Departmentalization INTRODUCTION The departmentalization can be considered among all the components of organizati onal structure, the best

-known executives and employees. Departmentalization: th e grouping, according to a specific criterion of homogeneity, activities and rel ated resources (human, financial, material and equipment) in organizational unit s. The organizational structure is represented by the chart. Chart 2: is a graphical representation of ORGANISATION CHART Must be working. Requirements: Easy reading, good interpretation of the components allow the organization; Bein g part of a process of organizational structural representation; Be flexible. of the used as instrument of Objectives: show the division of labor, dividing the organization into organizational fracti ons; emphasize the superior-subordinate relationship and delegation of authority and responsibility and the work of Focus 3 in each unit; Facilitate organizatio nal analysis. ORGANISATION CHART Benefits: To detect: Neglected important functions and secondary functions with too much importance; functions duplicate or poorly distributed; GIS facilitates the flow of communication; Helps graduate jobs and tasks and sta ndardize positions; helps to visualize the entire organizational needs for chang e and growth. Limitations: Displays only one dimension of relationships between individuals and organizatio nal fractions; 4 shows the relations that should exist and the existing reality. TYPES OF departmentalization There are some forms of enterprise departmental activities: by quantity, functional, territorial or geographical location, for products or s ervices, by clients, by processes, for projects matrix, and mixed. 5 Departmentalization BY QUANTITY In this type of departmentalization should be grouped number of people who are n ot that distinguishable from that situation, have an obligation to perform tasks under the orders of a superior. A variant of departmentalization is the amount for each turn in which a set of similar activities are allocated to different or ganizational units in order to turn that these activities are carried out six si milar. Departmentalization BY QUANTITY

Cleaning Service Class 1 Class 2 Class 3 7 Departmentalization FUNCTIONAL In this group, activities are grouped according to business functions and can be considered the criterion of departmentalization used by most companies. In prac tice, this departmentalization by administration functions should not be conside red appropriate as these functions should be allocated in all organizational uni ts of the company. It can also be departmentalized 8 per field. Departmentalization FUNCTIONAL General Manager Production Manager Sales Manager Finance Manager Hydraulic Engineering Manager Manager Manager Manager Electrical Mechanical 9 Departmentalization FUNCTIONAL Advantages: greater stability, greater security, specialization of labor, increased concentr ation and use of specialized resources, positive influences on the satisfaction of the technicians; economy allows for maximum utilization of machinery and mass production, directs people to a specific activity, suitable for stable conditio ns and little change, and 10 recommended for companies that have little Departmentalization FUNCTIONAL Disadvantages: human insecurity; specialization of work, responsibility for the overall perform ance is only at the summit; communication is generally poor, low adaptability, p artial view of the company; resistance to pro-innovation environment, and worst meeting deadlines and budgets. 11 Departmentalization TERRITORIAL It is used in geographically dispersed companies. It is based on the principle t hat all activities that take place in a given territory should be grouped and pl aced under the orders of an executive. Central Administration Branches (agencies) Annapolis Rio Verde Morrinhos JataÍ 12 Departmentalization TERRITORIAL Advantages: obtain the economic advantages of certain local operations; possibility of incre ased training for staff by acting directly on the territory concerned; possibili ty of a more immediate action in a given region; easier to know the factors and problems at the local decision. 13 Departmentalization TERRITORIAL

Disadvantages: duplication of facilities and personnel, if there is a very effective planning, may leave background coordination, both in aspects of planning, execution and co ntrol of the company, as on the methods,€in view of the degree of freedom and a utonomy in the regions or branches placed, and the strictly territorial concern focuses more on the marketing and production, and requires little expertise. The other areas of the company become generally secondary. 14 Departmentalization PRODUCT The grouping is done according to the activities inherent to each of the product s or services of the company. Executive Vice President Group Automobiles and Accessories Other Groups Operating Buick Division Pontiac Division Alison Division Diesel Division Euclid Division 15 Departmentalization PRODUCT Advantages: facilitates the coordination of the expected results of each group of products o r services, because each group works as one unit of results, provides the capita l allocation for each specialized group of products or services, facilitates the maximum use of training resources including humans, through their specialized k nowledge; fixing the responsibility of the departments for a product or product line or services. The department is directed to all the basic aspects of your pr oduct or service, 16 as marketing, development, etc.. Departmentalization PRODUCT Advantages: provides greater ease for interdepartmental coordination, since the primary conc ern is the product or service, and the various departmental activities become se condary and must submit to the main objective which is the product or service, a llows greater flexibility because the production can be higher or lower, as cond itions change, without interfering with the organizational structure, the compan y's focus is predominantly on the products and services, not on its internal org anizational structure. Therefore, this kind of departmentalization has greater v ersatility and flexibility 17, and Departmentalization PRODUCT Disadvantages: coordination may be more difficult, when establishing the general policies of th e company, may provide the increased costs for duplication of activities in the various groups of products or services, you can create a situation in which mana gers of products or services become too powerful , which can destabilize the str ucture of the company, and may cause problems of human fears and anxieties when in external instability, because the employees tend to be more insecure about th e 18 some possibility of unemployment or Departmentalization BY CUSTOMERS

Activities are grouped according to the varied needs and special clients or cust omers of the company. Commercial Director Children's Department Department Male Toys Section Clothing Section Lingerie Section Section Fashions Perfumes Section 19 Departmentalization BY CUSTOMERS Advantages: provide a favorable situation for the company to take advantage of the condition s of well-defined customer groups, and recognition and ensure fast and continuou s service to different types and classes of customers. Disadvantages: there may be problems of coordination between this type of departmentalization a nd other types due to the managers of the departments by requiring customers to a great extent, special treatment, and 20 leads to inappropriate use of resource s Departmentalization BY PROCESS Activities are grouped according to the steps of a process. Does the manner in w hich the works are executed or processes to achieve a specific goal or objective . It is basically employed in industrial establishments. SECTION OF PREPARATION OF SECTION CUT SECTION OF STAMPING SECTION OF PRE-ASSEMBL Y SECTION ASSEMBLY 21 Departmentalization BY PROCESS Advantages: greater specialization of resources allocated, and the possibility of faster com munication of technical information. Disadvantages: possibility of losing the overview of the progress of the process, and limited f lexibility for adjustments in the process. 22 Departmentalization FOR PROJECTS The activities and people receive temporary assignments. The project manager is responsible for the entire project or part of it. After the task, personnel temp orarily had been assigned it is assigned to other departments or other projects. DIRECTORS Administration and Finance Commercial Projects Project -

Project - B Project - C 23 Departmentalization FOR PROJECTS Advantages: allows a high degree of group responsibility for implementing the project, which enables the employees involved have a high degree of knowledge of all work rela ted to the project, it has a high degree of versatility and adaptability, accept ing new ideas and techniques during the development of the work;€enables better customer service project, and allows for better adherence to deadlines and budg ets. 24 Departmentalization FOR PROJECTS Disadvantages: is the coordinator of the project is not adequately taking care of the administr ative part, or giving excessive attention to the technical part, you can generat e a situation of idle resources or misused, usually does not present an adequate system of communication and decision making, mainly because each group seeks to devote itself to its own project, forgetting that it is an integral part of the company, and the size of the group has performed in most cases, as a problem, s ince their effectiveness and efficiency are directly related to its size. The la rger the group 25, the lower the probability of success Departmentalization MATRIX In this case we have the superposition of two or more types of departmentalizati on on the same person. The matrix departmentalization in view of its characteris tics of shared responsibility requires levels of trust and ability to improvise to solve problems. The matrix departmentalization arose because traditional form s of organizing were not effective in dealing with complex activities, involving 26 different areas of scientific knowledge and Departmentalization MATRIX DIRECTORS PROJECT COORDINATION PROJECT DESIGN B DESIGN C MECHANICAL ELECTRICIAN DADE ELECTRONIC HUMAN RESOURCES AND MATERIALS HUMAN RESOURCES AND MATERIALS HUMAN RESOURCES AND MATERIALS 27 Departmentalization MATRIX Advantages: possibility of further improving its technical team work, coordination of staff more appropriately and consistently; further development of vocational training, increased specialization in the activities undertaken, appropriate use of vario us resources, better adherence to deadlines and budget, and better service custo

mer of the project. 28 Departmentalization MATRIX Disadvantages: dual subordination, generating a climate of ambiguity of roles and relationships , difficulty to clearly define responsibilities and authority of each element of the structure and minimize inevitable conflicts, and conflicts of interest betw een functional heads and the heads of projects. 29 Departmentalization MIXED It is the most frequent type, since each company must have a structure that bett er suits their organizational reality. DIRECTORS PROJECT MANAGEMENT PROJECT DESIGN B DESIGN C REGIONAL SOUTH REGIONAL NORTH FINANCIAL MANAGEMENT BUSINESS MANAGEMENT 30 ESTABLISHMENT OF BETTER departmentalization The establishment of the particular type of departmentalization problems may ari se regarding their choice. To avoid this, one can follow certain principles, pre sented by Koontz and O'Donnell: principle of greater use; principle of interest; principle of separation of cont rol, and early suppression of competition. 31 ESTABLISHMENT OF BETTER departmentalization Principle of greatest use: Provides that the department make more use of an activity must take it under its responsibility and authority. Principle of greatest interest: The department has more interest in an activity should supervise it. 32 ESTABLISHMENT OF BETTER departmentalization Principle of separation of control: States that control activities should be autonomous, independent and separate fr om the activities being monitored. Principle of competition: suppression of Establishes the need to eliminate competition between departments, grouping rela ted activities into a single department. 33 ORGANISATION CHART LINEAR The Linear Responsibility Chart shows: the

activity or decision related to an organizational position or office, showing wh o participates and to what degree, when a decision or activity should occur in t he company, and the relationships and the types of authority that must exist whe n more than one charge contributes to the implementation a joint work. 34 ORGANISATION CHART RADIAL Organization Chart Radial aims to show the macro business system components of a large business group: 35 SECTOR ORGANISATION CHART Sector Organization Chart is drawn up by concentric circles, which represent the various levels of authority from the central circle, where is the higher author ity of the company. 36 ORGANISATION CHART LINEAR Features: a condensed set of relevant information to be found in charts and manuals of org anizations arranged in the form of a matrix, a set of positions and / or organiz ational positions to be considered, which constitute the columns of the matrix, a set of responsibilities, activities, decisions, etc. arranged so that they are the rows of the matrix, and the symbols that indicate the degree of extension o f responsibilities and authorities,€so that 37 more clearly the relationship be tween the rows and columns, ORGANISATION CHART LINEAR Sample Chart Linear: 38 ORGANISATION CHART LINEAR Advantages: allows viewing of responsibility by function; allows characterize the way in whi ch a position is related to the others within the firm, allows the realization o f objective analysis of structure, and eliminate possible ambiguities in decisio n making. 39 ORGANISATION CHART LINEAR Disadvantages: does the informal structure which, incidentally, is a disadvantage of any type o f chart, and it is not easy to read, because people are not accustomed to workin g with this form of imaging. 40 VERTICAL ORGANISATION CHART Vertical Organization Chart is not used much, because usually, the companies pre sent their charts in the classic form: 41 ORGANISATION CHART CLASSIC

It's the kind of chart more complete and normal, which allows better understandi ng of the organic representation of a company. Demonstrates decision-making bodi es, advisory, operational and hierarchical position. Superior Consulting Decision Decision Decision Intermediate Intermediate Operati ng Operating 42 ORGANISATION CHART - TECHNIQUES FOR CONSTRUCTION Representation of bodies: 1) Consultants - connected to line 2) Assistants - linked to the national 2 Board 1 Advice Direction Advice (The person) (organ) 43 ORGANISATION CHART - TECHNIQUES FOR CONSTRUCTION General rules: ï § ï § ï § ï § It should contain the name of the organization, author, date and number, reference should be shown to other graphics; For analysis, submit the existing structure; Each function can be represented by a rectangle: rectangles must include position titles if need the name of the occupier, it mus t appear outside of the rectangle. If the chart shows only part of the 44 organization, there must be open lines to ORGANISATION CHART - TECHNIQUES FOR CONSTRUCTION Dashed lines: For agencies that do not exist formally or want to highlight them, aiming for a separate study. Maintenance Bus Tractors Trucks Autos 45 ORGANISATION CHART - TECHNIQUES FOR CONSTRUCTION â The higher levels should be slightly larger than their subordinates Board Service Department Division Section Sector 46 â To improve the aesthetics use interchangeably in the development of classical ch art ORGANISATION CHART - TECHNIQUES FOR CONSTRUCTION Representation of lines: Decision-making bodies - represented by vertical lines advisory bodies - represe nted by horizontal lines

47 ORGANISATION CHART - TECHNIQUES FOR CONSTRUCTION Representation authorities: Authority Executive Tax Advisory Technical Coordinator to 48 of Colorful types Black / White of Deliberative ORGANISATION CHART - TECHNIQUES FOR CONSTRUCTION Level Bodies 1st level - deliberative Deliberative 2nd level - executive Executives 3rd level - technical bodies 4th level - operational agencies Technicians Technicians Operating Operating Operating 49 ORGANISATION CHART - TECHNIQUES FOR CONSTRUCTION Nomenclature of Organ The organs that are in the same hierarchical level must have the same nomenclatu re. 50 Functional chart The functional chart is a chart that expands the sectoral shares of an organizat ional structure, respecting its structural features, making clear the activities that warrant, allowing to know the interdependence of the component parts of th e body. Known also as a functional organization chart, the functional chart trie s to give a general idea of the mission of each organ of the company. The functi onal chart should be included in the Organization Manual. 51 It is through the functional chart that Functional chart - OBJECTIVES Enable a more intimate knowledge of the organization; Provide details of the org an under study; Making clear the functions which justify the organs (mission). 52 STRUCTURE FOR ROUTINE AND INNOVATION It is very important that the executive is to establish the organizational struc ture will be focused on routine tasks or tasks of innovation. One way to compare the structures of routine and innovation is doing it through the constraints of organizational structure, as shown in the tables below: 53 STRUCTURE FOR ROUTINE AND INNOVATION

54 STRUCTURE FOR ROUTINE AND INNOVATION 55 STRUCTURE FOR ROUTINE AND INNOVATION The main features of the structure facing the routine activities, which correspo nd to traditional structures can be presented as follows: activities very well defined, better division of labor, high degree of specializ ation in the tasks; departmentalization by traditional criteria, vertical commun ication manager / subordinate; authority system strong and constant, increased c entralization of authority;€and more formalized structure through 56 procedures manuals and charts STRUCTURE FOR ROUTINE AND INNOVATION The main features of the structure to innovation are: poor definition of activit ies and assignments; low degree of specialization in the tasks, because their di versity would prevent this; departmentalization used as a criterion, innovation, that is putting together the creative and innovative units and separating them from the units of routines, communication as open as possible: vertical, horizon tal and diagonal; authority system mobile and more liberated than authoritarian, more decentralized levels of authority and responsibility; little formal struct ure, through procedures manuals and detailed charts, and climate for new ideas. 57 STRUCTURE FOR RESULTS Increasingly it is observed that companies are focused on the search for effecti ve results. This situation is related to many aspects such as the constant envir onmental changes, the actions of current and potential competitors, the form of executive compensation, seeking new challenges, etc.. The basic demand that the company is structured to be oriented so 58 effective for the achievement of resu lts STRUCTURE FOR RESULTS UEN - Strategic Business Units are ma unit or division of the company responsibl e for developing one or more AEN - Strategic Business Areas. NEA - Strategic Business Area is a part or market segment to which the company, through its UEN, relates to 59 strategic way, ie so STRUCTURE FOR RESULTS Some of the results can be achieved by the company for the use of optimized UEN are: increase of sales, optimizing the use of various resources; have better int eraction with the market opportunities, assist in the operation of fiscal and ta x; develop the level of quality of activities, have a healthy competitive enviro nment internal and 60 STRUCTURE FOR RESULTS The implementation of a management by UEN must be well planned because it also i nvolves behavioral aspects. 61 STRUCTURE FOR RESULTS Among the main advantages that the company must obtain, we mention: ease of analysis and action on the strategic environment, better formulation of strategies, better balance of activities compared to the overall business object ives / UEN or even at the corporate level, have the planning process structured

and simplified, and have in Most times, improved quality in the strategies formu lated. 62 STRUCTURE FOR RESULTS For the design of the UEN is true that the executive of the company finding the answers to some questions such as: a) The definition of business UEN b) The definition of the key factors for succe ssful UEN c) The analysis of the competitive positioning of the UEN and its majo r competitors; d) The development of strategies to achieve the goals of the UEN and 63 e) The construction of the diversification plan STRUCTURE FOR RESULTS Assumptions in the design of the UEN: Tues average sales of 10% of the company's other UEN, need quantity produced an average of 10% of other UEN; be related to a growing market segment, have better geographic fit, have a clearly defined set of competitors, competing in particu lar markets ; be able to manage resources, 64 operate in a single market segment