Judaism Judaism: the pillars of faith • The existence of one God, almighty who created the universe and

everything in it. • Design of a chosen people • The synagogue as a place of worship. • The religious leader of a Jewish community i s called a rabbi, who is not a priest and enjoys no special religious status. • The sacred day of the week is the Sabbath, which begins with sundown on Friday a nd ends with sunset on Saturday. Fundamentals of Jewish faith • Judaism is a way of life strongly • • • • associated with a system of faith and religious convictions. It does not establi sh doctrines or creeds, but it is a religion that follows the Torah. The Torah s pecifically meets the first five books of the Bible and is kept in every synagog ue in the form of parchment. The Talmud is a compendium of law and commentary on the Torah applies to contemporary situations and circumstances vary. The symbol of Judaism is the Magen (Star of David). The fundamentals of Jewish faith • They believe that human beings were made in the likeness of God. Hence the unconstrained obedience - Eg obedience to the laws of dining Jewish custom. • Have a strong connection to Israel, which would be the land promised by God to Abraham, and considered sacred city of Jeru salem. • They believe in the Messiah, who is a person specially anointed by God. Other foundations of Jewish faith • These are: - The Jews should worship only one God and no other gods. - God is transcendenta l, is beyond anything. - God has no body, is not male nor female. He created the universe without help. It is omnipresent and omnipotent. - God is timeless. Alw ays existed and will always exist. He is a personal and accessible God, who list ens to everyone individually and talk to people from many different and surprisi ng ways. Jewish holidays • Passover: remember the deliverance from Egypt and the birth the people of Israel. - It has lasted eight days. - The main point is the Passover meal, the seder, ce lebrated with family, taking on a very important role for children. • Yom Kippur or Day of Atonement: solemnity focused on penance, purification and reparation for the sins of the people to br eak the covenant. - Celebrated on the tenth day of the month of Tishri in the Jewish calendar. Jewish holidays: Yom Kippur - Begins at sunset on Wednesday and continues until sunset on another day). - Th ey meet for five prayers in the synagogue and engage on average 12 hours in such prayers. - In the last prayer in the synagogue sounds sound the shofar (ram's h orn), who closed the celebration of Yom Kippur. - There are five basic prohibiti ons: eating, drinking, conjugal relations, bathing, anointing the body with oils and cosmetics and wear leather shoes. Jewish holidays • Rosh Hashanah: Good Year, the solemn feast which evokes

the majesty of God and His righteousness to believers, not only on an individual basis, but especially in the collective destiny. Shavuot: Feast of Weeks or Pen tecost, remembers the gift of Torah and recalls the journey of 40 years the Hebr ews in the wilderness until the arrival at Sinai. Sukkot: Feast of Tabernacles o r tents, manifested by thanksgiving to the Lord's protection during the sojourn of the Hebrews in the desert. • • Jewish holidays • Hanukkah (Festival of Lights) is celebrated with the preparation of traditional potato cakes and many candles, be ing interpreted today as a symbol of survival of the Jewish people. - Recalls the reignition of the lamp of the sanctuary and self-purification of t he Temple. The divisions of Judaism: the Ashkenazi 1.Asquenazi or Ashkenazi. The plural Ashkenazim. • By tradition, originally desi gnating • grandson of Noah named Ashkenaz, but took on a new etymological meaning with the Hebrew word medieval. It is used to denominate • Jews from Central Europe, espe cially from areas where they speak Yiddish. The divisions of Judaism: the Sephardim • The Sephardim fled persecution • • • in the Iberian Peninsula by the Spanish Inquisition (1478 -1834), addressing a n umber of other territories. A large part fled to North Africa, where they lived for centuries. Thousands took refuge in the New World, especially Brazil and Mex ico, where nowadays concentrate thousands of descendants of the fugitives. The S ephardim are divided today at: - Western hispanoportugueses are called Jews. - Orientals are the Sephardic who lived within the Ottoman Empire. • The western rite is known as a Castilian-Portuguese. The divisions of Judaism: the Sephardim • With the advent of Zionism, who lived in many countries Arabs were living in Israel, where they form an important segment of the populat ion, with a cultural tradition like no other.€• The term Sephardic is often used in Israel to refer to Jews from North Africa. - However, it is wrong to think t hat Jews of North African and Arab countries are Sephardic. - The Jews of these countries are called Mizrachim, or Orientals. • There were important Sephardic c ommunities in Arab countries, often in conflict with indigenous communities, par ticularly in Egypt, Tunisia and Syria. • Are Hispanic Potuguese Jews who oppose qabbalá (Kabbalah) and maintain a well disciplined religious service and melodie s. The divisions of Judaism: based on faith and religious practice Except U.S.). • Orthodox Jews (they form the largest group, with - They believe that the Torah and the Talmud were revealed by God directly to th e Israeli people. • Ultra-Orthodox Jews: strictly obey religious laws. They live in separate communities and follow their own customs.

• Conservative Jews: a kind of middle - They are known as Masorti. - They prefer the name Haredi, and is one of the fastest-growing groups among th e Jews. compromise between the Orthodox and Jews renewed or retired. The divisions of Judaism • Jews renewed or retired (early century. XIX) have adapted their faith and customs to modern life and incorporat e the findings that contemporary scholars have made about the early Jews. - They form the largest group of followers of Judaism in the United States. - It is also strong in Britain, where there is a more traditional version that pract iced in the United States. Judaism: Food • It is worth remembering that in recent years, a significant increase from the conservative wing: - S. Paul (50's) - less than 10 Orthodox rabbis - Today, according to the Jewish Federation of State St. Paul - more than 100 • Being an Orthodox Jew is closer to the sense to follow the 613 commandments of Halachah (path, in Hebrew). Hence the gr owth of: Sources of strengthening the faith • Yeshivot - academic studies Religious Youth • Kolelim - Academy of religious studies for married • Mikveh ritual purification (up bathrooms in which to perform these rituals) • Kosher designation indicating that the food is prepared for consumption Food: • a) Existence of an ethnic food • b) Foods shall: - Tahor - pure - Tame - unclean - Food as a cultural determinant of group identi fication. • c) The dietary laws fulfill two functions: 22:19) • d) radical separation between meat and milk (Lev. - Sanctify the Jews as the Temple was cleansed - set boundaries between insiders and outsiders. - Towels are used to serve different milk and meat - no dairy products should be prepared with pots used for making cooking meat Food • e) Do not eat eggs branded • blood f) Kosher Food - Usually does not consume the hindquarters - the meat should be left to soak fo r opening the pores and then salt - Not to be a gentile who lit the fire Food: canisters • The new cups and bowls made of glass or metal should be sanctified in running water, answer the following blessing: "Benidta Thee, O Lor

d our God, Queen of the Universe, who hast sanctified us by Thy commandments and hast commanded us concerning the immersion of the containers" Bowls of wood, cl ay or porcelain not must be submerged Those with wings are coated with metal or washer inside must be submerged without the blessing is pronounced. It should no t be entrusted to a minor (male or female) the ritual of submerging submerging c ontainers is prohibited on the Sabbath or during festivals • • • • Jewish Calendar • The start of the calendar Jewish refers to the creation of the world. • What is the first month of Nissan, when we have the celebration of Passover. • Meanwhile, the Jewish New Year occu rs on Tishrei (when a number is added to the year Jewish calendar: the months • • • • • • • • • • • • • Nissan 30 days 29 days Iyar Sivan Tammuz 30 days 29 days 30 days Av Elul Tishrei 29 days 30 days 29/30 days Heshvan Kislev Tevet 30 / 29 days 29 days 30 days Sh evat Adar Adar II 29 / 30 days 29 days Islam • Founded by the prophet Muhammad for 1400 years at the place where today is the Saudi Arabia. The word "Islam" comes from Arabic and means submission: live and think as Allah wishes. • - Everything in l ife should be subjected to God. • - Difficult to understand the separation that Westerners make between the religious life and secular life. The Islamic faith provides: • a social and legal system (guidelines to manage family life) • codes of dress, hygiene and ethics, law and order. • re ligious ritual and devotion to God. The five pillars of Islamic faith • Allah is the god announced by prophets - Sura 112: "Say He is Allah, the only God, not produced nor was begotten. Nobod y is like Him. " • Only Allah is the only God and Mohamed • Prophet Muhammad is the true prophet • Allah is sovereign in the Doomsday The obligations of the Muslim • The declaration of faith called the shahada: "I confess that there is no god exc ept Allah and that Muhammad is the prophet of Allah." • • • • That phrase has to be told by the Muslim to get up and before bedtime. The five daily prayers for all Muslims over 10 years. The prayer is made toward the city of Mecca in Saudi Arabia. Observe the annual fasting during Ramadan (sp ecial time for prayer and intense self-examination) that occurs in the ninth mon th of Islamic calendar. Giving alms to the poor, equivalent to 2.5% of savings a year. Make the hajj at least once in their lifetime (the pilgrimage city of Mec ca).

Objectives haji - - Total dedication to Allah. The aim of the pilgrimage is the Kaaba, the cubeshaped building in which reveres a black meteorite that is in the center of the Great Mosque in Mecca. On the pilgrimage, Muslims give seven times around the Ka 'ba, which they believe has been built by Abraham, or Ibrahim who has become a p lace full of pagan idols. About Ramadan • • • • • It is believed that in Ramadan the Quran was dictated by the angel Gabriel to Mu hammad as a guidance to men and as a means of salvation. During Ramadan, devout Muslims abstain from bodily pleasures from dawn to dusk. There can be no meals, smoking, chewing gum and sexual relations. Should abstain from evil thoughts, do good and to exercise self-control. When Ramadan ends, Muslims celebrate the Eid Al Fitr: no exchange of gifts, prayers, meals, and the faithful wear new clothe s. About Ramadan • • • • Some chains Muslim believe that if you kill an enemy of Allah on the first day o f Ramadan, this attitude will ensure your entry into heaven. In Egypt, Ramadan i s a celebration with the right colored lights, music and many fine foods. In 200 6, Ramadan was in September 24th to October 23. The effect of fasting can be des troyed by five things: • tell a lie, slander •, • terminate a person in the back , • a false oath, greed or covetousness •. Islamic groups • the caradjitas (about 1%). What matters is the quality leader. • Even a slave abroad may be accepted if the required quality. Sunnis, who compris e about 90% of all believers. - It is essential that the leader originates from the tribe of Muhammad. - Among the Sunnis there are different schools of interpr etation: • Hanbalis (Saudi Arabia) • Malekita, • Hanafite (Conservatives) • Sahf iíta (Egypt): more liberal Shiites (about 9%), which are the majority in countri es like Iran and Iraq. The prerequisite is the acceptance of a caliph (lugartene nte of Allah), a descendant of the prophet himself. Within the Shia, it is noted : - Zaidi - Ismaili (Agha Khan leadership) - imamitas • Growth of Islam • Possible causes: - I. Weakening of the Roman Empire - II. Heresies within Christianity Copts of E gypt • Arians • Spain • Nestorians of Syria and Iraq Growth of Islam • In 1993-1 billion. For 2006, there is a projection of 1.33 billion • Today is the second largest religion in the world number of the faithful: some 1.2 billion followers. • Only 15% are Arabs • Count ries with the largest Islamic populations are not in the Middle East, where reli gion has emerged, but in other parts of Asia: Indonesia • - • Pakistan 170 milli on - 136 million • Bangladesh - 105 million • India - 103 million. • The OIC bri ngs together 35 paísesmembros (23 are from Africa, Asia and other one of Europe) Muslim Calendar: Months • • • • • • • • • • • • [1] Muhharram 30 last sacred Muharran [2] Safar 29 days of departure for the war Saphar [3] Rabia-al-áual January 30 th month of spring Rabia-1 [4] Rabia-to-Tha

ni February 29 th month of spring Rabia -2 [5] Jumada Al-Ula January 30 th month of drought Jomada-1 [6] Jumada A-Thani February 29 th month of drought Jomada-2 [7] Rajab 30 days of respect and abstinence Rajab [8] Xaaban 29 days Shaaban ge rmination [9] 30 Month of Ramadan Ramadan great heat [10] Xauál 29 Month of Shaw wal animal mating [11] Dhu Al-Qaáda 30 days of rest Dulkaada [12] Dhu al-Hijja 2 9 days of the pilgrimage Dulheggia Muslim calendar: duration The Lunar Calendar is • and therefore does not follow the seasons, such as solar calendars.€• The Muslim Era began on July 16, 622, which is the 1st. Muhahham of the year 1 AH. • Each month is betwe en 29 and 30 days, and so the lunar year lasts only 354 / 5 days. Wounded religious • Lailat al-Miraj (27 Rajab) - Celebrates the miraculous journey that has made the prophet Muhammad, a year before the Hijra, mounted animal brought by the angel Gabriel. In one night, the Prophet traveled to several places, of which the most relevant was Jerusalem. Month of Ramadan (1 -30 of Ramadan) - Period of sacrifice in which the faithful are forbidden to eat , drink and other carnal activities during daylight hours and may do so only at night. • Not exactly a holiday, but this time the businesses suffer slight modifications. • • The holiest sites: Mecca, Medina and • Jerusalem (all located in the Middle East). Religious holidays • Eid al-Fitr (1-5 of Xauál) - Celebrates • • • • • end of the fasting month of Ramadan. Period of the Hajj (1-10 of Dhu al-Hijja) p eriod in which Muslims around the world meet the duty of pilgrimage to Mecca. Ei d al-Adha (10th of Dhu al-Hijja) - Similar to Christmas for Christians Ra's The Eid Al-Sana Uáhad Hijra or Muharram (1 Muhhárram)-The Muslim New Year, which beg ins the lunar year. Achuri (10 Muhharram) - Day mart ¡river of Imam Hussein Ibn Ali Ibn Abu Talib, the grandson of the Prophet Muhammad. Eid-Al-An-Nabáui Maulid (12 Rabia Al-Áual) - Date of birth of the Prophet Muhammad. Rest day • In Islamic countries, the day devoted to home, the Sunday equivalent of Westerners, is Friday. • Saturdays and Sundays ar e normal working days, except in areas of predominantly Christian population. • Thursdays are no rest d ays. However, in many places, works only part time. • In Morocco, adopts the calendar Gregorian. • The rest days are Saturday and Sunday so, But there are sectors of activity observed on Fridays. • There are many other national holidays,