave him the ame was the Fre ch chemist Lav isier (1743 -1794) i 1777. Chl ri e (Cl): Chl ri e was disc vered i 1774 by the Swede Carl Wilhelm Scheele, b t th ght it was a c mp d c tai i g xyge . He btai ed f r m the f ll wi g reacti : 2 NaCl + 2H2SO4 + M O2 → Na2SO4 + M SO4 + 2 H2O + Cl 2 I 1810 the E glish chemist H mphry Davy dem strated that it is a chemical el eme t a d gives the ame f chl ri e beca se f its c l r . Ma ga ese (M ): I t he seve tee th ce t ry, the Germa chemist Gla ber, first pr d ced perma ga ate, a fairly c mm ly sed lab rat ry reage t. A mid-eightee th ce t ry, ma ga ese di xide was sed f r the pr d cti f chl ri e. The Swedish chemist Scheele was the first wh disc vered that ma ga ese was a eleme t, b t it was J ha G ttli eb Gah wh was is lated by red cti f carb di xide. 1778 M lybde m (M ): I 1778 Carl Wilhelm Scheele was reacti g the mi eral m ly bde ite (M S2) with itric acid btai i g a c mp d with acidic pr perties, whi ch he called "acid m libde ae" (the w rd c mes fr m the Greek m lybde m "m lybd s" mea i g "as lead ", si ce it was c f sed with this item.) I 1782 Hjelm is lated the imp re metal by red ci g the precedi g c mp d with carb . 1782 Tell ri m (Te): It was disc vered i g ld res by M ller v Reichstei , chief i spe ct r f mi es i Tra sylva ia, i 1782. I pri ciple c f sed with a tim y. Kla pr th was i 1798, wh is lated the metal a d called Tell ride.

1783 T gste [W] (better k w as T gste ): I 1783, i Spai , the br thers J a J sé a d Fa st Elh yar Elh yar f d a acid fr m the w lframite ide tical t t gstic acid. J a J sé br ght with him fr m his j r ey re by mi es a d E r pea iversities. I Upsala Bergma t k classes with which he sp ke f his i sights the T gste . They ma aged t is late the ew eleme t by red cti wi th charc al, i the lab rat ry asc gada S ciety i Berge . 1789 Zirc i m (Zr) : The zirc i m (fr m the Arabic "zarg " which mea s "g lde ") was disc vered i 1789 by Marti Klapr th fr m zirc . Jak v J s Berzeli s i 1824 i a state i s lated him clea til 1914 did t prepare the p re metal. Ura i m (U): It w as disc vered i 1789 by M. H. Klapr th wh amed it i h r f the pla et Ura s which had j st bee disc vered i 1781.

¥

¥

1790 Str ti m (Sr) Str ti m was ide tified i the lead mi es i Str tia (Sc tla d), whe ce its ame i 1790 by Adair Crawf rd i the mi eral str tia ite di sti ct fr m ther bari m mi erals. I 1798, Klapr th a d H pe disc vered it i de pe de tly. The first t is late the str ti m was H mphry Davy, i 1808, by elec tr lysis f str ti m-str ti m- xide fr m which the ame f the metal. 1791 Tit a i m (Ti) was disc vered i E gla d by William Greg r i 1791, while st dyi g a gray metal-silver he had f d. S after, i 1795, the A stria chemist Marti Kalpr tz, disc verer f ra i m als gave him the ame f tita i m. 1794 Yttri m (Y): Yttri m was disc vered by chemist, physicist a d mi eral gist J ha Gad li Fi la d i 1794 a d is lated by Friedrich W hler i 1828. 1797 Chr mi m (Cr) : I 1761 J ha G ttl b Lehma f d i the Urals, a ra ge-red mi eral which he amed Siberia red lead, this mi eral was the cr c ite (PbCrO4), a d was bel ieved t be a lead c mp d with sele i m a d ir . I 1797 Nic las-L is a q eli received samples f the mi eral. He was able t pr d ce chr mi m xide (CrO 3) cr c ite mixi g with hydr chl ric acid (HCl). I 1798 he disc vered that he c ld is late metallic chr mi m by heati g the xide i a charc al ve . C ld al s detect traces f chr mi m i preci s gems, f r example, r bies a d emeralds. He called chr mi m d e t the differe t c l rs prese t c mp ds. 1798 Berylli m (Be): Berylli m was disc vered by a q eli i 1798 as the xide i beryl a d

¥

¦

¦

¤

¤ ¤ ¦ ¤ ¦¥ ¤ ¥ ¥ ¥ ¦ ¥ ¥ ¦ ¦ § ¦¥ ¤ ¤

¥

¤

¤

¥ ¦ ¥ ¥ ¤¥ ¤¥ ¤ ¤¦ ¤ ¥ ¦ ¥ ¤ ¤ ¤ ¤ ¥ ¤ ¤¥ ¤ ¥ ¥ ¤ ¤ ¤ ¤ ¤ ¤ ¤ ¤ ¦ ¥ ¤ ¥ ¤¥ ¥ ¦ ¤¥ ¦ ¤ ¥ ¤ ¥ ¤ ¥ ¤ ¦ ¥ ¤ ¦¤ ¤ ¤¥ ¤¥ ¤ ¥ ¤¥ ¤ ¦ ¤ ¥ ¥ ¤ ¥ ¦ ¤ ¤ ¤ ¤ ¥ ¤

¦ ¤ ¦ ¥ ¤ ¤

¤ ¤

¥ ¥ ¤¥

¥ ¥ ¦ ¤ ¤ ¦ ¦ § ¥ ¥ ¥ ¦ ¦ ¥ ¤¦¥ ¥ ¤ ¤ ¥ ¥ ¥ ¦ ¦¥ ¤ ¦ ¥ ¥ ¥ ¥ ¦ ¥ ¦¥ ¤ ¤ ¥ ¥ ¥ ¥ ¤ ¤ ¥ ¥ ¦ ¥ ¤ ¤ ¥ ¤ ¤¥ ¤ ¦ ¤ ¤¦¥ ¥ ¥ ¥ ¤ ¤ ¤ ¥ ¤¤ ¥ ¤ ¥ ¤ ¤ ¤¦¥ ¤ ¥ ¤ ¤ ¤ ¤ ¤ ¦ ¦ ¤ ¤ ¥ ¥ ¥ ¥ ¤ ¤ ¦ ¤ ¤¥¥ ¥ ¤ ¥ ¤ ¥ ¥ ¥ ¦ ¤¥ ¤ ¦ ¤¥

¤

¤

¥

¤

¤

¥

¤

¥

¥

¥ ¤ ¤

¤

¦

¦

¤

¤

¦ ¦ ¤¥ ¤¥ ¤¦¥ ¥

¤ ¦¥

¦ ¥

¤

¤ ¤ ¤¥ ¥ ¤ ¤

¤

¥

¥ ¥

¥

¤

¤

¤

¤

¦

¥

¤ ¤

¤

¦

¥

¥ ¥ ¤¦¥ ¥

¥

¤ ¥ ¤ ¥¥

¦ ¥ ¤¥ ¤

¦

¤

¥ ¤ ¥ ¤ ¥ ¥¤ ¥ ¤¥ ¥ ¤¥ ¤¦ ¥ ¥ ¤¥ § ¥ ¥ ¤ ¥¥ ¤

¥ ¥

¥ ¤

¥ ¤¥ ¦ ¤¥ ¤ ¤ ¤ ¥ ¤¥ ¦ ¥ ¤ ¥ ¥ ¥ ¤ ¤ ¥ ¦ ¤ ¥ ¦

¤

¤

¤¦¥ ¥ ¤ ¥ ¤ ¤ ¤ ¤ ¥ ¤

¥

¤

¥

¤ ¤

¤¥ ¤

¦ ¤¥ ¥ ¤ ¤

¤

¥

¤¦¥ ¤¦

¤

¤

¥ ¥ ¤ ¤ ¤ ¥ ¤ ¥ ¤ ¦

¦

¥

¥ ¤¤ ¥ ¤ ¥ ¦ ¤ ¦ ¥ ¤¦¥ ¤ ¤ ¥ ¦ ¤¥ ¥ ¥ ¦ ¤ ¤ ¦ ¤¥

¤

¦

¤

¦¥ ¦ ¤ ¥¤

¥ ¤ ¤ ¤

¤

¤

¤¥ ¦¥ ¦ ¤ ¥ ¤

¥

¥

¥

¤

¤

¥

¤

¦

¤ ¤

¤¦ ¤

¤

¥ ¤

¥ ¥ ¥ ¥ ¥ ¦ ¦ ¤¥ ¥ ¦ ¤ ¤ ¤

¤ ¦ ¥

¥

¤

¥

¥

¦ ¥ ¥ ¦¥ ¤ ¤ ¥ ¥ ¤ ¤¦ ¤ ¤ ¤ ¦ ¦ ¦

¤ ¤ ¥ ¥

¦ ¤¥ ¤

¦¤

¤¦

¥ ¥ ¤ ¦ ¤¥

¤

¤ ¤

¥

¥

¤¥

¤ ¤

¥ ¤ ¤¥ ¤¦ ¤ ¥ ¤¦ ¥ ¥ ¤

¤

¤¦

¤

¥

¤ ¤

¤¦

¥

¦ ¤

¥

¥ ¥ ¥ ¦ ¦

¦ ¤ ¥ ¤ ¤ ¤ ¤

¦ ¤ ¦

¤ ¤

¤

¥

¥

¥

¥

¤ ¤ ¦

emerald. Friedrich Wöhler a d A. A. B ssy i depe de tly is lated the metal i 28 by reacti f p tassi m chl ride berylli m.

1801 Ni bi m (Nb) Ni bi m was disc vered by Charles Hatchett i 1801 i c l mbit e re se t t E gla d i the mid-eightee th ce t ry by J h Wi thr p, g ver r f C ectic t. 1802 Ta tal m (Ta): Ta tal m was disc vered i 1802 by the Swedis h AG Ekeberg whe st dyi g a sample f a mi eral ta talite k w t day as Fi la d. 1803 Rh di m (Rh): It was disc vered i E gla d by William W llast . Palladi m (Pd): Its ame c mes fr m the aster id Pallas, disc vered ab t the same time a d the Greek g ddess f wisd m. Disc vered i 1803 by William W llast .€Ceri m (Ce): It was disc vered, like r st, i 1803 by Swedish chemists Jö s Jak b Ber zeli s a d Wilhelm Hisi ger, a d i the same year a d i depe de tly by the Germa chemist Marti Hei rich Klapr th. 1804 Osmi m (Os) Osmi m was disc vered i 18 03 by the British chemist Smiths Te a t. Iridi m (Ir): Iridi m was disc vered by British chemist Smiths Te a t i 1804 a d wes its ame t the iridesce t at re f s me f its c mp e ts.

1807 S di m (Na): S di m k w i vari s c mp ds, was is lated i 1807 by Sir H mphry Davy thr gh the electr lysis f ca stic s da. P tassi m (K): P tassi m , p tassi m scie tific Lati , a d this fr m D tch P ttasch, wh baptized ame wi th H mphry Davy i 1807 t disc ver, was the first metallic eleme t is lated by electr lysis, where the p tassi m hydr xide (KOH) c mp sed f wh se Lati ame K ali m, c me the chemical symb l f r p tassi m. 1808 Mag esi m (Mg): E glish J se ph Black rec g ized mag esi m as a chemical eleme t i 1755. I 1808 Sir H mphry Davy p re metal btai ed by electr lysis f a mixt re f mag esia a d HgO. Calc i m (Ca): Calci m was disc vered i 1808 by H mphry Davy by electr lysis f a a malgam f merc ry (eleme t) a d lime. Bari m (Ba) Bari m was first is lated i 1 700 by the N rwegia scie tist Sha er Scalla B r (B): I 1808 H mphry Davy, Ga y-L ssac a d L. J. The ard btai ed b r with a p rity f 50%, alth gh e f them rec g ized the s bsta ce as a ew eleme t, which w ld Jö s Jac b Berzeli s i 1824. 1811 I di e (I): I di e was disc vered i Fra ce by the Fre ch chemist Ber ard C rt is i 1811 fr m seaweed, b t t c ti ed his research f r lack f m ey a d s cial as well as g ver me t s pp rt.

1825 Al mi m (Al): B th i Greece a d a cie t R me was sed al m, a d ble salt f al mi m a d p tassi m as a m rda t i dyei g a d astri ge t i medici e, s e still i f rce. It is ge erally rec g ized is lati Friedrich Wöhler i 1827 al mi m. Still, the metal was btai ed, imp re, tw years earlier by the Da ish physicist a d chemist Ha s Christia Ørsted. 1826 Br mi e (Br) Br mi e was disc vered i 1826 by A t i e-Jérôme Balard. 1828 Th ri m (Th) was disc vered i Swede by Jö s Jak b Berzeli s i 1828. Seve ty years later the marriage Pierre C rie a d Marie C rie sh wed the character r

¦

¤

¤

¤

¦¥

¥

1823 Silic (Si): Silic d the eleme t.

was first ide tified i 1787 by A t i e Lav isier, a

¥ ¦ ¤ ¥ ¥ ¥ ¥ ¦¥ ¤¥ ¦ ¦ ¤ ¤ ¦ ¤ ¦ ¤ ¤¦¥ ¥ ¥ ¦ ¤¦¥ ¤ ¤ ¥ ¥¤ ¥ ¦ ¥ ¦

1817 Lithi m (Li) Lithi m was disc vered by J ha Arfveds i 1817. Arfveds f d the ew eleme t i the sp d me e a d lepid lite i a mi e petalite, Lial ( Si2O5) 2, Utö Isla d (Swede ) that was a alyzed. Cadmi m (Cd): Cadmi m was disc vered i Germa y i 1817 by Friedrich Str meyer, wh ted that s me imp re samp les f calami e cha ged c l r whe heated, while the p re calami e did t, f d the ew eleme t as a imp rity i this zi c c mp d. Sele i m (Se): Sele i m was disc vered i 1817 by Jö s Jac b Berzeli s. Whe visiti g the s lf ric acid pla t sh wed a reddish br w liq id heated t the t rch ff a f l d r was c s idered s disti ctive a d iq e f tell ri m res lti g fr m their research, the disc very f sele i m.

¤ ¤¥ ¥ ¥ ¥ ¤ ¤ ¤ ¤ ¤ ¤¤ ¤¥ ¥ ¦ ¦ ¤ ¤¤ ¤¥ ¥ ¥ ¦ ¦ ¤ ¤ ¤ ¤ ¤ ¤ ¤ ¤ ¥ ¦ ¤ ¤ ¥ ¥ ¥ ¥ ¦ ¤¥ ¤ ¥ ¥ ¥ ¦¥ ¥ ¥ ¤¥ ¤ ¤ ¤ ¥ ¥ ¤ ¤ ¤ ¥¤ ¤ ¤ ¤ ¥ ¦ ¤ ¦ ¤ ¤ ¥ ¥ ¤ ¤ ¥ ¦ ¦ ¥ ¤ ¦ ¤¥ ¥ ¤ ¤ ¤¥ ¤ ¤¥ ¤ ¤ ¤ ¦ ¥ ¤ ¥ ¥ ¥ ¥ ¥ ¦¥ ¤ ¤ ¦ ¤ ¤ ¤ ¤ ¥ ¤ ¦ ¥ ¦ ¦ ¥ ¤ ¤ ¤¥ ¤ ¤ ¥ ¥ ¤ ¤ ¥ ¤ ¥ ¤ ¦ ¤ ¥ ¦ ¥ ¤¥ ¤ ¤ ¥ ¤¤ ¥ ¥ ¦ ¥ ¥ ¦ ¦¥ ¤¦¥ ¥ ¦ ¤ ¤ ¥ ¤ ¤ ¦ ¦ ¥ ¦ ¤ ¤ ¥ ¦ ¤ ¤ ¥ ¤ ¤ ¥ ¤ ¤ ¤ ¦¤ ¤¥ ¤ ¤ ¤ ¥ ¤ ¤ ¤ ¤ ¦ ¥ ¦ ¤ ¤ ¥¤ ¦ ¥ ¤ ¦ ¥ ¥ ¥ ¤ ¥ ¤ ¥ ¦ ¤¦ ¤ ¦ ¤ ¥ ¤ ¦ ¤ ¥ ¥ ¤ ¤ ¥ ¤ ¤ ¤ ¤¥ ¦ ¤ ¦ ¥

¥¤ ¥ ¦ ¥ ¤

¤

¤ ¦¥ ¦ ¤ ¤ ¤ ¤ ¤ ¥ ¥ ¥ ¦ ¦ ¤¥ ¥ ¤ ¤ ¤ ¥ ¦ ¤ ¤¥ ¥ ¤ ¤ ¤ ¥ ¦ ¦ ¦ ¤ ¤ ¥ ¥ ¦ ¦ ¦ ¤ ¥ ¥ ¥ ¥ ¦ ¦ ¤ ¤ ¦ ¤ ¤ ¤ ¤ ¤ ¥ ¥ ¥ ¥ ¥ ¦ ¤ ¦ ¦ ¥ ¥ ¥ ¥ ¥ ¥ ¥ ¦ ¥ ¥ ¦ ¤ ¤ ¥ ¥ ¦ ¤ ¤ ¤ ¥ ¥ ¥ ¦¥ ¦ ¦ ¥ ¦ ¥ ¤ ¤ ¥¤

¤ ¤

¥

¤ ¤

¦ ¤

¦

¥

¤

18

¦

¤ ¥

¥

¥ ¤ ¥

¥

¦

¤

¦ ¤

¥ ¥ ¥

¤

¤ ¤ ¤ ¤

¥

¥

¥

¤

¤ ¤

¥ ¤¥ ¤ ¤ ¤ ¤ ¤

¤ ¥ ¥

¤ ¦ ¥ ¥ ¤ ¤¥

¤ ¦¤ ¦ ¥ ¤ ¥ ¦¤ ¦ ¦¤ ¦

¦ ¤¤¥ ¥ ¤ ¦ ¥ ¤ ¦ ¤ ¥ ¦ ¥ ¥ ¥ ¤ ¤ ¥ ¥ ¥ ¥ ¥ ¤ ¤ ¤ ¥ ¥ ¦ ¤

¦ ¤

¤¦¥

¤

¤ ¦¥

¦ ¤ ¤

adi active eleme t. 1830 a adi m ( ): a adi m was rigi ally disc vered by the Hispa -Mexica mi eral gist A dres Ma el del Ri i Zimapa , Hidalg m icipa lity i 1801 [N te by the team: Y j !! Zimapa fig re i the hist ry f chemistr y xD] Nevertheless, the Fre ch chemist Hipp lyte ict r C llet-Desc tils challe ged this fi di g by sayi g, err e sly, that it was imp re chr mi m. This ca se d A dres Ma el del Ri retracted his disc very [N te Team: B - gh! Ig ra t x D] I 1830, the Swede Nils Gabriel Sefström redisc vered i a xide he f d wh ile w rki g i s me mi es f ir a d gave it the ame is w k w . The i 183 1, Friedrich Wöhler f d that it was the same eleme t disc vered i 1801 by A d rés Ma el del Rí 1839 La tha m (La): It was disc vered by Swedish chemist Carl G staf M sa der i 1839. M sa der disc vered the eleme t La tha m i imp re ceri m itrate. Was extracted fr m the earth ( xide i s l ble i water), la ta a (la tha m xide), treati g with str g acid.

1843 Terbi m (Tb): The terbi m was disc vered i 1843 by Swedish chemist Carl G staf M sa der, which detected as a imp rity i yttri m xide.

Erbi m (Er): This eleme t was disc vered by Carl G staf M sa der i 1843. M sa d er separated "yttria" gad li ite re i t three fracti s which he called yttria , erbia a d terbia. 1844 R the i m (R ): R the i m was disc vered by Karl Kla s i 1844. He ted th at r the i m xide c tai ed a ew metal a d btai ed six grams f r the i m i the plati m that is i s l ble i aq a regia. 1860 Cesi m (Cs): Cesi m was disc vered by Germa chemist R bert Wilhelm B se a d G stav Kirchh ff i 1860 si g the spectr sc pe.

1863 I dia (I ): The I dia was disc vered spectr sc pically i 1863 by Germa chemists Hier ym s The d r Richter a d Ferdi a d Reich

1875 Galli m (Ga): Galli m was disc vered by Lec q de B isba dra spectr sc py i 1875 by its characteristic spectr m (tw vi let li es) i reviewi g a zi c ble de fr m the Pyre ees. 1878 h lmi m (H ): The H lmi m was disc vered by Marc Del af tai e a d Jacq es-L is S ret, wh i 1878 bserved the s al spectr graph ic abs rpti ba ds f the the k w eleme t. Ytterbi m (Yb): Ytterbi m was d isc vered by Swiss chemist Jea Charles de Marig ac Galissard i 1878. Marig ac f d a ew c mp e t i the la d the called erbia, a d called ytterbia. 1879 Sca di m (Sc): Sca di m was disc vered by Lars Fredrik Nils i 1879 while w rki g with his team i search f rare earth metals by spectral a alysis f mi erals a d gad li ite e xe ite. Samari m (Sm): Samari m was disc vered i 1879 b y Fre ch chemist P. E. Lec q de B isba dra while st dyi g the mi eral samarsq i ta spectr sc pically. Th li m (Tm): It was disc vered by Per The d re Cleve i S wede i 1879. Its ame c mes fr m the a cie t Lati ame f r Sca di avia, Th le , si ce it was disc vered i that regi .

1880 gad li i m (Gd): The gad li i m xide, gad li i m, was disc vered by Swiss chemist Jea Charles de Marig ac Galissard i 1880. 1885 Prase dymi m (Pr): I 1841, Carl G staf M sa der didymi m drew a rare earth la tha m. I 1874, Per Te d r Cleve c cl ded that didymi m was made f tw el

¥

1860 R bidi m (Rb) R bidi m was disc vered i 1861 by R bert B se a d G stav K irchh ff i lepid lite si g a spectr sc pe t detect the tw red stripes i the emissi spectr m characteristics f this eleme t a d are the reas f r its a me. Thalli m (Tl) Thalli m was disc vered spectr sc pically (s , si g a spectr sc pe) i 1861 by the E glish chemist Sir William Cr kes.

¥ ¤ ¤ ¤ ¤ ¤ ¤ ¥¤ ¥¤ ¤ ¥ ¤ ¤ ¥ ¤¦¥ ¥¥ ¥¥ ¥ ¤ ¥¤ ¦ ¦ ¥ ¦ ¥ ¥ ¥ ¤ § ¥ ¥ ¦ ¤ ¤¦ ¥ ¤ ¤ ¥ ¥ ¦ ¤ ¥ ¤ ¤ ¤¦ ¤ ¤ ¦ ¤ ¦ ¥ ¤ ¤ ¥ ¥ ¥ ¤ ¥ ¤ ¥ ¦ ¤ ¥¤ ¦ ¥ ¦ ¤ ¥ ¥ ¦¤ ¤ ¤ ¦ ¦ ¤ ¤ ¤¦ ¦ ¤ ¦ ¥ ¤¥ ¤ ¤ ¥ ¥ ¤ ¥ ¤ ¤ ¤¥ ¤ ¤ ¥ ¥ ¤ ¦ ¦¤¦ ¥ ¤ ¤ ¤ ¥ ¤ ¥ ¦ ¦ ¦ ¥ ¥ ¤ ¤ ¦ ¤ ¦ ¥ ¦ ¤ ¥ ¥ ¤¥ ¤ ¥ ¥ ¦ ¦ ¤ ¤ ¦ ¤ ¦ ¤ ¦ ¤

¥

¤

¥¥ ¥ ¥ ¤ ¤

¦ ¤ ¥

¤ ¥

¥ ¥ ¤

¥

¤

¥ ¥

¥

¦¤

¤

¤ ¤

¤

¥

¥

¥

¦ ¤ ¤

¤

¤

¤

¥

¤ ¤

¦ ¤¥ ¦

¥

¤

¤

¥

¦¤ ¤ § ¦ ¥ ¥

¥ ¤

¥ ¥

¤ ¤ ¤ ¤ ¥ ¤ ¤¦ ¤ ¥ ¤ ¥ ¥ ¥

¤¥ ¤

¦ ¦

¤ ¥

¥

¥

¦ ¥ ¤ ¤ ¥

¥

¦

¥ ¥

¦ ¥

¦¥ ¤¥

§

¦ ¦ ¥ ¤ ¥ ¥ ¥ ¥ ¦

¤ ¤¥

¤ ¦ ¤ ¥

¥

¤ ¤

¤ ¦

¤ ¦

¥ ¥

¦

¤ ¥

¦ ¤

¥ ¤ § ¤ ¤ ¥ ¥ ¤

¤ ¥ ¦ ¦ ¥ ¤ ¦ ¤ ¦ ¤

¦ ¥ ¤ ¤ ¤¥ ¦

¤ ¦ ¦

¥ ¥ ¤

¤ ¦

¤ ¦

¦¥

¤¦¥ ¤

¤

¤

¥

¤ ¦

¥

¥

¦

¥ ¤

¤

¤ ¤¥ ¥

¦

¤¥

¥

¥

¥

¦

¦ ¤¥ ¤

¤

¤ ¥

¥

¥ ¤ ¤ ¦ ¤ ¦

¦¤ ¤ ¤ ¤ ¤ ¤¥ ¤

¦¤ ¥ ¦ ¤ ¦ ¦ ¤ ¦

¤ ¦ ¤ ¥

¥ ¤ ¥ ¦¤ ¤

¥ ¥

¤ ¦

¦ ¤

¥

¦

¦

¤

¦

¤

¤ ¥

¤

¦

¤

¤

¤

¦¤

¤¥

¤ ¥¤ ¦¤ ¥ ¤ ¥ ¤ ¤ ¤

¤ ¤ ¤

¥ ¦

¥

¦

¤

¤

¦

¥

¤¦¥ ¥

¤ ¤

¤¥

¥

¥

¤

¤ ¤ ¤ ¤

eme ts, a d i 1879, Pa l Emile Lec q de B isba dra is lated a ew earth, samar i m, the re btai ed samarskite didymi m. I 1885, the A stria chemist Carl A er v Welsbach separated didymi m tw eleme ts, prase dymi m a d e dymi m, whi ch gave salts f differe t c l rs. Ne dymi m (Nd): Ne dymi m was disc vered by Carl A er v Welsbach, a A stria chemist, i ie a i 1885. He separated e dymi m a d prase dymi m, a material called didymi m thr gh spectr sc pic a alysis. 1886 Fl ri e (F): Fl ride part f the mi eral fl rite, CaF2, was described i 1529 by Ge rgi s Agric la f r its se as a fl x, sed t achieve the f si f metals r mi erals. I 1670 Schwa dhard ted that rec rd was achieved whe the glass was exp sed t fl rspar that was treated with acid. Karl Scheele a d ma y later researchers, s ch as H mphry Davy, GayL ssac, L is A t i e Lav isier r The ard, experime ted with hydr fl ric acid is t able t is late it til yea rs later beca se whe separated fr m s me f its c mp e ts, immediately reacted with ther s bsta ces. Fi ally, i 1886 the Fre ch chemist He ri M issa s ccee ded i is lati g it. Germa i m (Ge): The pr perties f germa i m (Lati Germa ia, Germa y) were predi cted by Me deleev i 1871 acc rdi g t their p siti i the peri dic table, a eleme t he called eka-silic . The Germa Cleme s Wi kler i 1886 dem strated t he existe ce f this eleme t, a disc very that served t c firm the validity f the peri dic table give . Dyspr si m (Dy): The eleme t was disc vered spectr sc pically i 1886 by Fre ch chemist Pa l Émile Lec q de B isba dra 1894 Arg (Ar): He ry Cave dish, i 178 5, prese ted a sample f itr ge t repeated electric sh cks i the prese ce f xyge t f rm xide itr ge s bseq e tly rem ved a d f d that ab t 1% f t he rigi al gas c ld t be diss lved, sayi g the that t all the "air fl gis ticad " was itr ge . I 1892 L rd Rayleigh f d that atm spheric itr ge had a higher de sity tha p re itr ge btai ed fr m the itr . Rayleigh a d Sir Wi lliam Ramsay sh wed that the differe ce was d e t the prese ce f a sec d re active gas heavier tha itr ge , a ci g the disc very f arg i 1894, a ceme t that was greeted with skepticism by the scie tific c mm ity. 1895 Heli m (He): I 1868 whe a alyzi g the spectr m f s light f r a s lar ec lipse cc rred that year, a d fi d a emissi li e f a k w eleme t. Ed ar d Fra kla d c firmed the res lts f Ja sse a d s ggested the ame heli m f r t he ew item, after the Greek g d f the s (Heli s) t which was added the s ff ix-i m as it was expected that the ew eleme t was metal. I 1895 Sir William Ra msay is lated heli m was disc vered that metal, which despite the rigi al ame was retai ed. Swedish chemists Nils La glet a d Per The d r Cleve als achieved f r the same time, is late the eleme t. 1898 P l i m (P ): Als k w as Radi F, p l i m was disc vered by Pierre C r ie a d Marie C rie-Skł d wska i 1898 a d was later re amed i h r f Marie C rie's h mela d, P la d. Radi (Ra) Radi m was disc vered i 1898 by Marie C rie a d her h sba d Pierre i a variety f ra i ite f N rth B hemia. Ne (Ne) Ne (Greek e s, ew) was disc vered by William Ramsay a d M rris Travers i 1898 by the fracti al distillati f liq id air. Krypt (Kr) Krypt (Greek κρυπτό ν, hidde ) was disc vered i 1898 by William Ramsay a d M rris Travers i resid e fr m the evap rati f liq id air. Xe (Xe) Xe was disc vered by William Ramsay a d M rris Travers i 1898 i the resid e btai ed by evap rati g liq id air c mp e ts. Rad (R ) Rad was disc vered i 1898 by Germa chemist Fried rich Er st D r . 1899 Acti i m (Ac) Acti i m (Greek ακτις, ακτινoς, r y of l gh ) w s d scovered 1899 by Fre ch chem s A dré-Lou s Deb er e wo from p c hble de.

©

1901 Europ um (Eu): Europ um w s d scovered

1896 by Fre ch chem s

Eugè e-A

¥

¨¤

¦ ¤ ¦ ¦ ¡

¤ ¤¦ ¥ ¥ ¥ ¤¤ ¤ ¤¥ ¤ ¤¦¥ ¤¤ ¤ ¥ ¥ ¦ ¤¦ ¤¥ ¤ ¤ ¥ ¥ ¥ ¤ ¥ ¤ ¤ ¤ ¥ ¥ ¤ ¥ ¤ ¤¦¥ ¥ ¥ ¥ ¤ ¤ ¤ ¥ ¥ ¦¥ ¦ ¤¦¥ ¤ ¤ ¦ ¥ ¥ ¥ ¤ ¤ ¤ ¤ ¤ ¤ ¤ ¦ ¤¥ ¥ ¥ ¥ ¤ ¤

¥

¤

¤¦ ¥ ¥ ¤ ¤ ¤ ¥ ¤¥ ¦

¤

¦

© ¡ ©

¦ ¥ ¦

¦

¦ ¤

¤

¦

¤

¥

¦ ¤

¦ ¤

¦ ¤

¤

¤ ¥ ¥ ¥ ¤ ¤ ¥ ¥ ¤ ¤ ¤ ¤ ¥ ¥ ¥ ¥ ¤¦ ¥ ¦ ¦ ¤ ¤ ¤ ¤ ¤ ¥ ¤ ¤¦ ¤ ¥ ¤ ¤¥ ¤ ¤ ¤ ¤¦ ¥ ¦ ¤ ¤ ¤

¤

¤¥

¤¥

¥ ¥ ¤¥

© ¡ ¤ ¨

¥ ¤ ¤ ¤ ¤ ¡ ¥ ¥ ¥ ¥ ¤ ¦ ¤¥ ¤ ¥

¥ ¥ ¤ ¥ ¤

¤

¤ ¥

¤ ©

¥

¥ ¥

¤¥ ¥ ¤

¦

¤

¤

¤ ¥ ¦ ¤ ¤¥ ¤ ¥ ¤ ¤¥

¦

¥

¤¥

¤ ¤¥ ¥

¤ ¤

¥

¦¥

¥ ¥

¤

¤ ¥

©

¤

¤ ¤¥

¦ ¥¦

¤

¥

¦

¥

¥¤

¤

¦ ¤¥ ¥

¦

¤

¦

¤ ¥

¦

¦

¤©

¤ ¤

¤ ¤ ¦ ¥ ¦ ¤ ¥

¤ ¡ © ¦ ¤ ¥

¥ ¤

¥ ¥

¤

¤¥ ¤

¥¤

¦ ¤

¤

¦ ¤

¤ ¥ ¥ ¥¦ ¥

¥ ¥

¦

¥

¤

¥

¦

¥

©

¥ ¥

¥

¤

¤

¦

¤ © ¨ ¤ ¤© ¦ ¤ ¤ ¥ ¤ ¤¥ ¤ ¤¥ ¤ ¤¥ ¥ ¥ ¤ ¤ ¥ ¥ ¥ ¦ ¤¥ ¥ ¤ ¤ ¥ ¤¥ ¤¥ ¥ ¤ ¥ ¤ ¤ ¦ ¤ ¤ ¤ ¥ ¥ ¤ ¥ ¤ ¥ ¥ ¦ ¤ ¥ ¦ ¤¥ ¥ ¤ ¥¤ ¥

¥

¤

¥ ¥ ¨ ¥ ¦ ¥

¥ ¤ ¤ ¥ ¤ ¦ ¤ ¤ ¤ ¥ ¥ ¤ ¦¥ ¥ ¤ ¥ ¤ ¥ ¤ ¥ ¥ ¥

¤¥

¤

¤

¤

©

¥¦

¤ ¤

¥

¦ ¦

¥

¥¦

¥

¤

¦

¦¥ ¦ ¤ ¤¤ § ¤ ¥ ¦

¤

¥

¤

¤

¤ ¤ ¦

¤

¦

¥

¤ ¦ ¦

¤¥

¥ ¤ ¥ ¥

¥ ¥

¥ ¤ ¥ ¤ ¥¦

¤ ¤

©

¤

¦

¥ ¤ ¥ ¥ ¤ ¤

¤ ¤ ¦ ¥ ¦

¦ ¥

¤

¤

¥

¦ ¤

¤

¥

¤

¥

¤¥ ¤ ¤

¦

¥

¤ ¤ ¤

¥

¤¦¥

¥

¥

¦

1917 Pro c um (P ): Dm r Me deleev pred c ed 1871 h here should be eleme w h om c umber equ l o 91 d would ppe r he per od c ble be wee hor um d ur um. I 1900 W ll m Croo es sol ed pro c um s r d o c ve m er l formed from ur um, bu f led o de fy h m. Pro c um w s f rs de f ed 1913. They g ve he ew eleme Brev um me. The me w s ch ged o Pro o c um 1918 whe wo groups of sc e s s depe de ly d scovered he 231P , d shor e ed he me o pro c um ( Sp sh, pr o o c o) 1949.

1923 H f um (Hf) w s d scovered by D r Cos er d Georg vo Hevesy 1923. So o f er, he pred c ed, us g he heory of Bohr, h would be ssoc ed w h he z rco um, d f lly w s fou d z rco hrough some es s w h X-r y spe c roscopy

1937 Tech e um (Tc): For m y ye rs here w s v c sp ce he per od c ble be wee molybde um (eleme 42) d ru he um (eleme 44). M y e rly rese rchers were e ger o be he f rs o d scover d me he eleme 43, s loc o he ble sugges ed h should be e s er o f d h o her eleme s o ye d scovered. The d scovery of eleme 43 w s co f rmed exper me c o duc ed 1937 he U vers y of P lermo (S c ly), by C rlo Perr er d Em l o Segrè.

1939 Fr ce (FR): As e rly s 1870, chem s s hough h here should be beyo d he l l me l ces um, w h om c umber of 87. W s c lled w h he prov s o l me e -ces um. Some rese rch e ms emp ed o loc e d sol e he eleme ques o d s w re of le s four f lse publ c ou ceme s h cl med o h ve d scovered he eleme before w s c u lly d scovered. The e -ces um w s c u lly d scovered 1939 by M rguer e Perey of he Cur e I s u e P r s (Fr ce), whe pur f ed 227Ac s mple wh ch h d dec y e ergy of 220 e .

1940 Nep u um (Np) w s ob ed for he f rs me 1940 by McM ll d Abel so bomb rd g ur um w h deu ero s of h gh speed. Plu o um (Pu) Plu o um w s ob ed d s ud ed he U vers y of C l for Ber eley, 1940 by he Amer c chem s Gle T. Se borg, J.W. Ke edy, E.M. McM ll d C.A. W hl, bomb rd g ur um w h deu ero s. As e (A ): As e w s f rs sy hes ze d 1940 by D le R. Corso , K. R.€M cKe z e d Em l o Segrè he U vers y of Ber eley (C l for ), bomb rd g b smu h w h lph p r cles.

1944 cur um (Cm): Cur um w s f rs sy hes zed he U vers y of C l for , Ber eley d lso by Gle T. Se borg, R lph A. J mes d Alber Gh orso 1944 .

1945 Prome h um (Pm): Prome h um ves g ed d sol ed 1947 by he Amer c Chem c l Ch rles DuBo s Coryell, J cob A. M r s y, d L wre ce E. Gle de , who proposed he curre me ho or of Prome heus prome h um, Gree god who ccord g o my hology g ve f re o m . Amer c um (Am): Amer c um w s f rs s ol ed by Gle T. Se borg, Leo O. Morg , R lph A. J mes d Alber Gh orso 1944 he Me llurg c l L bor ory he U vers y of Ch c go.

©

1925 Rhe um (Re): A couple of Germ s - Id d W l er Nodd c - d scovered s eleme 1925, Rhe um d chr s e ed ho or of he r ver Rh e

© ¤¨ © © ¡¤ ¤ ¨¡ © ¡ ¡ ¨ ¨ ¨ © © ¡

§ ¨ ¨ © ¨ © © © ¨ ¤©  © ¤ ¨ ¤ ¤¨ ¡¨ ¡ © © ¨ © ¨ ¨ ¨ © ¤© ¡ ¤ ¡ © ¨ ¨¡ ¨ © © ¡ ¨ ©¨  ¤ ¡ ¡ ¡ ¡ ¨ ¨ ¡ ¨ ¡ ¨ ¨ ¨ © ¤ ¤¤¨ © ¤¨ ¤ © ¡ ¤© ¡¤ ¡ ¡¤¨ ¨¤ ¨¤ © © ¤¨ ¨ ¨¡ ¨ ¡ ¨ © ¨ ¡¨ ¨ ¡ ¡ ¡¡ ¡ © ¡ ¡ © © ¨  © ¨ ¨ ¤ © ¡¨ ¤¨ ¡© ¡ ¡ ¡  ¨ © ¨ ¨ ¤¨ ¡ ¡ ¡ ¡ ¡ ¡

© ¨ ¤© ¤¨ ¡ © ¨© ¤ © ¨ ©¤ ¨ ¡ ¡ ¡ © ¨ ¨ ¨ © ¡ ¨ © ©¤ ¨ ¡ © © ¤ ¡ ¡ © © ¡ ¨ ¤ ¤© ¡¨ ¡ ¡ ¡ ¨ ¡ ¤¨ ¤¨ © ¤¤ ¨ ¨© ¤ © ¨ ¤© ¡  © ¡ ¨ © ¤ ¡ ¤ ¡ ¤¨ ¤¨ © ¤© © ¡ ¡

© ¤© © © ¨¡ ¡  ¤© ¤ ¤ © ¡

¤

© ¡

¡

¨

© ¨© ¡ ¨ ¡ ¡ © ¤

¡

¤© ©

©¤ ¨ © © ¨ © ¨ ¡ ¡ ¡ © ¤ ¨ © ¤¨ ¤© ¤ ¨ © © ¨ ¡ © ¨ ¡ ¡© ¡ ¡ ¡ ¡ ¡ ¤ ¡¨ © ¤ ¤¨ ¡¤ ¡ ¡ ¡ ¡ ¡ © ¤ ¤ ¤ ¤ ¤¨ ¤¨ © ¨ ¡ ¤¨ ¨ ¨ ¨ ¡ ¨ ¡ ¤¨ ¡ ¤ ¡ ¡ ¤ ¡ © ¤¨ © ¤ ¤¨

¡

© © ©

¤

¨ © 

© ¨

¡ ¨ ¤©

¤

¡

¤¨

¤¨ ¨ ¡

© ¨¡

¡

¡

¡© ¨ © ¤ ¨ ¤

¨

©¤ ¨ © ©

¤

¤© ¤¨ ¨

¨ ¨ ¨ ¤¨ ¤¤  © © ¨ © © ¡¤ ¡ © ¨© ¤© ¨ ¤ © ¨ ¡  © © ¨ ¤ ¨ ¤ ¤ © © ¤© ¡¨ ¡ ¤ ¤¨ ¤© ¨ ¨ ¡ ¤¤¡ © ¤¨ © © © ¨ ©¡ ¤ ¤¨ ¤©¨ ¡ ¡ ¡ ¡ © © ¨¡ ¤ ¤© ¨ ¡ ©¨ ¡ ¨ ¤ ©¤ ¤ ¡ ¡

© ©

¨ ¨ ¨ ¡ ¡ ¡ ¤¨ ¤ © ¤¨ ¡ © ¨¤ ¤ ¤ ¨ ¨ © © © ¡ ¡ ¤ ¡

¡

¤

©

¡© ¡ ¤ ¨

©

1907 Lu e um (Lu): Lu e s Georges Urb d e lu e um d y erb um de M r g c G l ss rd,

um w s d scovered depe de ly 1907 by Fre ch sc e Auer vo Welsb ch C rol m er log s . Bo h me fou d h mpur y of m er l h he Sw ss chem s Je Ch rles d mos of h s colle gues, e s pure m er l.

© ¤© ¨ © ¤¨ ¨¤ ¤© ¡ ¡ ¡ ¤ ¤ ¤© ¡ © ¡¤ © ¡ ¤ ¨¤ ¨¤ © ¤ ¤ ¡ © © ¤ ¡© ©¨ ¤© ¨ ¡ ¨ ¡ ¡ ¨© ¨ ¡¨ ¡ © © ¤© ¡ ¨ ¡ ¨ © © ¡ © ¨ ¨  ¤¨ ¡ ¡¨ ¤ © ¤© ¡ ¡ ¡ ¡ ¨ ¨ ¤ ¨ ¨ © ©  ¡ ¨ ¨ ¡ ¡ ¡ ¡¨ ¨ ¤© ¤© ¡¤ ¤ ¨© ¨ ¡ ¨ ¤¨ ¤ ¡ ¤ © ¤
h

© ¡ © ¤

¡ © ¨ ¨ © ¤© ¤ ¤© ¤¨ ¤ © ¡ ¤ ¨ © © ¨ ¤¡ ¡ ¤ © ¡ ¡ ¡ ¨ © ¡ ¨ ©¤ ¨¡ ¤ ¡  ¤© © ¤© ¡ ¨ ¡ © ¤ ¡ ¤¨ ¨ ¡ ¡ ¡ © ¤© ¨ ¨ ¤© ¤¨ ¡ ¡ ¡ ¨ © ¤© © © ¡¤ © ¡ © ¨ © ¤¨ ¨© ¨ © ¨ © ¨ ¡ ¡ © © ¤ ¤¨ ¤¨ © ¡ ¤ ¡ ¨ ¨ ¤ © ¡¨ ¡© ¡¤ ¤ ¡ ¨ © ¤© ¨ ¤ © ¡© ¡ ¡ © ¨ © ¨ ¨¤ © ¨ ¤¨ © © ¤© ¤¨ © ¡ ¡ ¡¡ ¨ © ¤¨ ¤©¨ ¡ ¡¤ ¡ ¡ ¨ ¤ ¡© ¨ © ¨ ¨ ¨ ¡ ¡ ¡ ¤¤ © ¡ ¡ ¤ ¡¨ ¨ © ¨ ¨ ¡ ¤ © ¤ ¡ ¡ ¤© ¡¤ ©¤ © © ¤ ¤© ¡ © ¤ ¡ © ¡ © ¡ ¤ ¤ ¡ ¨ ¡ ¨ ¤¨

© ¡ ¡ ¨ ¨

¡

ole Dem rç y.

1949 Ber el um (B ): I w s d scovered December 1949 by he Amer c chem s s Gle T. Se borg, S ley G. Thompso , d Alber Gh orso he l bor or es o f he U vers y of C l for Ber eley, whe ce s me.

1952 E s e um (Es): The eleme , med ho or of Alber E s e , w s d sco vered December 1952, he rem s of he f rs hermo ucle r explos o he P c f c, held mo h e rl er, he rese rch e m formed by GR Chopp , A. Gh ors o, B.G. H rvey d C.G. Thompso . 1953 Ferm um (Fm) w s d scovered by he Ferm GR Chopp , A. Gh orso, B.G. H rve y d S.G. Thompso 1952 he rem s of hermo ucle r explos o he P c f c. 1955 Me delev um (Md): Me delev um w s prep red 1955 by Chopp , Gh orso, H r vey, Se borg, d Thompso 253Es by bomb rdme of hel um o s ( lph p r cles) .

1961 L wre c um (Lr): The L wre c um w s d scovered by bomb rd g oms of c l f or um w h boro ucle 1961 he L wre ce R d o L bor ory, U vers y of C l for by Alber Gh orso, AE L rsh, R.M. L mer d T. S el d. 1964 ru herford um (Rf): I 1964, rese rchers ss ) ou ced he d scovery of eleme 104, ob 42 w h eo -22 o s.

he Dub Nucle r I s u e (Ru ed by bomb rd g plu o um-2 Dub , Russ , o e

1994 D rms d um (Ds): The d rms d um w s ob ed for he f rs me 1994 by he Gesellsch f für Schwer o e forschu g D rms d (Germ y) by mel g le d-208 w h c el-62. Roe ge um (Rg): D scovered 1994 by bomb rd g b sm u h-209 w h c el-60 he Gesellsch f für Schwer o e forschu g D rms d , Germ y.

¨

1984 H ss um (Hs): Sy hes zed 1984 by Pe er Armbrus er, Go fr ed gues Mu ze ber GSI D rms d bomb rded le d-208 w h ro -58.

d colle

©

¨ ¨ ¤© ¤ ¡ ©¡ © ¨ ¤ ¤© ¤¨ ¡ © © © ¤ ¡ ¡

¤¨

©

1982 Me er um (M ): D scovered h ro -58.

1982

Germ y by bomb rd g b smu h-209 w

©

1981 bohr um (Bh): The bohr um w s ob ed for he f rs me 1976 by Sov e e m he Ce re for Nucle r Rese rch Dub he ded by Yur Og ess Ts ol ov ch mel g of b smu h-204 so ope o he he vy ucleus of chrom um-54.

©

1974 Se borg um (Sg): Eleme ffere l bor or es. I Ju Gh orso he L wre ce R ey repor ed he cre o of 1.0 s. I Sep ember 1974, u e for Nucle r Rese rch m ss umber 259 d ver

106 w s d scovered lmos s mul eously by wo d e 1974, group of Amer c rese rchers led by Alber d o L bor ory, U vers y of C l for , Ber el so ope of m ss umber 263 d ver ge l fe of Sov e e m led by Georg Flerov he Jo I s Dub repor ed h h d produced so ope of ge l fe of 0.48 s.

© ¤¨ ¨ ¡ © ¨ ©© ¡ ¤ ¡¤ © ¨ ¡¨ ¡¤¨ ¤¨ ¨© © ¤ © ¨ ¡ ¨  ¨ ¤ ¤¨ ¡ © ¡

¤¨© ¨

¨©

¡

¡ © ¤¨

©

©

¤©

¤© ¨

¤ © ¡¡

©

¡ ¡

¨ ¨ © ¤ ¤ © ¡ ¡ © ¤ © ¡ ©¤ ¤© ¡¤  ¤ ¨ ¨ ¤© ¤ ¨ ¤ ¤ © ¡ ¡ ¡ ¨ © ¨ ¨ © ¤©¨ ¡ ¡ ¡ ¡ ¡ ¨ ¨ ¨ ¨ © ¨ ¡ ©¡ © ¤ ¡ ¤ ¡¤

© ¡ ¡

¤ ¨ ¨ ¨ ¤ © ¡

¤¨

¨

¡ ¡ ¨ ¡ ¤© ¤©¨ ¡

¡

¤©

¨

Dub um 1967 (Db): I of he pl ces where

s

med for Nucle r Rese rch Ce er w s d scovered.

© ¨ ¨ ¨¡

© © ¤ ¤© ¨ ¤©¨ ¡ ¤ ¡© ¡¨ ¨¤ ¨ ¨ ¤ ¡ ¡ ¡ ¤ ¡ ¡ © ¨ ¨ © ¤¨ © ¤¨ ¡ ¡ © © ¨ ¨ ¨ ¤ ¤ © ¡¨© ¨ ¤ ¨ ¤© © ¡© ¨ ¨¡ © ¨ © ¨ ¡ ¡© ¤ ¨ ¡ ¤

¤

¨¤

¤©

¡¤

© ¨ ¨ ¤¨ ¤¨ ¤ © ¨ ¨ ¨ ¨ ¨ ¤ ¡ ¡ ¡ ¡ ¨ ¡¨ ¡ © ¤ ¡ ¡ ¡ © ¤¨ ¤ ¨ ¤ © ¡¨ ¡ ¨ ¡ © © ¨ ¨ ¡ ¤ ¤ © ¡¨© ¨ ¤ ¨ ¡ ¡ © ¨ © ¨ ¡ ¨ ¤ ¤ ¤ ¡ © ¨ © ¨ ¨¡ ¡¤ © ¨ © ¨ ¡ ¡ ¨¤ © ©¤ ¡

¤©

© ¨ ¨

©

¡

©

©

¨© ¤© ¨ ¤ © © ¤ © ¤ ¨ ¤© ¡ © © ¡ © ¡ ©

1958 Nobel um Swed sh phys ly w s o or by bomb

(No): For he f rs me h s collec o w s publ shed 1957 by c s , who proposed he me of he ew eleme . Bu obel um cer de f ed u l 1958 by wor g group of he U vers y of C l f rd g cur um w h c rbo .

¨

¨

1950 c l for um (Cf): The C l for o ob ed by bomb rdme of cur um w h h p r cles by S ley G. Thompso , Ke e h S ree , Alber Gh orso d Gle Se borg he U vers y of C l for .

¡

© ©

© ¤© © © ¨ ¡ ¤ ¤ © © ¨ ¤ ¡ ¤© ¡

¨¡

¤¤ © ¡

© ¨ ¨ ¡ ©

¤© ¤ ©

¨ ¨ ¡ ¨ © ¤ ¤¨ ©

© ©¤ ¡ © ¡ ¤ ¡ © ¡¤ ¨ ¤©

¨ ¤©

©

©

© ¡ ¤ ¡ ¨

¤ ©

¡ ¡¤

¨¤ ¤

¤ ¤©

¨

©

© ©¡

¤ ¤ ©¡

¡

¡

¤ ¨ ¨ © ¡ ¡ © ¤©¨ ¡ ¡ ¡ ¨ ¤ ¤© ¤ ¡¤ ¨© ¤ © ¨ ¤ ©¤ © ¨ ¨ ¡¤ ¨ ¤© ¡ ¨ ¡ © ¤©¨ ¨ ¡ © © ¡ ¤

¤

© © ¤ ¨ ¡ © ¨ ¤©  ¡¤ ¨ ¤ ¡ © ¡ © © ¡ ¡ ¡

¡ ¤¤ ¤©¨ ¡ 

¤¨ ¤ ¤©

¨ ¨© ¤ ¡

©

¨

¤ ¤

© ¡ ¡ ¨ ©

© ¨ © © ¤ ¡ ¨ ¡ ¤¨ ¤¤ ¡ © ¡   ¤© ¤ ¨ ©¤ ¤¨ ¡ ¡¤ ¤ © ¤ ¤ ¡© ¤ ¤¤¨ ¨© ¡© ¡ ¨© ¤ © ¨ © ©¤ © ¤¡ ¨ ¤ ¤ ¤¨ © ¤ ¤ © ¨ © ¨ ¤

¨ ¤¨ ¨ © © ¨ ¡¤ ¤© © ¤© © ¡ ¤ ¨ ¨ ¡ ¡ © ¨ ¨ ¡ ©¤ © ¨

lp T.

¤ © ¡ © ¤ © ¡ ¡ © ¨ ¤© ¡ ¨ ¨  ¡ © ¡ ¡ ¡

¤¨ © ¡ © ¨¡ ¡ ¨ ¨ ¡ ¡

© © ¨ ¤¨

¨ © ¡

¡

U u sep o (Uus): The u u sep o s he empor ry me of he hypo he c l sy h e c eleme of he per od c ble h would be empor ry symbol Uus d om c umber 117. I s s ll d scovery, herefore here s o d bou .

¨ ©

2004 U u u r o (Uu ): I w s d scovered 2004 by e m of Russ d Amer c sc e s s. U u pe um (UUP): I 2004, he w s ss g ed he empor ry me of U u pe um. D scovered Russ by de ec g he r dec y o eleme 113. 200 6 U u hex o (Uuh): I Oc ober 2006 w s ou ced h hree mes, bomb rd g c l for um-249 oms w h o s of c lc um-48 produced u u oc um, wh ch subseq ue ly dec yed o u u hex um mes of m ll seco ds. Co f rm g h s, he sy hes s of eleme 116 w ll h ve bee prove def vely.

¡ ¨

2002 U u oc o (Uuo): Exper me s c rr ed ou Dub (Russ ) he Flerov L bor ory of Nucle r Re c o s,€rese rchers he Jo I s u e for Nucle r Re se rch (Russ ) d he L wre ce L vermore N o l L bor ory (USA) d c ed h he eleme 118 (u u oc um, Uuo) w s produced he e d. O ly o e om w s de ec ed he exper me s of 2002 d wo more 2005.

¡¤

©

¤© ¨ ¨ ¤©

© ¡¤

¡

1996 U u b o (Uub): The U u b o w s f rs cre ellsch f für Schwer o e forschu g D rms d c lly cre ed by Pe er Armbrus er, Go fr ed le d shee w h z c o s cceler ed w h um (Uuq): I w s d scovered by Dub (Jo I Russ he ye r 1998.

ed o Febru ry 9, 1996 he Ges , Germ y. Th s eleme w s r f Mü ze ber d h s e m bomb rded l e r cceler or. 1998 U u qu d s u e for Nucle r Rese rch)

© ¨ ¨ ¡ ¨ ¨ ¡¨ ¡¤© ¤ ¤ ¡ ¨ ¨ © ¤¨ ¤ ¤ ¡ ¨ ¨ © ¤ ¤¨ ¨¡ ¨ ¤ ¡ ¡

© ¨ ¨ ¨ © ¤© © © ¤ © ¤ ¡ ¡ ¡ ¡ ¨ ¡ ¨¡ ¨ ¨ ¨ © © ¡ © ¡ ¨ ¤© ¡ ¡ © ©¡ ¡ ¡¤ © ¡ ¨ ¤¡ ¨ ¤ ¤ ¤ ¤ ¡ ¡ ¡ ¡ ¡ ¡ ¡ © © © ¨ © © ¤ ¤ ¡ ¤ ¡¤ © © © © ¤© © ¨ ¤© © ¤ ¤ ¤ ¤ ¡ ¡ © ¡ © ¡ ¡¤ © ¨ ¨ © ¤ ¤ ¤ © ¡© ¤ © ¨ ¡ © ¡ ¨ ¨ ¨ ¨ © © ¤ ¤ ¤ ¡ © ¡¨ ¡ ¡ © ¤ ¤¤ ¡ ¡ ¨© © © ¤ ¤© ¡ ¡ ¤© ¤ ¤ ¤ ¡¤ ¨ ¡ © ¨ ¡¨ © ©¡ © ¤ ¨ ¤ ¤ ¡ ¡ ¨¤ ¨ ¡¤ ¤ ¤ © ¡ ¡¤ © ¨ ¤¨ ¤¨© ¤© ¡ ¡ ¡ ¡ ¤ ¤ ¨ © ¤© ¤ © ¡ ¤ ¡ ¤ ¡ ¡ ¨ ¨ ¤ ¨ ¨ © ¡ ¤ ¤ ¤ ¤ ¡ ¡¤ ¡ ¨ ¡ ¨ ¡© ¨ ¡¨ ¡ ¨ © ¤© ¤ © ¡¨ ¤ ¨ ¤¨ ¨© ¡ ¡ ¨ © ¡ ¨ ¨ ¨ ¨ ¤ ¡¤© ¤ © ¨ ¡ ¡ ¡ ¡ © ¡ ¨© ¡ ¨¤ © ¨ © ¡ © ¤© ¡ ¡ ¤ ¡¤ ¡ ¤ ¤ ¨ © ¨© ¡ ¤ ¨ © © ¡ ¨ ¨ ¡ ¡ ¨ ¨© © ¡ ¨ ¡ © ¤ ¤

¨¤ © ¤ ¡¤© ¨ © ¨ ¨ ¤ © ¤© ¡ ©¡ ¡¨ ¡ ¡ ¡ ¨ ¤© ¤ ¤ ¤ © ¡¨ ¡ © ¨ © ¤ ¤ ¡ ¡