Technical Specification PLL FM Stereo Transmitter (Considerations) by Maurice J. G.

Gomes September/2003 X POWER DISTANCE The distance arriving radio waves has nothing to do with the po wer being used. When a transmitter uses no power greater than zero watts, the si gnal travels to any place that allow spreading. The signal will come stronger in some places and weaker in others, may even come very weak so it can be useful i n some receivers. Increasing the power will not make their signals reach farther , but stronger. The trick is to use transmitter power that makes the signals are audible in the place where you want to go. The power to be used depends much mo re on propagation conditions and the type of antenna being used. It also depends on the type of signal you want to send and situation of the station at the othe r end. The POWER TRANSMISSION BY RECEIVER VISTA Considering the viewpoint of a g ood reception, the rule of least power could well spell: Uses the power sufficie nt for transmitting signals are different from the noise in the receiver. Noise can be in many ways. If for example disconnects the antenna equipment and the vo lume increases, you will hear a noise. If the signals that arrive are not strong enough to overcome this noise, there will be no statement. Connect the antenna again, now hear the noise of the band (static, thermal noise and other types of noise emitted by industry, automobiles, etc.). All this noise surpasses what we say at the outset, we have more noise than signal. Other types of noise coming f rom other stations, and electrical appliances that are called for interference. If the signals arrive, these sources do not overlap the interfering audio will n ot be heard! Furthermore, we consider the type of information that sends and rec eives. Emissions type cw, SSB, RTTY and FM occupy different amount of spectrum. Thus, for example, in the cw power is concentrated in a relatively narrow in ran ge. Broadcast in ssb, moreover, extends its power to a width of 2.5 kHz. When yo u're tuning into the exact frequency of the transmitter, the receiver picks up t he noise and the transmitted signal. The trick is to maximize the amount of the transmitted signal and minimize the amount of noise perceived. To do this, the b andwidth of the receiver (selectivity) should adapt to the bandwidth of the tran smitter. Excessive selectivity in the receiver does not take the power of the tr ansmitter because the receiver does not receive it, and instead a very broad sel ectivity, pick up all the energy of transmission, but also add much noise. The F M transceiver vhf and uhf are usually optimized its selectivity and can not adju st, but if v / c is operating between 160 and 10 meters, the transceiver will pr obably need some adjustment in selectivity. For proof, we have to try to narrow the selectivity of the equipment when noise and interference are present. From t he viewpoint of the receiver, we can understand that increasing the transmitter power is not always the best way to combat noise. If for example, a defective co mponent causes your receiver produces wheezing, two will be more convenient fix it than to ask the other station to increase power. If a thermostat tank (an other example) is faulty, generates electrical noise, then it is easier to repai r it than to ask the other station to increase power. The stations that transmit and receive can enjoy the use of its power in transmission of another very impo rtant way: by using directional antennas (antennas that direct energy to the app ropriate place and receive the best signals of where they come out). A transmitt er using an antenna "nondirectional" can work just as poverty in all directions. An antenna that strengthens the signals transmitted and received, compared with one antenna is used to say that the former has more gain. A directional antenna transmits more energy (focus) to your destination and in return also concentrat es more energy when in a receiving antenna of less or no gain, thereby obtaining a better signal to noise ratio, because the signals and unwanted noise coming f rom other directions are attenuated. Bounce flash on a camera seems to increase the brightness of the bulb, but actually he only concentrates the light and send s it as a bundle. The lamp itself has continued with the same power! The antenna for that analogy, increase the effective radiated power station without having to increase transmitter power. In reception,€gain antenna makes the stations loo k stronger because it collects more energy from the transmission. Directional an

tennas, are tools of great value because it allows better use of transmission po wer to achieve better signal to noise ratio. The "directivity" helps not to send signals to places where they want. Moreover it also occurs as other stations th at may be using the same frequency and are not interfered or cause interference. But if this is so, because all the networks do not use it? One obvious reason i s the price, but another reason is that it is not always practical, since for ex ample the directional antennas for frequencies below 10 MHz are very large and a lso need large towers and rotors to support them. POWER VERY, VERY LIGHT A sheet of paper can communicate ideas simply because there is paint over it. We are ab le to understand it because they can distinguish what is and what is ink and pap er where each is located. The ink must be dark enough and clear enough role. The paper does not emit light, we have to lighten it, and if the light is not stron g enough, we will have difficulty distinguishing ink from paper, ie, there is su fficient contrast and then it becomes difficult to understand what is written on paper . With little effort we can even read anything even in low light situatio ns. But if the light is poor, we must approach more paper, we have opened more e yes or tilt the paper toward the light source so that it protrudes over much of the existing poor. 3 However, if properly illuminate the role, certainly we will read without difficu lty. The reception of radio signals is much like a printed text. The signs are t hat we want to hear the ink. The sounds are like paper. Unless the signs are str ong enough to contrast with the noise, your ears will not be able to "read" the signs. When it costs us a great effort to read what is written on paper, under a dverse conditions of light, we must read the text several times until we underst and. Same happens with the noise at the reception that will not let us understan d what our correspondent says, because of that we lose the thread of conversatio n or even sensitive information, then we have to ask for information that is rep eated at other times. Similarly, if we use a strong lamp to read, as we ascend t he power is above the point needed to be understood. By that we mean it: Use it if the minimum power required to achieve the desired contact. That is to say tha t lighting is used to make the paint is enough contrast on the paper. GETTING TH E MAXIMUM TRANSMITTER The first step would be to adjust the transmitter for opti mal power output. With other controls set at max power, is the gain modulation w hich together control the power and quality of the signal sent. Reducing power i s good. If the signal is sufficiently well above the noise, lower quarter of the power used will only be noticed in SWR meter to another colleague without loss of intelligibility. So why use full strength? There is, in situations of sound p ropagation, differences between using either 50 or 100 watts. On VHF we also use low power, unless we are required otherwise. Experiments with antennas, as ment ioned, switch to a directional antenna can make everything different. Hands-on, less power and better antennas! 4 • Operating frequency: To avoid interference with TV channels, choose an FM frequency that does not mat ch the one operated by TV stations. CHANNEL RANGE (MHz) FREQ. FM FREQ. TV 6 82-88 88.1 176.2 88.3 176.6 88.5 177 88. 7 177.4 88.9 177.8 89.1 178.2 89.3 178.6 89.5 179 89 , 7 179.4 7 174-180 89.9 17 9.8 90.1 180.2 90.3 180.6 90.5 181 90.7 181.4 90.9 181.8 91.1 182.2 91 3 183 182 .6 91.5 91.7 183.4 91.9 183.8 92.1 184.2 92.3 184.6 92.7 185.4 92.5 185 8180-186 92.9 185.8 93.1 186.2 93.3 186.6 93.5 187 93.7 187.4 93.9 187.8 94.1 188.2 94.3 188.6 94.5 189 94.7 189.4 94.9 189.8 95.1 190.2 95.3 190.6 95.7 191.4 95.5 191 9186-192 95.9 191.8 96.1 192.2 96.3 192.6 96.5 193 96.7 193.4 96.9 193.8 97.1 19 4.2 97.3 194.6 97.5 195 97.7 195.4 97.9 195.8 98.1 196.2 98.3 196.6 98.5 197 197 .4 98.7 10192-198 98.9 197.8 CHANNEL RANGE (MHz) FREQ. FM FREQ. TV 99.1 198.2 99

.3 198.6 99.5 199 99.7 199.4 99.9 199.8 100.1 200.2 100.3 200.6 100.5 201 100.7 201, 4 100.9 201.8 101.1 202.2 101.3 202.6 101.5 101.7 203.4 203 11198-204 101.9 203.8 102.1 204.2 102.3 204 6 102.5 205 102.7 205.4 102.9 205.8 103.1 206.2 103 .3 206.6 103.5 207 103.7 207.4 103.9 207.8 104.1 208, 2 104.3 208.6 104.5 104.7 209.4 209 12204-210 104.9 209.8 105.1 210.2 105.3 2106 105.5 211 105.7 211.4 105 .9 211.8 106.1 212.2 106.3 212.6 106.5 213 106.7 213.4 106.9 213.8 107.1 214, 2 107.3 214.6 107.5 107.7 215.4 215 13210-216 107.9 215.8 5 • Standing wave ratio (VSWR): Every antenna has a certain impedance, which equals the radiation resistance of a more reactive component. If there is no marriage between the impedance of the antenna, cable and from the transmitter by feeding it along with an RF signal, w e will have an effect that is called standing wave, an effect which will be grea ter the larger the mismatch between the cable and antenna. The acronym SWR (stan ding wave ratio) or COE (coefficient of standing waves) can also appear as SWR, which comes from the English standing wave ratio. A high ROE can cause serious d amage to the tank end. For example, if a transmitter provides 100 watts of power and there is reflected a 25-watt, power net move the antenna is 75 watts. That would give a steady reading of 3:1 in the meter. These "75 watts" irradiated cov er practically the same distance as the full 100 watts, 25 watts but those that return can cause damage to equipment. The antenna are in line with the frequency determined by the transmitter (wavelength) allows us to have an ROE close to id eal (1,0:1), but somewhere around 1.3:1 or even 1.5:1 is accepted, without major loss of power and or data to the transmitter. TABLE OF ANTENNAS ON EFFICIENCY ROE Performance of Antenna IMPEDANCE OF ANTENNA IN ANTENNA OHMS CONCLUSION 1.00: 1 1.05: 1 1.10: 1 1.15: 1 1.25: 1 1,30:1 1.35: 1 1.40: 1 1.50: 1 1.55: 1 1.65: 1 1 .75: 1 1.85: 1 1.95: 1 2.10: 1 2.15: 1 2.30: 1 2.60: 1 100% 99% 98% 96% 95% 94% 90% 86% 85% 84% 80% 78% 76% 74% 70% 68% 60% 50% 40% 52 or 50 54 or 49 or 57 or 47 60 45 63 43 66 or 40 or 70 or 38 or 73 or 37 78 35 81 33 87 or 31 or 90 or 30 or 96 or 28 100 27 109 25 113 or 24 or 120 or 23 135 or 20 15 6 or 18 IDEAL OPTIMUM ACCEPTABLE BAD VERY BAD BAD 3.00 or MORE: 1 6 • Wavelength (l):

RF is used in a different unit of measure of which we are accustomed, such as me ter, centimeter and inch. When referring to length or distance, ie, all or nearl y all the links in RF are measured in wavelength, whose symbol is: l So when we say that a transmission line is 1/4l, we are referring a stretch of line with a size equal to the wavelength 1/4l that line, which can be a coaxial cable or any other kind. There is a different velocity of propagation of electromagnetic wav e for each type of propagation medium, so there are different wavelengths for fr equencies equal. To know where the wavelength at a given frequency, simply divid e the speed of propagation of electromagnetic wave in a vacuum (300,000,000 m / s) by frequency (in Hertz). For example, to know what the length of electromagne tic wave at a frequency of 7 MHz should do: l = 300 million / 7 million = 42.86 meters is why the frequency of 7 MHz is known as the range of 40 meters. So with all other tracks. When we calculate antennas must subtract 5% of the speed of e lectromagnetic propagation, because now she is no longer in a vacuum but in the physical environment that is copper coaxial cable. Changing the material of the cable, so we will have another value of wavelength, but all very close in length in a vacuum. After fine tuning the antenna, such differences are compensated. W e will see that when we calculate the length of the antenna left a little more r adiating element to compensate for the differences. Note that nothing is exact i n electronics, everything has a tolerance. 7 • Antenna Height: The link distance between a radio wave (FM / VHF) is approximately 33% to greate r than one source. Note the table and note that the scope is not directly propor tional to the height of the antenna. Doubling the antenna height is increased to reach 41% or so. To get twice the range would be necessary to quadruple the hei ght of the antenna. In general, a height between 40 and 60 m is suitable for mos t low power transmitters. Antenna height (m) 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 50 60 70 Optical link distance (km) 18 21 23 25 27 29 31 32 34 37 39 8 • Antenna Gain: A four-dipole antenna and built can have a 6dB gain in omnidirectional configura tion, which equals a gain of four times. That is, a 200 W transmitter normally l ost in the coax cable 25% of power, leading to the antenna 150 W. By placing an antenna with a gain of 6dB the 150W multiply by four, resulting in 600 W.€These "600 W" is what we call PEI (Effective Radiated Power). Relationship: P = Power = 3dB Gain dB = 2 x P = 3dB + 3dB 6dB = 2 x 2 = 4 x P = 9dB 3dB + 3dB + 3dB = 2 x 2 x 2 = 8 x P = 12dB 3dB + 3dB + 3dB + 3 dB = 2 x 2 x 2 x 2 = 16 x P and so on ... Range based on PEI Watts PEI 1 2 4 8 16 32 64 128 256 512 Km Range 2.0 3.0 5.0 8.0 12.0 20.0 30.0 4 0.0 52.0 75.0 • Sizing Power Supply:

Use the formula below to obtain the ideal current source as the transmitter powe r: I = P / V * 2 / 0.5 Example: Transmitter Output: 50 W - Voltage Supply: 15 VI = 50/15 * 2 / 0.5 = 13.3 A - So the source of 15 is well defined. 9 • The Transmitter: • Card PLL FM Stereo (1 W) Price: upon request • RF Amplifier (50 W) Price: upon request 10 • Power Supply (15 V - 15) + Office Qty Description 1 4 1 4 1 1 1 4 1 1 1 2 2 1 1 1 * Transformer 110-220/15 V - 15 Transistor 2N3055 LM317 Regulator 4700 mF Electrolytic Capacitor - 50 V Electrol ytic Capacitor 10 mF - 40 V LED Resistor 22 K - 0.47 1/2W Resistor R - 270 R 10 W Resistor Bridge Rectifier 25 A 10 K Trim-pot Door Fuse Connector RCA Female Co nnector Female 50 ohm VHF HH Key Cabinet metal sink for diodes, transistors and regulator Fuses 2, 6 and 15 Screws Unit Value 73.00 1.60 4.00 11.00 0.80 0.50 1.00 2.00 0.80 15.00 1.00 1.00 3.00 5 .00 1.00 30.00 Total Value 73.00 6.40 4.00 44.00 0.80 0.50 1.00 8.00 0.80 15.00 1.00 2.00 6.00 5.00 1.00 30.00 198.50 Price: U.S. $ 198.50 (estimated cost Set/2003 region of the DF) 11 • Antennas Directional antenna: FREQUENCY .................................... POWER ........................... ............. MATERIAL ........................................ GAIN ........... ........................... ROE MAXIMO ................................... IMPED ANCE .................................... POLARIZATION ......................... ...... SURVIVAL WIND AL .......... WEIGHT (APPROX )............................. .... 88 A 108 MHZ 300W 1KW The Anodized Aluminum 8 DBD (ON DIPOLE) 1.5:1 50 OHMS HORI ZONTAL OR VERTICAL 120 KM / HR 7 KG Omnidirectional antenna: FREQUENCY .................................... POWER ........................... ............. MATERIAL ........................................ GAIN ........... ........................... ROE MAXIMO ................................... IMPED

ANCE .................................... POLARIZATION ......................... ...... SURVIVAL WIND AL .......... WEIGHT (APPROX )............................. .... 88 A 108 MHZ 500W 1KW The Anodized Aluminum 3.5 DBD (ON DIPOLE) 1.3:1 50 OHMS VE RTICAL 180 KM / HR 3-6 KG 12 Comparative table of antenna gain in dBd. Dbd = antenna gain over a dipole = dbi antenna gain over the isotropic DbD Gain Dipole Vertical Antennas Plan Land wit h 5 / 8 2 elements yagi 3 elements Yagi Yagi 4 elements Yagi 5 element 2 element s Quadra Quadra 3 Quadra elements 4 elements - 2.1 = 0.0 + 1.2 + 5.0 + 8.0 + 10. 0 + 12.0 + 7.0 + 10.0 + 12.0 13 Transistor Specifications RF Power Mosfets - N Channel Device Pin Pout Watts Watts Gps / Freq. dB / MHz Package / Style To 54 MHz HF / SSB VDD = 12.5 Volts MRF255 55 2.1 16 / 54 211-11 To 150 MHz HF / SSB VDD = 28 Volts MRF138 MRF140 MRF148 MRF150 MRF154 MRF157 30 150 VDD = 50 Volts 3 0 150 600 600 0.5 2.9 12 6 18 17 17 20 211-07/2 211-11/2 368-02/2 368-02/2 0.5 4 .7 17 15 211-07/2 211-11/2 To 225 MHz AM / FM VDD = 28 Volts MRF134 MRF136 MRF166 MRF137 MRF171 MRF151 MRF176GV MRF151G May 15 20 30 45 VDD = 50 Volts 150 200 300 7.5 4 7.5 13/175 17/225 16/175 211-11/2 375 -03/2 375-03 / 2 0.2 0.38 0.5 0.75 1.4 14/150 16/150 16/150 16/150 15/150 211-07 /2 211-07/2 211-07/2 211-07/2 211-07/2 To 500 MHz UHF AM / FM VDD = 28 Volts MRF158 MRF161 MRF162 MRF163 MRF166 MRF166C MRF166W MRF175GU MRF17 7 MRF177M MRF176GU 2 5 15 20 20 25 40 150 100 100 VDD = 50 Volts 150 6 14/400 37 5-03/2 .02 0.4 0.65 0.4 0.4 1.6 4 9.5 6.4 6.4 20/400 13.5/400 13.6/400 17/400 17 /400 12/400 10/400 12/400 12/400 12/400 244-04/3 244-04/3 319-06/3 412-01/1 375021/2 244-04/3 211-11 744A-021 / 2 390A-01 / 1 HF Transistors 14 Device GPE (Min) Pout Pin Watts Watts @ 30 dB Package / Style MHz 1.5-30 MHz HF / SSB VCC = 12.5 or 13.6 Volts MRF476 MRF475 MRF433 2SC3133 MRF406 SD1285 MRF477 MRF46 0 MRF412 MRF458 2SC2097 2SC3241 2SC2290 2SC2904 2SC3240 2SC3908 2SC2879 SRF3662 SD1487 SD1405 MRF421 MRF485 MRF426 MRF401 MRF466 MRF496 MRF464 MRF426A SD1407 SD 1726 MRF422 MRF427 MRF428 MRF429 MRF448 3 12 12.5 13 20 30 40 60 70 75 75 80 80 100 100 100 100 100 100 110 120 VCC = 28 Volts 15 25 25 25 40 40 80 100 150 150 VCC = 50 Volts 25 150 150 250 0.4 7.5 7.5 15.7 18 13 13 12 211-11 211-11 211 - 1 1 211-11 1.5 .16 .10 1.25 1.25 1.25 2.53 2.5 6 15 10 22 22 13 15 15 15 16 14 10 04-211A / 1 211A-07 145A-09-145A 09211-07 221A-2004 / 2211 - 11 211-11 211-11 21 1-11 0.1 1.2 0,125 0.5 1.25 0.8 1.25 4 1.6 4 4 4 4 7 7 7 5 5 10 10 7 15 10 20 14 12 15 15 11 16 13 12 13 12 12 12 12 12 13 10 11 15 04-221A / 1 221A-04 / 1211-0

7 221A -04 / 2 211-04/2 211-07 221A-04 / 2 211-11 211-11 316-01 211-11 211-11 21 1-11 316-01 211-11 316-01 211-11 211-11 211-11 211-11 211-11 14-30 MHz CB / AMATEUR VCC = 12.5 or 13.6 Volts MRF476 MRF475 MRF449 MRF449A 3 4 30 30 0.1 0.4 1.5 1.5 15 10 13 13 04-221A / 1 221A-04 / 1211-07 145A-09 15 MRF453 MRF455 SRF2072 SRF7000 SRF3775-90 MRF458 MRF454 MRF492 SD1446 SRF3749 SRF 3795 SRF3800 60 60 65 70 70 80 80 90 90 85 90 100 4 3 3 3 3 3 5 4 5 5 5 4 11 11 14 14 14 13 12 13 13 13 13 14 211-11 211-07 211-07 211-07 211-07 211-11 211-11 211-11 211-07 211-11 211-11 211 -11 Device GPE (Min) Pout Pin Watts Watts @ 50 dB Package / Style MHz 27-50 MHz, FM LOW BAND VCC = 12.5 or 13.6 Volts MRF475 MRF497 MRF492 SD1446 SD1405 SRF3800 MRF492A 4 40 70 70 70 80 100 0.4 4 7 5.6 5.6 5.6 20 10 10 10 11 11 12 7 04-221A / 1 221A-04 / 2211-07 211-11 / 1145-10 211-11 211-11 66-88 MHz BAND VCC = 12.5 Volts MRF229 MRF232 MRF233 MRF234 Device 1.5 7.5 15 25 0.15 0.8 1.5 2 .8 out/90 set/90 out/90 05/09/1990 79-05/5 145A-09 145A-09 145A-09 / 1 Pout Pin Watts Watts GPE (Min) / Freq. Package / Style dB / MHz 88-108 MHz FM BROADCAST VCC = 28 Volts SD1460 150 18 9.2/108 211-11 30-200 MHz BAND VCC = 28 Volts 2N3553 2N5641 MRF475 MRF340 MRF314 2N5642 2N5643 MRF314A 4 2.5 7 8 20 30 30 40 0.4 0.25 1 0.4 3 3 3 6.9 10 10/175 8.4/175 13/136 8.2/175 10/150 1 0/150 7.6/175 221A-04 / 1 79-04/1 144B-05 / 221A-04 1 / 2 145A-09 / 1 211-07/1 1 45A-09 / 1 145A-09 / 1 16 MRF315A MRF315 MRF316 MRF317 45 45 80 100 07.05 05.07 05.12 8 9 / 150 9 / 150 10/150 9 / 150 211-07/1 145A-09 / 1 316-01/1 316-01/1 100-500 MHz BAND

VCC = 28 Volts MRF313 1 MRF321 10 MRF323 20 MRF338 80 (6) MRF393 100 (6) 2N6986 100 (6) = Internal Impedance Matched Push-Pull Transistors 0.03 0.62 2 12 18 18 15/400 12/400 10/400 7.3 / 7.5/500 7.5/500 470 305A-01 / 1 244-04/1 244-04/1 333 -03 744-01/1 382-01/1 806-960 MHz BAND VCC = 12.5 Volts C-Class MRF559 MRF581 MRF837 MRF557 MRF839 MRF841 MRF840 MRF846 MRF847 MRF839F MRF1035MB MRF1091MA MRF1090MB MRF1150MA MRF1150MB 0.5 0.6 0.75 1 .5 3 3 5 10 40 45 VCC = 50 Volts, Class C 35 90 90 150 150 3.5 9 9 25 25 10 Octo ber 10 7.8 7.8 332A-03 / 1 332-04/1 332A-03 / 1 332-04/1 332A-03 / 1 0.08 0.06 0 .11 0.23 0.46 0.46 0.7 2.5 15 16 8 / 870 10/870 8 / 870 8 / 870 8 8 / 870 8.5 6 4.3/870 4.5/870 317-01/2 317-01/2 317-01/1 317D-02 / 2 305A-01 319-06/2 244-04 3 19-06 319-06 / 1 319-06/1 Device GPE (Min) Pout Pin Watts Watts dB @ 400 Package / Style MHz 100-400 MHz BAND VCC = 28 Volts 2N3866 2SC3375 MRF5174 MRF5175 MRF325 MRF326 MRF309 MRF327 MRF329 JO2015A 1 2 3 5 30 40 50 50 80 100 0.1 0,125 1 0.4 4.3 8 5 21 14.9 20 10 12 4.8 /400 11 8.5 9 10 7 7.3 7 79-04 / 1 244-04/1 36-03 244-04/1 316-01/1 316-01/1 316 -01/1 316-01/1 316-01/1 333-04/1 17 MRF392 125 (6) 2N6985 125 (6) = Internal Impedance Matched Push-Pull Transistors 8.19 8.19 August 8 744A-01 / 1 382-01/1 Device GPE (Min) Pout Pin Watts Watts dB @ 175 Package / Style MHz 136-174 MHz BAND VCC = 12.5 Volts 2N4427 2SC1970 MRF234 MRF607 MRF220 MRF237 2N5589 2N6255 2N6080 2SC1971 2SC2237 2N5590 MRF260 SD1143 MRF261 MRF212 MRF262 MRF2628 MRF221 2N6081 2SC1972 2SC1729 2SC2094 2SC2539 2SC2549 2N5591 2N6082 2N6083 MRF238 SD1274 MRF2 22 MRF239 MRF264 MRF1946 MRF1946A 2SC1946A 2SC1946 SD1273 SD1273 SD1275 25 1 1.3 1.75 3 3 4 4 4 5 57 7.5 10 10 10 10 15 15 15 15 15 16 17 17 17 25 25 25 30 30 3 0 30 30 30 30 32 35 40 40 40 2.8 0.1 0.1 0.12 0.35 0.8 0.25 0.25 0.10 0.5 0.6 0. 3 3.0 3.0 1.25 1 3.5 2.5 3.5 3.5 0.95 1.4 2.0 0.5 0.5 10 6 6 8 7 3 3 9.1 3 3 6.0 3.0 2.7 2.7 5 9.5/90 10 10 11.5 9 7.8 12 12 12 10 10 138 5.2 5.2 9 10 6.3 7.5 6 .3 6.3 12 10 8.8 14.5 14.5 4.4 6.2 6.2 5.7 9 10 10 5.2 10 10 6.7 10 9 9 9 145A-0 9 / 1 79-04/1 221A-04 / 2 79-04/1 144-B05 FEB/19 211-07/1 79-05 / 5 145A-09 221A -04 / 2 221A-04 / 2 T31E 09-145A 10-220 09-145A 145A-09 145A-09 221A-04 / 2221-0 7 221A-04 / 2 224-04/1 T31E T31E T31E T31E-09 145A-145A 09211-07 145A-09 145A-09 145A-09 145A-09 221A-04 / 2211-07 145A T31E T31E-09 145A-09 145A-09 145A-09 18 SD1275-01 SD1428 MRF240A MRF240 MRF224 2N6084 2SC2540 2SC2630 2SC2694 MRF250 2SC 2782 MRF247 MRF245 SD1477 SD1441 40 40 40 40 40 45 45 50 50 70 75 80 80 100 150 VCC = 28 Volts

5 14 14.3 5 5 10 6.0 14 10 15 15 12 12 12.5 40 9 4.5 4.5 9 9 6.5 8.2 4.4 7 6.7 7 6.4 6.4 6 5.5 09211-07 211-07 145A-145A-09 211-07 316-01 316-01 211-11 316-01 316-01 316-01 31 6-01 316-01 316-01 316-01 SRF3841H 40 7 7.6 145A-09 Minimum gain & power ratings are at 175 MHz at 146 MHz Operation Will Be higher by 10-20%. GPE (Min) Pout Pin Watts Watts dB @ 225 Pac kage / Style MHz Device 225 MHz, ULTRA HIGH BAND VCC = 12.5 Volts * MRF207 MRF227 MRF208 MRF226 2SC2133 2SC2134 2N6439 * Grounded Emitter TO-39 package. March 1 October 13 VCC = 28 Volts 34 60 60 4.5 12 10 8.2 7 7.8 311-11 311-11 316-11 0.15 0,135 1 1.6 8.2 13.5 10 9 79-04/1 79-05/5 145A09/10 145A -09 / 1 UHF Transistors Device Pin Pout Watts Watts GPE (Min) / Freq Package / Style dB / MHz 400-512 MHz BAND VCC = 7.MRF750 MRF752 MRF754 5 Volts MRF627 MRF750 MRF581 MRF515 MRF555 MRF629 2 .5 8 0.5 VCC = 12.5 Volts 0.5 0.5 0.6 0.75 1.5 2 0.05 0.05 0.03 0.05 0.15 0.3 10 /470 10 13/500 8 / 470 10/470 8 / 470 305A-01 / 1 305A-01 317-01/2 79-04 317D-02 / 2 79-05/5 0.05 0.4 2 10/470 8 / 470 6 / 470 305A-01 / 1 249-05/1 249-05/1 19 MRF630 2SC3020 2N5944 2N5945 2N5945 2N5946 MRF653 MRF660 MRF652 MRF652S MRF653S MRF641 MRF654 SD1433 SD1429 SD1429-03 SD1422 J03020 SRF3614 SD1434 MRF644 MRF646 MRF650 2SC2905 MRF648 MRF658 MRF340 MRF338 J03055 2 3 3 4 4 5 5 7 10 10 10 10 12 15 15 15 20 25 25 40 45 45 50 50 55 60 65 VCC = 2 8 Volts 8 80 0.18 0.33 0.3 0.6 0.6 0.5 0.5 2 1 2 2 1.2 4 2.5 2.5 5 7.5 6 5.9 13.3 14 13 11.7 15 22 25 0.4 15 9 / 470 9.5/470 10/520 8 / 470 8 / 470 10/512 10/512 5.4/470 6 / 470 7 / 512 7 / 512 8 7.8 7.8/470 7.8/470 7.5 7.6/470 6 6.2/470 4.8 / 470 5 6 / 470 6.3/470 4.8 /512 4.4/470 4.15/512 13 7.3 79-05/5 T31E 244-04 244-04 244-04 249-04/1 249-05/1 221A-04 / 2 244-04 244-04/1 244-05/1 244-04 311-11 316 -01 / 1 244-04/1 311-11 311-11 311-11 316-01/1 316-01 /1 316-01 311-11 316-01/1 316-01 311-11 316-01/1 316-01/1 221st-04333-04 Note: Transistor gain Improves performance at lower frequency of operation. Exam ple: 430-450 MHz Power gain & Will Increase 10-20%. 20 Transistor Specifications Type 2SC2290 (= MRF454) 2SC2312 2SC2782 2SC2879 2N918 2N3553 2N3866 BF964 ABH711 585 (n-fet) BF966 (n-fet) BFG90a BFG91 BFQ136 BFQ34 BFQ68 BFW30 BFR94 BFY52 BFY9 0 BGY22A BGY33 BGY47H BLF147 BLF147 BLF175 BGY887 BLF175 BLF177 BLF177 BLF244 BL F244 BLF245 BLF246 BLF246 BLF246b BLF248 BLF248 BLF278 BLF346 BLF346 BLF348 BLF3 68 Output 100 Watt 16 Watt 80 Watt 100 Watt 2.5 Watt 1 Watt 50mA 35 30mA 30mA 18 0MW 300mW Watt 9 Watt 2.7 Watt 4.5 Watt 3.5 Watt 1 Amp 25mA 220mW 2 9 Watt 22 Wa

tt 3 Watt 150 Watt 30 Watt Second Choice Second Choice Second Choice 150 Watt 15 Watt 30 Watt Second Choice Second Choice 80 Watt 60 Watt 300 Watt 300 Watt Seco nd Choice Second Choice 30 Watt 75 Watt 300 Watt Voltage 14 Volt 12 Volt 12 5 Vo lt 12.5 Volt 15 Volt 28 Volt 28 Volt 13.5 Volt 20 Volt 20 Volt 15 Volt 12 Volt 1 4 Volt 15 Volt 14 Volt 25 Volt 10 Volt 40 Volt 15 Volt 13.8 Volt 12 Volt 9.6 Vol t 24 Volt 28 Volt Frequency 30 MHz 30 MHz 28 MHz 175 MHz 600 MHz 175 MHz 400 MHz 108 MHz 200 MHz 800 MHz 5 GHz 6 GHz 4 GHz 4 GHz 4 GHz 3.5 GHz 800 MHz 50 MHz 2 GHz 380-512 MHz 108 MHz 40-860 MHz 400-470 MHz 108 MHz 6.8 dB Gain 13db 12dB 10d B 10dB 10dB 12.5 dB 16.3 dB 10dB 13db 21.5 dB 14dB 50 Volt 108 MHz 20dB 50 Volt 108 MHz 19dB 28 Volt 175 MHz > 13db 28 Volt 28 Volt 175 MHz 108 MHz > 13db> 16dB 28 Volt 28 Volt 175MHZ 225 MHz > 14dB> 10dB 50 Volt 28 Volt 108 MHz 225 MHz > 20 dB 16.5 dB 28 Volt 32 Volt 225 MHz 225 MHz > 11dB> 12dB 21 BLF368 BLF378 BLF543 BLF543 BLF544 BLF544 BLF546 BLF548 BLF548 BLF861 BLF861 BLF 861a BLF861a BLF1047 BLF1047 BLF1820 BLF1820-70-30 BLF2022 BLF2043 BLF2043F BLF2

045 BLF2045 BLF2045-N / P BLF2047 BLF2047L BLF2057 BLU20/12 BLU30/12 BLU45/12 (= MRF646) BLU53 (dual ) BLU60/12 BLU60/28 BLU98 BLU99 BLV11 BLV21 BLV25 BLV25 BLV 30 BLV32F BLV33 BLV36 BLV59 Second Choice 250 Watt 10 Watt 20 Watt Second Choice Second Choice 80 Watt 150 W att 150 Watt Second Choice Second Choice 150 Watt Second Choice Second Choice 70 Watt 65 Watt 65 Watt 30 Watt 10 Watt 30 Watt Second Choice Second Choice Second Choice 65 Watt 65 Watt 60 Watt 20 Watt 30 Watt 45 Watt 100 Watt 60 Watt 60 Watt 200mW 5 Watt 15 Watt 15 Watt 175 Watt Second Choice 2 Watt 10 Watt 90 Watt 100 Watt 30 Watt 50 Volt 28 Volt 225 MHz 500 MHz 16dB> 12dB 28 Volt 500 MHz > 11dB 28 Volt 28 Volt 500 MHz 500 MHz > 11dB 10dB 32 Volt 860 MHz > 13.5 dB 32 Volt 860 MHz > 13.5 dB 26 Volt 1 GHz > 14dB 26 Volt 26 Volt 28 Volt 26 Volt 2.4 GHz 2000 MHz 2170 MHz 2000 MHz > 11dB> 11dB 12.6 dB 12.5 dB 26 Volt 2.4 GHz > 10dB 26 Volt 26 Volt 26 Volt 12.5 Volt 12.5 Volt 12.5 Volt 28 Volt 12.5 Volt 28 Volt

10 Volt 12.5 Volt 13.5 Volt 28 Volt 28 Volt 2200 MHz 2000 MHz 2.4 GHz 470 MHz 470 MHz 470 MHz 400 MHz 470 MHz 460 MHz 5 GHz 470 MHz 175 MHz 175 MHz 108 MHz > 10 dB> 10.5 dB> 6.5 dB> 6dB> 4.8 dB> 4.4 dB> 4.5 dB 15.5 dB> 10.5 dB> 8dB> 10d b> 10db 28 Volt 25 Volt 28 Volt 28 Volt 25 Volt 860 MHz 224 MHz 224 MHz 225 MHz 860 MHz 10dB> 7.5 dB 16dB 11dB> 7dB 22 BLV62 BLV80/28 BLV91 BLV92 BLV93 BLV97 BLV101B BLV102 BLV193 BLV861 BLV861 BLV86 2 BLV862 BLV910 BLV950 BLW30 BLW31 BLW32 BLV2047 BLW32 BLW33 BLW33 BLW34 BLW50 B LW76 BLW77 BLW78 BLW81 BLW82 (= MRF644) BLW82F BLW86 BLW87 BLW89 BLW90 BLW95 BLW 96 BLW96 BLW98 BLW98 BLX14 BLX15 (= ON616 ) BLX15 BLY83 BLY87 BLY88 BLY89 BLY90 150 Watt 80 Watt 2 Watt 4 Watt 8 Watt 30 Watt 50 Watt 12 Watt 100 Watt 150 Watt Second Choice Second Choice 10 Watt 150 Watt 60 Watt 30 Watt 28 Watt 0.5 Watt Se cond Choice Second Choice 1 Watt 2 Watt 50 Watt 80 Watt 130 Watt 100 Watt 10 Wat t 25 Watt 30 Watt 45 Watt 25 Watt 2 Watt 4 Watt 160 Watt 200 Watt Second Choice Second Choice 4.4 Watt 50 Watt 175 Watt Second Choice 12 Watt 8 Watt 15 Watt 25 Watt 50 Watt 26 Volt 28 Volt 12.5 Volt 12.5 Volt 12,5 Volt 24 Volt 860 MHz 175 MHz 900 MHz 900 MHz 900 MHz 960 MHz 11db> 6.5 dB> 6.5 dB> 7.5 dB> 6.5 dB> 11dB 7dB> 6.5 dB> 8.5 dB 12.5 Volt 28 Volt 900 MHz 860 MHz 28 Volt 860 MHz > 8dB 26 Volt 26 Volt 26 Volt 12.5 Volt 12.5 Volt 25 Volt 960 MHz 900 MHz 2.4 GHz 175 MHz 175 MHz 860 MHz > 11dB> 8dB> 9dB> 10db> 10db> 11dB 25 Volt 860 MHz > 10dB 25 Volt 50 Volt 28 Volt 28 Volt 28 Volt 12.5 Volt 12.5 Volt 36 Volt 28 Volt 13.5 Volt 28 Volt 28 Volt 50 Volt 50 Volt 860 MHz 30 MHz 87.5 MHz 108 MHz 150 MHz 470 MHz 470 MHz 470 MHz 175 MHz 175 MHz

470 MHz 470 MHz 30 MHz 108 MHz 10 dB> 19.5 dB 7.9 dB 7.5 dB> 6dB> 6 dB 6.2 dB 7.5 dB> 6dB> 12dB> 11dB> 14dB 6.5 dB 25 Volt 860 MHz 7dB 28 Volt 50 Volt 30 MHz 108 MHz 7.4 dB 13.5 Volt 13.5 Volt 13.5 Volt 13.5 Volt 175 MHz 175 MHz 175 MHz 175 MHz 175 MHz > 12dB> 8dB> 6dB> 5dB 23 BLY91 BLY92 (= BLV21) BLY93 BLY94 MHW709 MHW720-3 MHW912 MRF171 MRF237 MRF245 MR F247 MRF151G MEF317 MRF454 MRF455 MRF475 MRF477 MRF450A MRF646 ON4402 ON4800 PT9 701 (= MRF134) PT9704 (= MRF136) SD1458 (= MRF136) SD1460 (= MRF141) SD1477 SD14 80 ( = MRF174) SD1488 8 Watt 15 Watt 50 Watt 20 Watt 300 Watt 4 Watt 80 Watt 75 Watt 50 Watt 80 Watt 6 0 Watt 12 Watt 40 Watt 28 Volt 28 Volt 28 Volt 12.5 Volt 50 Volt 12.5 Volt 12.5 Volt 12.5 Volt 13.6 Vol t 12.5 Volt 12.5 Volt 13.6 Volt 12.5 Volt 175 MHz 175 MHz 175 MHz 512 MHz 175 MHz 175 MHz 175 MHz 175MHZ 30 MHz 30 MHz 30 MHz 30 MHz 30 MHz > 12dB> 10dB> 21dB 7dB 6.4 dB 16 dB 12dB 11dB 12dB 7dB 13db 10dB 15dB 150 Watt 28 Volt 108 MHz 9.2 dB 24 • 4-element directional antenna .......... This project is best suited for those who already have some experienc e in RF, since the performance will depend mainly on settings. This is a directi onal antenna made up of four elementros whose gain is 5 dB. The coupler is of ty pe Range Match which ensures optimum signal transfer and the correct impedance s etting should be 50 ohms. The maximum for this antenna is 100 W. .......... Belo

w is the wiring diagram. .......... As you can see, there is a connector that receives the cable signal a nd applies it to the antenna. The center pin is connected to a trimmer 00-60 pF which in turn is connected to the radiating element through a tube of smaller pr oportions. This set forms the Gamma Match. Note that the elements are grounded, including the radiant. All are connected to the gondola metal that is connected to ground the connector. In the next picture you can see how the antenna is moun ted. .......... Note the connections of the elements and the Gamma Match. The element s are fixed by screws. Under the Gamma Match is seen in detail. 25 .......... Now for the formulas to calculate the size and spacing between the el ements. .......... Length of the radiating element: C = 142.5 / fo. C is the len gth, 142.5 fo the constant factor and the frequency of operation. .......... Spo tlight: 0.49. λ (λ = wave ength, ie λ = 300 / fo) .......... 1st Director (from the radiant): 0.43. λ .......... 2nd Director: 0.40. λ .......... .......... spa cing between e ements Ref ector / radiant: 0.25. λ .......... Radiant / first di rector: 0.15. λ .......... Radiant / second director: 0.15. λ .......... ....... ... Range Match Point A: 0.01. λ .......... Point B: 0.06. λ .......... A though the formu as provide a precise indication of the sizes and spacings between the e ements of an antenna is a ways direfença between theory and practice and, whe n it comes to RF, this difference is very present . The recommendation is that b efore permanent y mounting the antenna e ements and Match range are provided wit h some mechanism that a ows variation of both the size and the spacing between them. .......... The aid of a fie d strength meter and an SWR meter is essentia to the best fit for this type of antenna, especia y when the transmitter has a reasonab e power. 26

 

 

  

 

 

 

   

  

 

 

 

 

 

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