1 - Ceramic Materials 1.1 - Introduction / Concept.

Ceramic materials are all materials made almost en tirely of clay, and are widely used in construction. The ceramic materials are m ultiphase, containing metallic and non metallic elements. A variety of ceramic p hases possible combinations of metallic and nonmetallic atoms, forming many stru ctural arrangements. This makes it possible to obtain materials for a wide appli cation in engineering. The main ceramic materials are bricks, tiles, glass, conc rete, abrasives, glazed porcelain, electrical insulators, etc.. The properties o f ceramic materials depend on their structures. For example, the low electrical conductivity is due to the immobility of the electrons of the ionic bonds covale nt. The ceramics have high shear strength and low tensile strength and therefore , have no ductile fracture. Due to the absence of slip between crystals or grain s, the ceramic materials have the following features: • No ductility; • May have high compressive strength, provided that there are no pores present; • have an opportunity to present a high tensile strength . 1.2 - Clay and his constituents . The clay is the basic raw material of ceramics, and it is thus important to de termine their nature. Clay is composed of large amount of amorphous material, pr edominantly crystallized material. The crystals of clay mineralogical species ca n be grouped into well defined. The main constituents of the clays are: • • • • • Silicates - are the main constituents of clays. Its fundamental unit is the si licon-oxygen tetrahedron. Kaolinite group minerals - The kaolinite is part of mo st clays. Has the shape of irregular hexagonal plates. The chemical composition of kaolinite is Al2Si2O3 (OH) 4 or Al2O3.2SiO2 .2 H2O. Montmorillonite group min erals or esmecita - This mineral is generally found in bentonite rocks that are derived from volcanic ash. The water penetrates easily into montmorillonite caus ing them to swell. Micaceous minerals - The micas are found in many clays, mudst ones and shales. Aluminum hydrated minerals. - Gibbsite, constituent of lateriti c soils is the main mineral of aluminum. Bauxite is a common ore of aluminum, wi th a mixture of bauxite, kaolinite, limonite and other minerals. 1.3 - Classification of clays. 1 We can classify the clays in several critérios.De according to geology, the clay s are classified into: Clays waste - are so called because they are formed in th e same place as the rock that gave it birth. The primary trainer of these clays is the water that percolates to underground rock, causing chemical reactions tha t go wearing the rock. The purity of the residual clay depends on the nature of the rock that gave it birth, the amount of impurities removed, etc.. Sedimentary clays - These clays are derived from materials transported by natural actions: wind, rain, ice stock, etc.. Ex: siliceous shale and clay, silt, clay, kaolin se diment, glacial clay, sandy clay loam, etc.. According to its application in cer amic clays are classified as: a) Ceramic white: residual and sedimentary kaolins . b) Refractory Materials with melting above 1600 ° C: sedimentary kaolin, refra ctory clays - Silica plastic. c) Clays for brick clay (low plasticity, but conta ining flux): tiles, pipes, tiles and bricks stuck - clays and shales. d) clays f or pottery of stone dust (plastic, containing flux). e) clay for bricks (plastic , containing iron oxide); clay to terracotta, clay for bricks common. f) clay fl ux containing more iron oxide. 1.4 - Properties of the clays. Color - The color is not important because ceramic is changed in cooking. However, for the paper i ndustry, the color is very important and should be measured very accurately. Che mical composition - The chemical composition governs the specific applications o f clays. Plastic properties - the finest clays are very plastic, but some clays, even coarse grain size but containing small amount of montmorillonite or organi c matter-rich compost can be plastic. Usually employs the Atterberg limits to de termine the plasticity of clays. Drying shrinkage - the drying shrinkage and mea sure the change in length or volume of the clay when the sample is dried in an o ven at 105-110 ° C. This property is important in the molding of ceramics becaus e it can crack due to the effect of shrinkage.€Resistance of rupture - This prop

erty is important for ease of handling between the dryer and the oven without da mage. The very fine clays, especially those with montmorillonite and humic organ ic matter are the toughest. Broken down into water - is important to know the ti me of disaggregation of the clays to establish the process and equipment suitabl e for obtaining the plastic mass in the ceramic process. Flaring - The burning p roperties, shrinkage, porosity variations, release and absorption of heat, weigh t loss and petrographic changes. 1.5 - Extraction and processing of raw material s. 2 The extraction and processing of raw materials for ceramics are important operat ions in the manufacture of ceramic products follow the process below. 1.5.1 - Pr eparation of raw material. Depending on the type of raw material, preparation pr ocess and will require different equipment to reduce the particle size extracted . The main methods of reduction or fragmentation of the particles are: • Compres sion simple; • Compression by impact; • Crushing. 1.5.2 - Classification of part icles. The particles can be sorted by sieving through water and through air. 1.5 .3 - Treatment. The raw material can undergo the following treatments. Chemicals - Raw materials are not chemically treated, except those used in glazed or spec ial refractories. Magnetic separation - A magnetic separation and used to remove residual iron minerals present no0s feldspars. By froth flotation - In this pro cess, the ore is sprayed with water foaming agent to separate harmful particles. Filtering - Filtering is used to remove soluble salts from clay. Drying - Dryin g is done in the open, under cover or in hot chamber. Molding - molding methods are as follows; Manual, dry pressing, extrusion, plastic molding and bonding. Th e manual molding is still very common in small brick kilns, where it employs a s emi-craft, where the dough is shaped into forms of wood or metal. Dry pressing This procedure is followed for the manufacture of bricks, tiles, electrical ins ulators, tiles and refractory products. Forming by extrusion - In this process t he plastic mass is forced through a mold, forming a continuous piece that is cut into lengths set for the product being manufactured. The extrusion can be made by maromba and piston. It is a process used to manufacture bricks, pipes, etc.. Collage - Collage is a proprietary process for the manufacture of household item s. Drying - Coming out of the molds, the pieces are transported to a drying area which may be in the shade, sun or in hot chambers. Flaring - The burning of the parts is done in their own ovens where the temperature rise should be controlle d so that the chemical transformations are carried usually without disturbing th e structure of the piece. If the burn is too slow would be great, but there woul d be excessive consumption of fuel, having to balance the speed that is technica lly and economically satisfactory. 1.6 - Ceramic products for the construction i ndustry. 3 The ceramics can be categorized as follows: a) b) c) d) Porous: Bricks, tiles, t iles, brake pads, pipes, etc.. Washer: Limestone, Feldspar and health. Non-porou s: ceramic and porcelain stoneware. Refractories: silica, silica-alumina, alumin a, magnesite, chromite and cromomagnesita. 1.6.1 - Bricks. The bricks are materials widely used in building construction. T hey are produced in all regions of the country by processes ranging from the mos t rude empiricism to more advanced machines. By this process, the portfolio of c lay, after properly mixed, is shaped by extrusion, whose continuous spinneret is cut to desired length. The bricks are dried in the shade or artificially, befor e the cooking is done in intermittent and continuous furnaces. Thus developed mo re refined ways for the product and its quality improved. The bricks should be l ightweight, durable and easy to handle. Are applied in buildings for the constru ction of the masonry wall partitions and facades, representing about 15% of the total construction. In small buildings, the brick work as part of the roof suppo rt and coverage. The NBR-7170 specifies the compressive strength for each type o f brick in two categories, establishing the minimum and the average individual. Compressive strength of bricks: compression type (Mpa) Sealing Portante ABCDE

Category Resistance 1.5 2.5 4.0 7.0 10.0 4 1.6.2 - roofing shingles roofing materials are shaped to be classified in: flat or French cross-section curve (colonial, Portuguese and Arabic) and flat type sc ale. The tiles must meet the following requirements. Provide homogeneous, fine-g rained and does not contain the mass of grains of pyrite and lime; not free of b lemishes or efflorescence; have sharp edges; Having a clear sound; not have irre gularities of form, have low permeability; be resistant to bending; The ABNT NBR-7172 specifies the flat tile French in the following requirements: Mass - The maximum dry mass should be 3.3 Kg Water absorption - absorption maxim um should be 20%. Nominal dimensions - NBR-8038 with a tolerance of 2% in nomina l sizes. Number of tiles per m². 1.6.3 - Chewing ceramics. The inserts are ceramic materials washer, used for wal l coverings and floors. The inserts are provided pasted on sheets of cardboard. The size of each pad is 15x15 mm or 20x20 mm and 5 mm thick. The settlement of t he pads is made with cement mortar and sand 1:3 by volume with stroke, spraying with white cement to avoid the appearance of mortar joints. After drying, cut up the sheet of cardboard and do the polishing surface, the pads are classified in glazed and matte. 1.6.4 - Tiles. The tiles are also pieces of china, used for c ladding, especially in bathrooms, kitchen and in environments that require a lot of hygiene. The most usual dimensions of the tiles are 15x15 cm and 10x10 cm so metimes, or rectangular shape. The laying of the tiles can be in cement mortar a nd sand, trace 1:6 by volume, or applied directly onto the plaster with putty or epoxy glue. Before application, the tile should be trickling with cement mortar and sand, 1:3 by volume trace and then soaked in water for 24 hours for saturat ion. 1.6.5 - Shackles. Shackles ceramics are used in sewage, industrial and rain water. The bracelets can be ordinary clay or stoneware ceramic. The ordinary cla y are not suitable for acidic effluents, only rainwater. The bracelets are of st oneware ceramic 5 acid resistant because in addition to better quality of raw material, surface fi nish has that gives greater chemical resistance to surface wear. 1.6.6 - Tiles c eramic tiles, ceramic commonly called, are small pieces of varying thickness and shape. The tiles are used for cladding of buildings, are durable and possess hi gh resistance to abrasion. As for the finish, the tiles are classified as: - Com mon (red tile) - Color - A mortar Vitrified tiles should be of cement and sand ( 1:6). 1.6.7 - Washer. The china is a ceramic material for the manufacture of ute nsils, sanitary fixtures, sinks, etc.. The materials are coated with a china gla ze whose purpose is to make them waterproof and resistant to acids. The grottoes are classified into: - Plates ordinary - poor Tableware - Dinnerware The top wa sher is used to make ordinary household items, having a surface finish, transpar ent, made with lead salts. The pottery of poor quality material is obtained from the previous one, having a coating opaque. Is the washer sanitary appliances. T he washer is top ranked with paste made of good quality, having finished with bo ron salts. This washer has application in the manufacture of jars, utensils fine decorative pieces, etc.. 1.6.8 - Refractories. Refractories are materials resistant to high temperatures without undergoing significant changes in volume without soften and resist the a ction of hot gases. Besides these conditions, the refractory must meet the follo wing requirements: - Good resistance to compression at high temperatures - Provi

de uniform heating and cooling - Being resistant to vapors, acid and slag at ele vated temperatures - Being resistant to oxidation and reduction. A very importan t feature of refractories is the pyrometer cone equivalent that is obtained in a test of failures. This test is done by comparing the behavior of pyramids - the standard material under study, checking his behavior with the standard subject to the same conditions of temperature rise. 6 2 - Mortars 2.1 Introduction / concept. Mortars are intimate mixtures of one or more binders , aggregates and water. Besides the essential components of mortar, others may b e added in order to improve certain properties. Folders are mixtures of binders more water.€Folders are little used because of their high cost and side effects caused by the retraction. The binders can be used alone or added to inert materi als. When mixed to a paste an aggregate, we obtain what is called a mortar. The mortars are made of a material so active - the binder - and inert material - the aggregate. The addition of fine aggregate to the folder, in the case of cement mortars, cheapens the product and eliminates some changes in volume and in the c ase of lime mortars, the presence of the area, besides offering the advantages m entioned above, also eases passage of carbon dioxide from the air, which produce s recarbonatação of calcium hydroxide. The mortars are used for laying bricks, b locks, tiles, etc.. Also serve to coat the walls and ceilings, and repair of con crete pieces. The choice of a particular type of mortar is subject to the requir ements of the work. In general, the mortar must meet the following conditions, d epending on its purpose - Mechanical resistance - Compactness - Waterproof - Con stancy of volume - Tack - Durability. To obtain a good quality product, it is ne cessary that all grains of inert material is completely enveloped in the folder as well are fully adhered to it, in addition, the voids between the grains of th e aggregate shall be filled entirely by folder. 2.2 - Classification of mortars. Depending on your point of view considered, we can point to several classificat ions for the mortars. Some are quoted below. 2.2.1 - Classification of employmen t. A) B) C) D) Common when granted to current works and can be, for grouting in masonry mortars. Mortar coating; mortars for floor; Mortars for injections. 7 Refractory mortars, when to resist high temperatures. 2.2.2 - Classification according to type of binder: Mortar carriers - Air Cal, p laster, etc ... Hydraulic mortars - Clan and hydraulic cement mortars mixed - wi th a mortar and a hydraulic binder air. 2.2.3 - Classification according to the dosage. Poor or thin - When the volume o f binder is insufficient to fill the voids of the aggregate. Floods - When the v oids of the aggregate are filled exactly to the folder. Rich or fat - Where ther e is excess folder. 2.3 - Properties of mortars. Workability - The determination of trace and theref ore the amount of lime that must enter into the composition of a mortar should b e directed to try to view the appearance of the mixture. The mortar coating shou ld present as a cohesive mass that has a proper job. Lime mortars are much more cohesive than the cement of the same trait, because they require less cement bin der that become more workable by addition of lime. Lime mortars longer retains t he mixing water. Mechanical resistance - lime mortars are less resistant to the compressive strength twenty-eight days ranges from 0.2 to 0.6 MPa can be taken a n average of 0.4 Mpa. Retraction - The lime mortar reduced in volume to be great er if the percentage of lime and water are high. The occurrence of fissures in l

ime mortars newly released is due to very rapid drying by sunlight and wind. The cracks also arise when the shrinkage of hardened mortar is prevented. Stability of volume - defects that can occur in the plaster are due to weathering or due to lack of stability of volume. Resistance to weathering - the mortar of lime ca n not resist the water, so the external finishes must be employed mortars hydrau lic lime or cement. Resistance to the action of fire - mortar of lime resist hig h temperatures, serving as protection of building elements of wood, steel, concr ete, etc ... Fresh coat of plaster - The folder of gypsum in the proportion of t en pounds of plaster for 6-7 gallons of water used for lining the performance of boards and blocks to internal divisions. The mortars also serve to plaster lini ngs. 8 Hydraulic mortars - mortars hydraulic resist the action of water and resist sati sfactorily when immersed in water. The hydraulic mortars more common among us ar e prepared with Portland cement. 2.4 - Traces of mortar volume. Below are listed some traits of mortars and their applications which will serve as a roadmap for the works: - Mortars for masonry clay brick; 1:8 - 1:1 cement and fine sand: 8 - Cement, lime and fine sand. 1:1,9:5 - Cal,€pozzolan and fine sand. - Mortars f or masonry concrete block and glass brick; 1:4 - Cement and fine sand; 1:1,9:2 Cal, pozzolan and fine sand - Mortar for stone masonry, and cement 1:3 fine san d; 1:1,9:1 - Cal, pozzolan and fine sand - Hydraulic mortars for tiles and ceram ics; 1:6 - cement and sand, 1:2:4 - cement, lime and fine sand sifted, 1 : 1, 9: 2 Cal, pozzolan and fine sand - mortars for tiles of marble and granite; 1:4 - C ement and fine sand; 1:1,9:2 - Cal, pozzolan and fine sand - Mortars for tacos w ood; 1:5 - Cement and fine sand, 1:1:4 - cement, lime and fine sand. 3 - STONE CONSTRUCTION 3.1 - Brief History Natural materials are used by the older man, motivated by th e fact that both the wood and stones might be used practically unchanged from it s natural state. Since the timber was destroyed and the stone saved, it is custo mary to call the Quaternary period, the appearance of man, of the Stone Age. 9 In turn this age is divided into three parts: the Paleolithic, the Mesolithic an d Neolithic, and extends, for overlay, from 500 000 C. The until 1500 BC. The fi rst megaliths appeared around 3000 BC. (Neolithic times higher) in Spain and lat er in southern France, initially in the form of "dolms" (stone tables) and thus used more and more and the stone can cite great examples in history as the pyram ids of Cheops, Chephren and Menkaure, the Sphinx, the Temple of Carnac, Cova de Menga, the Acropolis in Athens, and many others. The use of stone has expanded a nd diversified, being employed on canals, tunnels, bridges, palaces, churches an d public buildings. The American civilizations of the Incas and Mayans also used the stone extensively as a key element of their buildings, usually with a relig ious background. Later, in middle age, are found in all European countries built in stone classics such as: The Monastery of Santa Maria de Vitoria, the Louve a nd Notre-Dame de Paris and Escorial. Later, with the appearance of metal constru ction and development of concrete, stone, as a structural material, has a strong impact mainly because it is brittle, only to resist compression, in the face of new materials also resistant traction that enables new forms and structural typ es. Facing the situation created, the stone building now has its scope defined a nd limited: retaining walls, foundation shallow, discontinuous paving blocks, ra ilway ballast and mainly as aggregate material as a component of portland cement concrete use structural or bituminous mixture used in paving. Later, the stone was used in new forms and applications, such as plates used for walls and floors , operating in this case not as material support or base, but as part of finishi ng and protection. Due to its high durability and quality, the material came to fill important role in construction, coating materials other less noble to give

the impression of the use of stone shaped mass, with great effect by the archite ctural, texture and beautiful appearance. It is, however, as part of the cement concrete and asphalt material occupies the first line again today in importance among the construction materials. 3.2 Classification of the Rocks (and thus the building stone) There are several classification criteria, we will mention three which are: 3.2.1 - If classified geological Rating: 1 - eruptive or igneous roc ks - formed by the consolidation of material from a total or partial melting and comprise: - the depth of volcanic or plutonic. Eg granite. - The eruptive lode. Eg porphyry. 10 The effusive or volcanic eruptions. Eg basalt. 2 - Sedimentary rocks - formed by the consolidation of material transported and deposited by wind or water. They are divided into: - classical or detrital sedimentary rocks, deposition of debri s. Eg sandstone - sedimentary rocks chemical, chemical precipitation. Eg limesto ne - organogenic sedimentary rocks, the accumulation of organic substances. Eg p eat 3 - Metamóficas Rocks - formed by the gradual change in the structure of the rocks above, by the action of heat, pressure or water. Thus, the alteration of the granite gneisses, quartzites of the change of sandstones, marbles and limest ones of the change of the crystalline esquites the alteration of clays. 3.2.2 Technological classification Based on simple predominant mineral in the formation of eir characteristics, the rocks are classified into: 1 ch predominant silica. 2 - Limestone - Where properties lcium carbonate - clay stone - where the clay (hydrated redominant. 3.2.3 - Combined Classification rocks and determining th siliceous rocks - in whi are governed by three ca aluminum silicates) is p

Can join two previous classifications, in view of the development of petrography and assistance it can bring to the engineer as well as the advantages of a tech nological classification more in line with the needs of Engineering. Thus classi fied as: 1 - siliceous igneous, sedimentary and siliceous siliceous metamorphic rocks. 2 - Limestone sedimentary and metamorphic limestone. 3 - clay. 3.3 - Desc ription of the Most Important Rocks 3.3.1 - siliceous volcanic rocks Are formed by: granite, syenite, nepheline syenite, gabbro, rhyolites, trachytes , andesites, dolerites, basalts and melaphyres. Table B shows the mineral compos ition of these rocks. Granite rocks with large crystals Mineral Constituents TAB LE B + Q + O (P) + A fine-grained rocks (porphyritic) rhyolite 11 Silenites Diorite Gabbro O + (P) + A (O) + P + P + B A or B Trachyte Andesite Basalt OBS.: Q - quartz, O - orthoclase, P - Pagioclásio, A - Amphibole, B - Pyroxene, () minerals in small quantity. 3.3.2 - Siliceous sedimentary rocks Sandstone: consists of grains of silica or quartz, bound together by siliceous c ement, clay or limestone. 3.3.3 - Are the metamorphic siliceous rocks: gneiss, m ica schist and quartzitic 3.3.4 - limestone sedimentary and metamorphic

Commonly known by limestones, they are: Tufts limestone, alabaster, travertine, marble and breccia and conglomerate. 3.3.5 - Are Margas argillaceous rocks and p hyllites 3.4 - Ownership of quality stones from a rock is defined by its capacit y to meet the technical conditions for a particular use, considering the good qu ality when it satisfies these conditions favorably. The fundamental properties o f the stones are referred to the following basic requirements: A) Mechanical str ength: ability to withstand the action of applied loads without collapsing. B) D urability: the ability to maintain their physical and mechanical properties with the passage of time and under the action of aggressive agents, or the environme nt, which intrinsically, be they physical, chemical or mechanical. C) Workabilit y: Ability of rock to be affectionate with minimal effort. D) Aesthetic: appeara nce of the stone for the purpose of coating or finish. The following other prope rties: Color, Break, Uniformity, specific weight and compactness, porosity, perm eability, hygroscopicity, Frost proof, thermal and electrical conductivity, hard ness, adhesion, mechanical properties (compression, tensile, bending and shear, wear and shock). 12 3.5 - Choice of Stone The use of material, safely and economically, providing kn owledge of technical and economic characteristics of the stones available. The q ualification of the available material is usually obtained initially by means of a petrographic study of representative samples, followed by the examination of technology in specimens normalized to determine, through testing, the main physi cal and mechanical characteristics. 3.5.1 - Petrographic Analysis Its main purpose is to determine the mineralogical composition of the rock, when it comes to exploring their occurrence, or dismiss the existence of rock or wea thering, through the determination of harmful elements exist. - Guidelines for t he examination petrographic: 1 - Composition mineralogy of rock and its topograp hic classification 2nd - The state of conservation of rock (mode of presentation of the elements) 3rd - Structure, grain, texture, rate of weakening of the stru cture, voids, pores, cracks etc.. 4 - presence of harmful mineralogical evidence for the application concerned. Guidelines for the collection of sampling in the quarry 1 - Topographical Location of the quarry (country, state, county and pla ce). 2 - Notes on the mode of presentation of the rock 3 - Place the quarry wher e the sample was chosen. 4 - Indications of agreement with the sample average of surrounding rocks. 3.6 - Changeable Stone is meant by alteration of a rock to change its characteri stics and properties by atmospheric agents or other aggressive agents, which can act through a physical or chemical action. The main physical effects are due to temperature variation and growth of crystals.€The main chemical effects are oxi dation, hydration and the action of CO2. 3.7 - 3.7.1 Applications - Masonry and stonework Before using the stone undergoes a series of operations that are intended to giv e it shape, appearance and size more convenient for the purpose which has in vie w. In this set of operations is given the name of tailoring the stone. Beds and marble are the names given to those who work in shaping the stone. 13 The association mass, obtained by the association of stone blocks, is what is ca lled brick or masonry. This differentiation is the degree of afeoçoamento blocks and care of execution. The stone masonry can be classified into dry and mortare d. In the dry stone, the stones are placed on each other and fought on friction. Should be placed so as to reduce the joints and small voids, which are then tak en by smaller stones, so as to distribute the pressure. Mortar, the stones are b ound together by mortar, formerly of lime - the so-called bricks and mortar - an d today almost always concrete. The reasons for the mortar and cement are: 1) th e lime mortar decreases the strength of the assembly (the more the will is much

weaker), 2) if we use lime mortar will be wasting the high resistance of the sto ne. 3.7.2 - Paving The paving stone can be of cobblestone, brick polyhedral, Portuguese stone or ti les. Cobbles, is the most use in paving, the roadway being limited by the tabs o n the edges of curbs, also stone or concrete. 3.7.3 - Coatings The stone is used both for internal and external coating. In the case of outdoor use, besides the aesthetic aspect should be considered the durability of the st one. For the interior, the stone is usually polished, can be rigged, apicoada or tilled, when applied outdoors. Any concrete surface to be coated must first be apicoada and then cleaned by air jet. Subsequently, it is a roughcast with cemen t mortar, and only after its hardening begins the placement of stone slabs with the aid of a mortar. 14