Prepositions Preposition is a word that links two terms and establishing some re lationships between them.

In these relationships, a term explains or completes t he meaning of another. The main propositions are: • • • • • • • • About - about; about We are talking about the math test. After - after, after (a) She arrived after the class. Against - I God is against us, Who Could Be agaist us? Before The first children before. Behind - Behind The dog's house is behind the garden . Beside - alongside John seated beside his girlfriend. Besides - besides Beside s That Is My citie hills. During - during; is used to express periods of time kn own by the name or periods that have already been set: The students Were During the class laughing. During the Christmas During the During my summer holidays • From - to, from, from de; from Where are you from? • In front of - in front of T hat school is in front of the gas station. • Inside - inside, inside There Was T hat some money inside wallet. • Instead of - instead of Why do not you work inst ead of oppose? • Near = next to - near The bank is next to the Post Office. • Ou tside - outside, outside My cat is outside the house. • Since - since I live her e since 1997. • With - with Linda traveled with some friends. • Without - no I c an not stand without your presence by my side. • To - to, toward, the, the, the, up, to, to, in, with, of, of ... I'm going to school. • It is - why, instead, i n favor of, for and in behalf of, for, in order to ... I'll buy a new dress for my mother. • Under - There is underneath the ball under the chair. • Beneath - P aul Went underneath beneath the rain. They are usually placed before nouns or pr onouns. Anyway, on two building types is possible in informal English changed th e preposition to the end of the sentence. 1. In questions beginning with a prepo sition + Whom / WHICH / WHAT / WHOS / WHERE: To Whom Were you talking? (Formal) Who Were you talking to? (Informal) In Which drawer does he keep it? (Formal) Wh ich drawer does he keep it in? (Informal) 2. Similarly in prayers relatives (rel ative clauses), a preposition placed before Whom / WHICH can be moved to the end of the sentence. The relative pronoun is often omitted: The people with Whom I Was traveling. (Formal) The people I Was traveling with. (Informal) from wich The company I hire to be m y TV. (Formal) The company I hire from my TV set from. (Informal) There are prop ositions which vary as to its meaning: • Above - above, over, over, over (withou t indicating contact) indicates that something is in a superior position over an other, louder than : The sky is above us. • Over - above (a) on; above (does not indicate contact; expressed a vertical direction between two points, more than, higher than that: There is a picture over the door. She did not eat over than f ive cookies. (She did not eat more than five biscuits) Up - up, up, upward (indi cating movement) Get up! This side up. AT: - exact time: at 8 o'clock. - defined moment: at sixteen / at the age of sixteen - a definite place: at school - full address: at 45 Main Street - names of anniversaries: at Christimas, at Easter, at Carnival - names of villages or small towns: at Beach. - contact: on the desk - street names: on Main Stree, On CSB 2008 - dates: on Christmas day, on 4th Ju ly - days of the week: on Sunday - in meaning: in a basement in the building - c ities, states, countries: in Rio de Janeiro, in Brazil - parts of the day: in th e morning, in the afternoon, in the evening (but AT night) - seasons, months, ye ars: in the winter, in 1992, in July. In a hurry IN In fun, in earnest In love I n public, in private In danger, in trouble ON On holiday, on vacation On Busines s In foot, on horseback One one's own On the contrary, on the other hand Pronoun s The pronoun is a word used in place name (noun) to avoid its repetition and ag Personal Pronouns are t rees in gender and number with the noun it represents. hose that describe people. • • • ON:

• IN: Common Expressions AT At once At dinner, at breakfast At war, at peace At last, at least • subjective pronouns (if straight) Singular Plural I We You You He She It They These pronouns function as subjects of prayer, coming before the verb: She comes by train. • Pronouns goals (oblique case) Singular Plural Me - me, me You - you You - you, you Them - the, the, them, they Him - him, he It - the, he, she Thes e pronouns function as object prayer, coming after the verb: Give her a chance. Possessive pronouns are pronouns that indicate possession of a being or object . • Possessive adjectives My - my (s) my (s) Your - your (s)€your (s) His - his (s), their (s), it - your (s), their (s), it (s) It's - it (s), neutral, animals Our - our ur (s) Your - your (s), their (s) Their - their (s), their (s) them (as) e function to modify a noun and should always precede the noun. He wrote ress on the envelope. • possessive adjectives pronouns Mine - mine (s) my (s) Yours - your (s), their (s) His - his (s), their (s) Her - your ( s), their (s), her (s) It's - the (a) it (s), neutral, Ours - ours (s), our (s) Yours - o (s) is (s ), a (s) your (s) THEIRS child (ren), a (s) your (s), it (s), it (s) These pronouns are used in tion called double possessive ( "possession double"): A friend of mine The cousing An old friend of hers dram of ours nouns = One of my friends = one of her cousins = one of my old dreams The indefinite pronouns are those which refer to people or things so vague or im precise. They are: All - all, all (s), all (s) Another - a (the) other (a) Any some (s), some (s) Anybody - someone, anyone Anything - anything, anything, eve rything Both - both, both. Much - much, much, is used to indicate a lot of thing s that can not be counted. Eg I love you very much. One - one such Relative Pr onouns The relative pronouns are so called because they refer to a term mentione d earlier. They are: Who - who, who, whom, which, who (refers to individuals) Wh ich - who, what, who, which (refers to inanimate objects or animals) Whom - who, that which, which, who (refers to people) Whose - whose, which, which, of whom, whose, whose, whose, whose (refers to people) What - what, what, the thing (it refers only to inanimate things or animals) That - who, what, who, which (can re present any persons, things or animals) Interrogative pronouns are pronouns th at indicate an element within a whole, but that is not defined. They are: Which - which, which, which? (Refers to inanimate objects or animals) Who - who? (Refe rs to people) Whose - whose? (Refers to people) What - what, what, what? (Refers only to inanimate things or animals) Who is That Man? The demonstrative prono uns Demonstrative pronouns are those that indicate the place where a person or t hing is. They are: Singular Plural This - this, this, this These - these, these That - this, this, that Those - these, these, those, those Such - such This and These - refer to people, animals or things that are close t o the speaker. That and Those - refer to people, animals or things that are remo te from the speaker. Reflexive Pronouns Reflexive pronouns indicate that the s ubject and the same time agent and patient of the action. They are: Myself - I, I, even I myself Yourself - you, yourself Himself - if he even Itself - if he / she even ourself - we, ourselves Yourself - you, yourselves Themselves - if they / they themselves (as) Oneself - we the same people. - Reflexive Pronouns: use (s) Her ( s), o have th his add (s), it animals (s) your construc

Indefinite Pro

reflective always agree with the subject and appear after the verb (object) show ing that a specific action of the subject reflects on himself: The boy hurt hers elf (the boy hurt himself) - Reflexive Pronouns: Give an emphatic use highlight the subject or object. Can be used immediately after the subject or after the ad dition of the verb. She charged the tire herself (she changed the same tire) Sim ple Present The use to talk about something that happens all the time or repea tedly, or even on a universal truth; In the future after the following conjunc tions: when, as soon as, Until, before, if; See examples: the Nurses look after Patients in hospitals. (Nurses caring for patients in hospitals) the I Usually g o away at weekends. (I always go out on weekends) The Earth goes round the Sun ( the Earth revolves around the Sun) the When she arrives I will ask her. (When sh e comes I ask) Remember that in 3rd person singular (HE, SHE, IT) always use t he S at the end: I work the the He / She / It works. In words ending in ss, s, sh, ch, x, oez also add the SS He / She / It: You the wash. She washes the. Words ending in Y: If preceded by a vowel: adds only the norma l S: say - says. If preceded by a consonant: replace Y by the IES: study - studi es For the interrogative and negative forms in the Simple Present use auxiliar y verbs DO / DOES, and the negative of those auxliliares and DO NOT (not the + ) and DOES NOT (does not +) as a question Do I / We / You / They Work? Does he / she / It Go? Negative Form I / We / You / They He / she / It Does not Do Work. Go In the following example the DO is also the main verb: What do you do? (What do you do?) The Simple Past Simple Past expresses actions that began and ended at a particular point in time. Usually these sentences come with an adverb of time . to yesterday (yesterday) to the day before yesterday (yesterday) the this morn ing (this morning) oa week ago (a week ago) in the 1992 (in 1992) Regular Verb s: The Most verbs of English receives termination ED in the past. That goes for any type of sujetio. A single form of the verb that corresponds in Portuguese, t he Past Perfect, Past Imperfect Pretéritomais and-that - perfect. Eg to talk (ta lk) - talked COMMENTS: At the verbs ending in E adds up only the D: to remove = removed; = loved to love. In the verbs ending in Y - if preceded by a consonan t: the Y-strips are added to the ED: to study = Studied - is preceded by a vowel : it simply adds to the ED: to play = played the monosyllabic verbs ending in in consonant-vowel-consonant, repeat the last consonant before adding the ED: to = chop chopped EXCEPTIONS: In verbs ending X and W does not repeat the last consonant: to fix = fixed. In oxítonos disyllabic verbs ending in-consonant-consonant voagal repe ats is also the last consonant before placing ED: = Admitted to admits; to contr ol = controlled. Irregular Verbs Although the regular verbs form the majority of verbs in English, we must consider the irregular verbs. Here's a few: To cut Infinitive To Feed To break SIMPLE PAST Cut Fed broke Interrogative form the int errogative form srgue a rule fairly easy. Before the pronoun is added to the aux iliary verb DID, then the pronoun and verb in the infinitive (DID = WDT. = Infin itive verb): I You He She It We You They past participle broken Fed Cut Did enjoy? Negative Form in a negative way is added to the particle did not immediately aft er the pronoun, followed by the infinitive verb (did not + infinitive): I You He She Did not enjoy. It We You They The past of the verb TO BE The past of the ve rb TO BE (am, is, are) it was / were: I Was You were

He She It We You They Was Were Present Continuous Tense indicates that an action is happening at the moment of speaking, or in the news: We are writing the letter now. Jennifer is reading the book. The Present Continuous can also be used in phrases that denote a likely f uture actions that we intend to make or that we are sure that will happen. Struc ture of the Present Continuous: VERB TO BE + VERB + MAIN TERM. ING Form negative It is not raining anymore. We are speaking in the affirmative Português now. I am looking for a teacher. WA RNING! to try - Trying to Studt - studying how to play - playing to carry - carr ying, etc.. to die - dying to lie - lying to tie - tying Interrogative form Are you felling bad at this moment? Studing Is she French? remains the "y" before the "-ing In these verbs, replace the "ie" by "y" and adds to the "-ing". to put - putting CVC (consonant to sit - sitting to swim - swimming, etc.. begin - beginning prefer - preferring well. omit - omitting Occur - ocurring, etc.. t o take - taking to have - HAVING Fold back the last consonant when there is the sequence: vowel - consonant) When the stressed syllable is the last, fold back the last consonant In verbs ending in "e" replaces it with the "-ing". EXCEPTIONS: to live - living to save - saving to shine - shining • To Be - Being to see - seeing to agree - agreeing The other verbs that do not participate in the exceptions mentioned above keeps its shape plus the-ing. • Some verbs are not inflected in the Present Continuous . Are verbs that usually indicate a state or condition. Some of them are: agree (agree) believe (believe) belong (belong) disagree (disagree) forget (forget) ha te (hate) Have (have) hear (hear) hope (expect) know (know) love (love) • presen t of the verb TO BE (is / am / are) going to + a structure is widely used before the infinitive of a verb that expresses a future action planned, when we talk a bout actions that are already planned: "... I am finally going to retire. "(Even tually I will retire) Simple Future Expresses facts and events that are likely to occur: They Will Arrive Tomorrow. Indicates decisions taken at the time of speaking: The cell phone is ringing. I'll answer it. Offer or ask for help: W ho Will help me? I will help you. 1. Training: SUBJECT infinitive without TO) WI LL + + MAIN VERB (in 2. Shorthand: 'll (will) will not (will not) 3. Negative way: I will not drink i t. I will not drink it. 4. Interrogative form: Will They drink it? 5. Going to This form expresses the subject's intention to perform an action in the future . This intention is always premeditated and planned, it also expresses the idea that some preparation for this action has taken place; expressed by going to A ctions are more likely to happen: He Is Going to Be a denstist When he gets the graduation. (He'll be a dentist when you graduate) I'm going to to meet Tom at t he station at six o'clock. (I'll find Tom at the station to the station for six hours) Remarks: The Will Shall be replaced by the first person singular and pl ural (I / We) sentences in more formal: I Shall of everything and we Shall live

in peace. The Will help promote expressed an intention that is not sure what w ill happen, while going to denote a greater likelihood that the action happen. A dverbs The adverb is a word that modifies a verb, an adjective or another adverb . Adverbs, according to the circumstance that express may be: Adverbs of Place (adverbs of place) Here the (here, here) the There (there, there, there, there, in that place at that point) the Near (close, close, within walking distance) t o Up (top up) the Down (down, down) For example: She lives there (she lives ther e) John Works here. (John works here) Adverbs of Tme (adverbs of time) may be used at the beginning or end of the prayer. Now the (now, now, immediately) the Today (today) Tomorrow (tomorrow) the last week (last week) In the 1997 (1997) E xample: I bought this computer yesterday. (I bought this computer today) Adver bs of Frequency (adverbs of frequency) the Twice (twice) Often the (often) to Al ways (always) Never (never) Usually the (always, frequently) Sometimes (sometime s) Rarely the (rare) The Seldon (rarely) the adverbs of frequency are placed: 1. After Verbot BE in s entences where it is the main verb: the I am always tired. (I'm always tired) 2. Before the main verb: She usually; the Works on Saturdays. (He always works on Saturdays) the He never stays there. (He is never there) 3. After the first auxi liary verb in sentences with compound tenses: the never-She Had Studied French. (She had never studied French) Note: The adverbs of frequency with the negative direction may come at the beginning of prayer. In this case, there should be a r eversal of the verb with the subject: She is never a happy / Never is she happy. (She is never happy) If the prayer is in the Simple Present or Simple Past, the verb is replaced with the corresponding helper: the They seldom Went out / They Seldom did go in October (They rarely left) in prayers formed by auxiliary verb / modal and principal, invert the subject and auxiliary verb / modal: the He Ca n never get there / Never Can he get there. (He'll never get there) Adverbs of Manner (adverbs of manner) the Quickly (quickly) the Calmly (camamente) Happily the (fast) Ex: She types quickly. (She types quickly) NOTE: adverbs of manner a re usually formed from an adjective plus the suffix - "ly": a calm calmly Ly = + Adverbs of Degree (adverbs of intensity) the Too (much, too much) the Very ( very, very) Almost (almost near) the Really (really) the Rather (before, somewha t better) Quite the (quite, quite reasonably) Ex: It is very cold. (It's too col d) NOTE: Some maintain the same form adverbs from adjectives which are derived from: The Far (out) the Low (low) Well (well) Fast (fast and rapidly) oooo Others have two forms, but their meanings are different: High (high ) - haghly (high school) Ha rd (difficult, hard, hard) - Hardly (evil almost) Late (late) - lately (recently ) Near (next) - "nearly (almost, almost) Position of Adverbs If two or more ad verbs in a sentence, the sequence is: 1st: adverb of manner 2: adverb of place 3 rd adverb of time eg I is raining steadily in Sao Paulo today. (It's raining uni nterrupted in São Paulo) When the verb indicate motion, the sequence will be: 1st: 2nd place adverb: adverb of time adverb 3 Ex: He Went to England by plane i n 1997. (He went to England by plane in 1997) If two or more adverbs of the sa me type of prayer, will be closer to the verb that which contains more specific information within the set of information passed by the other adverbs: Ex: I was Born in the morning, on April 15, in 1951. (I was born on the morning of April 15, 1951) If adverbs of manner, the shortest precede the longest: Ex: He is sp eaking low and continuously. (He is speaking quietly and continuously) NOTE: A lways, Never and Ever are generally positioned between the auxiliary (have / has ) and the main verb. Yet (already);€used in interrogative sentences to indicat e surprise or anticipation): Ex: Have you eaten all your desert yet? (Have you e aten your dessert?) Yet (yet) used at the end of prayers negative: Ex Train ha sn't arrived yet. (This has not arrived yet) Just (recently) expresses an acti on that just happened: Ex: She Has Just last her last chance. (She has just lost his last chance) laterly (lately): Ex: I have not gone to the theater lately. (I have gone to the theater lately) Recently (recently): Ex: He Has changed h is job recently. (He recently changed jobs)

NOTE: Lately, Recently Yet geralemnte and are positioned at the end of prayer. WEATHER Past Simple FORM • Regular Verb: term. ed; • irregular verb: various ways (note the list of irregular verbs) • auxiliary verb did (in the negative and interrogative). Stocks finished EXPRESS which occurred at a definite time in the past. • Adverb Yesterday, last, night, last week, last month, two days ago, three weeks ago, etc.. • Present Perfect • Have / has + past participle in the main verb. • actions that occurred in an indefinite time in the past, actions that started in the past and continue to the present, shares that have just occurred. actions t hat started in the past and still present (emphasis on continuity) Already, yet, ever, lately, recently, etc.. • Hereto Have / Has Been Perfect + main verb ending in ing Continuous For, since, lately, recently. Adverbs used with the Present Perfect and Present Perfect Continuous: Adverb Sin ce Yet Just For Already Provided For Translation for I have yet End of sentence types All types All types Affirmative, negative and interrogative interrogative Affirmative Lately never Ever Lately Ever neck All types interrogative negative