Feudalism was the political, social and economic that prevailed in Western Europ e during the Middle Ages

(V-XV centuries). The main asset was possession and lan d exploitation. The power was local and was distributed among the overlords, hie rarchically arranged, to which were vassals loyalty. The economy was predominant ly agrarian and commercial activities limited due to the slow process of ruraliz ation. The basic production unit was the rural landlord, whose lands were divide d among stately reserve, communal lands and gentle servant. The characteristic f orm of labor servitude was marked by the obligations owed by peasants to semifre e liege lord in return for protection. The society was estates, with little soci al mobility. The papacy stood above society and was the maximum power, both reli gious and civil. Over time, feudalism became less important and the cities and t rade resurfaced. The origins of the crisis lie in the feudal system of Roman slavery, which began in the third century, which severely shook the economy and brought about the se ttlement. The mob was abandoning cities in search of work and protection in the field, putting themselves under dependence of the landowners. The setting of the peasants to the land strengthened the ruralization and self-sufficiency of vill ages (estates). The Germanic invasions contributed to the urban exodus. Living o n farm land, the Germans took property or become peasants as settlers, regulatin g their lives based on customs. The formation of the Roman-Germanic kingdoms con tinued dependence between people, lords and peasants, through bonds, kings and l ords, through Comitatus and the donation of land and jobs. In the early ninth ce ntury, power struggles in the Carolingian Empire led to the devolution of real p ower, already weakened by the donations of fiefdoms. The attacks on Muslims, Vikings and Magyars (Hungarians) weakened the empire, co mpleting the process feudalization Western Europe. Trade declined, cities were d epopulated and insecurity and isolation of regions increased. As the Kings did n ot have conditions to defend them, you have assumed this task. You have formed p rivate armies and castles built, around which developed the feudal community. In exchange for protection, the vast majority of the population is subjected to se rvitude and agricultural activities. The ownership of land and its cultivation was the basis of life, wealth and soci al organization. Europe at that time was full of forests, which is not allowed t o cultivate land. So were cut thousands of trees and large tracts of woodland we re burned. Thus, the ashes of these fires served as fertilizer for agriculture. The cultivation of land has changed the landscape of Europe, which was covered w ith fields of grain of various kinds. It was all land owned by a feudal lord, or a nobleman who ruled the peasants who lived on the land and commanded cultivation. The crops were grown by the peasan ts. The feudal lords lived in fortified castles and tried to protect their land against possible enemy attacks. The peasants, mostly servants, had to pay various taxes and duties to you. Stood out: the drudgery, labor, compulsory and free in the reserve manor for a few da ys of the week, carving, delivery of part of sampling and predetermined quantiti es of animals and other products, the banalities, fees for using the facilities of the fief (mill , oven etc.). imposed on the movement of goods, the request fo r accommodation, fees, judicial and military costs. If crops increased, the surp lus generated more wealth for you. Had possession of the land, or power, because the land was the main component of wealth. The noble peasants and also controlled the lives of their vassals, who owed him loyalty and military aid. It could also serve as judge. Grant of a good or right, on a temporary basis, in exchange for services and obl igations vassals. The main asset was the farm. Peasants worked the land for the

benefit of the noble, in exchange, it protected them against possible invasions. Impregnable fortresses were defending their people - the lord and his court. Aro und the castle usually had a moat. Entered into the castle by a bridge over the moat, which was raised when there was danger, hindering an invasion. Inside the castle there was a large central courtyard and a tower, where you lived. At that time, the castle was a fundamental building. During the war, the peasants sough t protection inside the walls. Were monasteries where monks lived in the community.€Were composed of several b uildings, among them a church. They were usually surrounded by a wall for defens e. They had to cultivate fields. The first monasteries were established by Saint Basil in the Byzantine Empire. In Western Europe, the first monastery was found ed by St. Benedict in the sixth century at Monte Cassino, Italy. The monasteries owed allegiance to the Pope. They paid taxes to Rome and received payments from the peasants. The monks lived according to the rules of their respective religi ous orders, mainly characterized by the vows of poverty, chastity, obedience, ch arity and silence. The religious who lived in isolated monasteries and follow ce rtain rules formed the regular clergy. There were free peasants, who worked in their own lands and also in the noble an d also semifree peasants (serfs), who worked only in the lands of the noble. The farmer and his family ate what they harvested. Many had oxen for plowing and fa rm animals. If they had a poor harvest could lose their land, because in order t o feed themselves, sometimes needed Vendela, becoming servants. A peasant, but n ever could get to be noble. Were noble or nobles. Enjoyed wealth and luxury. His main occupation was war. Fo ught in the battles of their overlords or the king. The nobles who fought on hor seback were called knights. When the stapes was introduced in the eighth century were organized armies of knights, with their heavy armor. In between wars, devo ted themselves to hunting and tournaments. It was a power relationship. Vassalage by two nobles established a personal rela tionship and direct, involving reciprocal rights and obligations. The ceremony t hat formalized the relationship had three acts: the homage and the oath of alleg iance and the endowment. The vassal was the nobleman who was undergoing another through the oath of allegiance, supplying it with military and financial aid, th e overlord was the nobleman who gave the fief. They lived in monasteries in the community, led by an abbot. Occupied in prayer, cultivating the land, study, write and copy books, give food to the poor and sh elter to travelers, treat the sick and care for their cellars and pantries. Devo ted his life to God and so lived away from towns and cities. Pray and work were the essential rules of monastic life. The Church has developed an important civilizing work: evangelized the Germanic peoples and broadcast methods of cultivation. At the same time, preserved and sp read the culture of antiquity, which was being lost in continuous wars. The mona steries were the cultural centers of the time. Even though the feudal period, the economy suffered a long period of relative st agnation compared to other moments in the history of mankind, can not be said th at during the same did not occur, though slowly, a growing trend that culminated of course in we now call capitalism. The European feudal mode of production, be sides being well-defined was a form of adaptation to new economic and social rea lities of a changing society than a clash between different cultures, leading sl owly to create a system that has served for the formation of a new society. http://www.klickeducacao.com.br