# Maria Cecilia Bonato BRANDALIZE Topography PUC / PR 11.

Medidas angle relative to the angles measured in topography, we can classify them in: 11.1. Angles Horizontal The horizontal angles measured in topography ca n be: a) Internal To measure a horizontal angle of the inner two consecutive alignments of a close d polygonal, the device must be parked, leveled and centered perfectly on one of the points that define (the extension of the main axis of the device must match the thumbtack on the paddock). Thus, the method of reading the above angle, using an electronic theodolite or t otal station, consists of: • Run the aim (fine) on the forward section (first line) • Reset the horizontal circle of the apparatus in this position (procedure Default → Hz = 000 ° 00'00 "); • Release and rotate the device (clockwise or counterclockwise), running marksmanship (fine) on the aft section (second line) corresponds to the internal horizontal angle measured. • Write down or record the angle (Hz) marked on the LCD screen The following figure illustrates the internal horizontal angles measured at all points of a polygonal closed. The relationship between the horizontal angles of a polygonal internal closed is given by: Civil Engineering -62 Maria Cecilia Bonato BRANDALIZE Topography Σ i = 180 Hz n -). (2 PUC / PR Where n represents the number of points or traverse stations. b) Foreign To measure a horizontal angle of the outer two consecutive alignments of a close d polygonal, the device must be parked, leveled and centered perfectly on one of the points that define (the extension of the main axis of the device must match the thumbtack on the paddock). Thus, the method of reading the above angle, using an electronic theodolite or t otal station, consists of: • Run the aim (fine) on the aft section (first line) • Reset the horizontal circ le of the apparatus in this position (procedure Default → Hz = 000 ° 00'00 "); • Release and rotate the device (clockwise or counterclockwise), running marksmanship (fine) on the forward point (second line); • Write down or record the angle (Hz) marked on the LCD screen

corresponds to the external horizontal angle measured. The following figure illustrates the external horizontal angles measured at all points of a polygonal closed. The relationship between external horizontal angles of a closed polygon is given by: Σ = 180 and n +2) Hz. ( Where n represents the number of points or traverse stations. The internal and external horizontal angles ranging from 0 ° to 360 °. Civil Eng ineering -63 Maria Cecilia Bonato BRANDALIZE Topography PUC / PR c) Deflection The deflection angle is the horizontal alignment to the way forwar d with the extension of the line aft to a device parked, leveled and centered pe rfectly, at a certain point of a polygon. This angle varies from 0 ° to 180 °. C an be positive, or right, if the direction of rotation is clockwise, negative, o r left if the direction of rotation is counterclockwise. Thus, to measure the de flection, using an electronic theodolite or total station, proceed as follows: F alling in Luneta • Run the aim (fine) on the aft section (first line) • Reset the horizontal circ le of the apparatus in this position (procedure Default → Hz = 000 ° 00'00 ") • Releasing only the scope of the apparatus and tu mble it the second extension of the first alignment; • Release and rotate the device (clockwise or counterclockwise), running marksmanship (fine) on the forward point (second line); • Write down or record the angle (Hz) marked on the LCD screen corresponds to the deflection measured. The following figure illustrates the deflection measurements at all points of a closed polygonal, toppling the telescope. The relationship between the deflections of a closed polygon is given by: Σ d - From 360 ° Σ = D The relationship between the deflections and angles of a polygonal internal hori zontal closed is given by: Of zi = H - 180 ° Civil Engineering -64 Maria Cecilia Bonato BRANDALIZE Topography PUC / PR HZI to> 180 ° and Dd = 180 °-H zi

HZI to <180 ° Rotating the Apparatus • Run the aim (fine) on the aft section (first line) • Charge against the horizo ntal circle of the device, in this position, an angle Hz = 180 ° 00'00 "; • Release and rotate the device (clockwise or counterclockwise), running marksmanship (fine) on the forward point (second line) and corresponds to the de flection measured. • Write down or record the angle (Hz) marked on the LCD screen rotating the device. The following figure illustrates the deflection measured at a point of a closed polygonal, In surveying, the choice of horizontal angle to be measured depends on the desig n andthe measure of these angles, it constitutes one of its greatest sources of error. o, to avoid or eliminate errors pertaining to the imperfections of the apparatus, the accuracy and reading those angles, we use methods that take place over a horizontal angle measurement for a single point of polygon. They are: a) Method of Repetition According partel (1977) and Domingues (1979) this method is to target in succes sion, alignments fore and aft of a particular point or station, setting the hori zontal angle reading and taking it as a starting point for the next move. As shown in the figure below: • The scope of the device is pointed at the forwar d point (aiming fine) and the horizontal circle of the same is reset; Civil Engineering -65 Maria Cecilia Bonato BRANDALIZE Topography PUC / PR • Then, the device is released and the telescope is pointed (fine pointing) to t he point aft • The resulting horizontal angle is noted or recorded • The device is released and the telescope is again drawn to the point of forward • The angle of departure used this time to the second horizontal angle measurement is no lo nger zero, but the angle recorded or previously recorded; • Frees up the device again and points to the aft section • A new horizontal angle is noted or recorde d. • The process is repeated a number n of times. This process of measuring several successive times the same horizontal angle is called a series of readings. The series are composed usually 3-8 readings, depen ding on the required accuracy for the survey. The final value of the horizontal angle, measured for alignment is given by the following relationship: Hz = Hz n - HZ1 (n - 1) Where: Hzn: is the last reading of the horizontal angle (in reverse). HZ1: the f irst reading of the angle of departure used (in forward). n: number of readings made. Civil Engineering -66 Maria Cecilia Bonato BRANDALIZE

Topography PUC / PR b) Method of Reiteration Also according partel (1977) and Domingues (1979) this method is to target in succession, alignments fore and aft of a particular poin t or station, taking as a basis for measuring the horizontal angles of the circl e at regular intervals . As shown in the figure below: • The scope of the device is pointed at the forward point (aiming fine) and the horizontal circle of the same is reset, • Then, the device is released and the telescope is pointed (fine pointing) to point aft • The resulting horizontal angle is noted or recorded • The device is released and the telescope is pointed again to the point forward; • The angle of departure used this time to the second measure of horizontal angle to be nonzero and whole. (Eg, 090 ° 00'00 "180 ° 00'00" 270 ° 0 0'00 ") • Frees up the device again and points to the aft section • A new horizo ntal angle is noted or registered. • The process is repeated a number n of times until the angle has been measured in all quadrants of the circle. Civil Engineering -67 Maria Cecilia Bonato BRANDALIZE Topography PUC / PR The final value of the horizontal angle, measured for alignment is given by the following relationship: Hz = Σ (2 Hz - HZ1) n Where: Hz2: is reading the horizontal angle (in reverse). HZ1: the horizontal an gle of departure used (in forward). n: number of readings made in forward gear. 11.2. Vertical angles As described above, the measurement of vertical angles, in some units, may be made as follows: a) from the Horizon When is called vertical angle or inclination, ranging from 0 ° to 90 ° upward ( over the horizon) or (b elow the horizon). b) from the Zenith or Nadir When given the name of nadir or z enith angle, ranging from 0 ° to 360 °. The relationship between the zenith angl e and the vertical are: Zenith Angle Inclination Ascending Direction 000 ° <V ≤ 090 ° 090 ° <V ≤ 180 ° 180 ° <V ≤ 270 ° 270 ° <360 ° V ≤ 11.3. Orient ation angles α = 90 ° - α V = V - 90 ° α = 270 ° - V α = V - 270 ° Descending Descending Ascending

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As lre dy st ted bove, the line joining the north pole to south pole of the e rth (those represented on the m ps) is c lled the line of poles or xis of rot t

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ion. Civil Engineering -68 M ri Cecili Bon to BRANDALIZE Topogr phy PUC / PR These poles re c lled geogr phic or true, nd for this re son, the line th t jo ins them is lso t ken s true. However, it is known th t the E rth due to its r ot tion, gener tes m gnetic field c using it to beh ve like m gnet. Thus, comp ss, st tioned on the l nd surf ce, h s ttr cted the needle through the pol es of the m gnet. In this c se, however,poles th t ttr ct the comp ss needle re c lled m gnetic. The gre t problem of topogr phy with respect to the ngles o f orient tion, is not ex ctly in coincidence with the m gnetic poles nd the geo gr phic v ri tion in the dist nce th t sep r tes them over time. Due to these ch r cteristics, it is necess ry to underst nd well th t when n lignment field g uide to the direction north or south, one must know which system (true or m gnet ic) is being used s reference. Therefore, it is import nt to know th t: Merid i n Geogr phic or true: the elliptic l section cont ined in the pl ne defined by the line of poles nd true vertic l position (observer). M gnetic meridi n: the elliptic l section cont ined in the pl ne defined by the line of m gnetic poles nd the vertic l position (observer). M gnetic declin tion: the ngle between t he true meridi n (north / south true) nd the m gnetic meridi n (north / south m gnetic) from one pl ce. This ngle v ries from pl ce to pl ce nd lso v ries i n the s me pl ce over time. These v ri tions re c lled secul r. Currently, to d etermine the secul r v ri tions nd the ctu l m gnetic declin tion, we use spec ific formul s ( v il ble in specific computer progr ms for m pping). According t o st nd rds c rtogr phic ch rts nd m ps sold in the country h ve, in their lege nds, the v lues of m gnetic declin tion nd secul r v ri tion for the center of the region represented in them. The orient tion ngles re used in Topogr phy: G eogr phic or True Azimuth: defined s the horizont l ngle th t the direction of n lignment m kes the geogr phic meridi n. This ngle c n be determined by st ronomic l methods (notice the sun, w tching the st rs, etc.). And now through th e use of GPS ccur cy. M gnetic Azimuth: defined s the horizont l ngle th t th e direction of n lignment c uses the m gnetic meridi n. This ngle is obt ined using comp ss, s shown below. Civil Engineering -69 M ri Cecili Bon to BRANDALIZE Topogr phy PUC / PR The zimuth (true or m gnetic) re counted from the north (N) or south (S) merid i n, clockwise - right zimuths, or in counter-clockwise - left zimuths r nging from 0 ° lw ys 360 °. Tow rds True: is obt ined s function of true zimuth by simple m them tic l rel tionships. M gnetic Course: it is the sm llest ngle form horizont l lignment with the north / south defined by the needle of comp ss (m gnetic meridi n). The direction (true or m gnetic) re counted from the n orth (N) or south (S) meridi n, clockwise or counterclockwise, r nging from 0 ° to 90 ° nd ccomp nied by the direction or qu dr nt where loc ted (NE, SE, SO, NO). The following figure illustr tes the orient tions of four lignments define d over the ground through Azimuths Right, ie the ngles counted from the north o f the meridi n clockwise.

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Civil Engineering -70 M ri Cecili Bon to BRANDALIZE Topogr phy PUC / PR The following figure illustr tes the orient tions of four lignments defined ove r the ground through Directions, ie, ngles counted from the north or south of t he meridi n (whichever is lower), clockwise or counterclockwise. Observing the bove figures, one c n deduce the rel tionship between Azimuth nd Right Directions: Qu dr nt Azimuth → Tow rds R = Az (NE) R = 180 ° - Az (SE) R = Az - 180 ° (SO) R = 360 ° - Az (NO) Tow rds → Azimuth Az = Az = 180 ° R - R = R + Az 180 ° Az = 360 ° - R 1st 2nd 3rd 4th Avivent ção of W ys nd M gnetic Azimuth: is the n me given to the process of re storing the m gnetic lignments nd ngles m rked for polygon t the time (d y , month, ye r) of its me surement for the present d y. This work is necess ry, s ince the position of the north nd south m gnetic poles (which serve s referenc e for the me surement of m gnetic directions nd zimuths) v ries over time. So to find the correct position of polygon l r ised t one time, it is necess ry th t the v lues resulting from this survey re restored for tod y. The s me proc ess is used for rent l, on the field lines projected onto pl nts or letters (ro ds, tr nsmission lines, g s pipelines, etc.). 11.4. Exercises 1.Determine zimut h, right nd left, corresponding to the direction of 27 ° 38'40 "S? Civil Engineering -71 M ri Cecili Bon to BRANDALIZE Topogr phy PUC / PR 2.Determine the course nd direction corresponding to the right of Azimuth 156 ° 10'37 "? 3.Supondo th t the re dings of the horizont l limb of theodolite, cl ockwisefrom fore to ft, were: HZ1 = 34 ° 45'20 " nd Hz2 = 78 ° 23'00" Determin e the ngle between the horizont l lignments me sured. This is n intern l or e xtern l ngle of the polygon? 4.Com the s me re dings of the previous question, determine wh t would be the horizont l ngle between the direction of lignments h d been re ding nti-clockwise, or forw rd to ft. This is n intern l or exte rn l ngle of the polygon? 5.A re ding the horizont l ngles of polygon l meth od w s used repetition nd obt ined the following series of re dings (clockwise, from fore to ft): HZ1 = 00 ° 00'00 "Hz2 = 33 ° 45 ' 10 "Hz3 = 67 ° 30'22" Hz4 = 101 ° 15'36 "Determine the ngle between the horizont l end lignments. 6.In o rder to re d the horizont l ngles of polygon l method w s pplied to the reit er tion nd obt ined the following series of re dings (clockwise, from fore to

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ft): HZ1 = 00 ° 00'00 "HZ1 = 90 ° 00 ' 00 "HZ1 = 180 ° 00'00" HZ1 = 270 ° 00'00 "Hz2 = 33 ° 45'10" Hz2 = 123 ° 45'08 "Hz2 = 213 ° 45'12" Hz2 = 303 ° 45'14 " Determine the ngle between the horizont l end lignments. 7.The zenith ngle re d on theodolite w s 257 ° 28'30 ". Wh t is the vertic l ngle corresponding t o it? Wh t is the direction of the telescope for this vertic l ngle? 8.The v lu e of the direction of line is 31 ° 45'NO. zimuths Meet the fore nd ft (both right), the line in question. 9.Determine the m gnetic declin tion, for the cit y of Curitib , in July 1, 1999. 10.Problem of vivent ção of directions nd zi muths: the m gnetic direction of line, me sured in 01/01/1970 w s 32 ° 30'SO. C lcul te the v lue of the direction of th t line, to 01/06/1999. Civil Engineering -72 M ri Cecili Bon to BRANDALIZE Topogr phy PUC / PR 11.Problem vivent ção of the directions nd zimuths: the d t from the previo us ye r, c lcul te the true course of the line. 11.5. Proposed 1.Determine exerc ises the right to the zimuth direction of 89 ° 39'45 "NO. 2.Determine zimuth l eft to the direction of 39 ° 35'36 "SE. 3.Determine the course nd direction for the zimuth 197 ° 35'43 ". 4.Determine the course nd direction for the zimuth of 277 ° 45'01 ". 5.Determine the zenith ngle corresponding to the vertic l n gle of 2 ° 04'07 "bottom up. 6.Determine the zenith ngle corresponding to the v ertic l ngle of 3 ° 15'27 "descend nt. 7.Determine the vertic l ngle nd direc tion of the telescope corresponds to the zenith ngle of 272 ° 33'43 ". 8.Determ ine the vertic l ngle nd direction of the telescope corresponds to the zenith ngle of 89 ° 21'17 ". 9.Determine the deflection corresponding to the intern l horizont l ngle of 133 ° 45'06 ". This deflection is to the right or left of th e lignment? 10.Determine the deflection corresponding to the horizont l ngle o f 252 ° 35'16 intern l. " This deflection is to the right or left of the lignme nt? 11.Determine the exterior ngle t vertex of polygon corresponding to defl ection of 35 ° 18'10 "to the left. 12.Determine the exterior ngle t vertex of polygon corresponding to the deflection of 128 ° 45'58 "to the right. 12. Meth ods of Pl nimetric Surveys In previous items h ve been described methods nd equ ipment used in me suring dist nces nd ngles during surveying. These surveys, h owever, should be employed obeying cert in criteri nd follow cert in steps th t depend on the size of the re , relief nd the precision required by the proje ct th t ent ils. Civil Engineering -73 M ri Cecili Bon to BRANDALIZE Topogr phy PUC / PR Following, therefore, will describe the methods of pl nimetric surveys involving ph ses: Recognition of L nd Survey of Polygon l Survey of pl nimetric fe tures Locks, Are , Coordin tes Dr wing Pl nt nd Memori l Description 12.1. According to survey by Irr di tion Sp rtel (1977), the method of irr di ti on is lso known s method of decomposition into tri ngles or Pol r Coordin te s. It is employed in the ev lu tion of sm ll rel tively fl t surf ces. Once dem rc ted the bound ry of the surf ce to be r ised, the method is to loc te, str te gic lly, point (P), inside or outside the dem rc ted re , nd where they c n be spotted ll the other points th t define it. So, from th t point (P) re the dist nces of the points defining this re s well s the ngles between the hor

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izont l lignments th t h ve (P) s vertex. The me surement of dist nces c n b e chieved by the direct method, indirect or electronic nd me surement of ngle s c n be ccomplished through the use of optic l or electronic theodolites. The resulting precision of the survey will of course depend on the type of device or equipment.The following figure illustr tes n re dem rc ted by seven points with the point (P) str tegic lly loc ted within the s me. Of (P) re me sured ho rizont l ngles (HZ1 the Hz7) nd the horizont l dist nces (DH1 to DH7). Civil Engineering -74 M ri Cecili Bon to BRANDALIZE Topogr phy PUC / PR E ch tri ngle (whose vertex is the m in P) re known to both sides nd n ngle. The other dist nces nd ngles required to determine the re in question re d etermined by trigonometric rel tions. This method is widely used in projects inv olving mooring det ils nd the densific tion of support for l nd surveying nd p hotogr mmetric work. 12.2. According to survey by Sp rtel Intersection (1977), M ethod of Intersection is lso known s method of Bipol r coordin tes. It is em ployed in the ssessment of sm ll re s of rugged terr in. Once dem rc ted the b ound ry of the surf ce to be r ised, the method is to loc te str tegic lly colon (P) nd (Q), inside or outside the dem rc ted re , nd where they c n be spott ed ll the other points th t define it. So, me sure the horizont l dist nce betw een the points (P) nd (Q), which provide point of reference, nd ll horizont l ngles formed between the b se nd the other m rked points. The me sure of di st nce c n be ccomplished by the direct method, indirect or electronic nd ngl e me surements c n be ccomplished through the use of optic l or electronic theo dolites. The resulting precision of the survey will of course depend on the type of device or equipment. The following figure illustr tes n re dem rc ted by seven points with points (P) nd (Q) str tegic lly loc ted within the s me. Of ( P) nd (Q) re me sured horizont l ngles between the b se nd points (1-7). Civil Engineering -75 M ri Cecili Bon to BRANDALIZE Topogr phy PUC / PR Of e ch tri ngle re known two ngles nd one side (b se defined by PQ). The oth er dist nces nd ngles required to determine the re in question re determine d by trigonometric rel tions. 12.3. According to survey by P th Sp rtel (1977) t his is the method used in the survey re s for l rge nd rugged. Requires l rg er mount of steps th n those described bove, however, offers gre ter reli bili ty with respect to the results. The method in question includes the following st eps: 1. Recognition of L nd: during this ph se, it is custom ry to m ke the depl oyment of poles ( lso c lled vertices or st tions) for the delimit tion of the re s to be lifted. The geometric l figure gener ted from this definition is c ll ed polygon l. The polygon c n be of two types: ) Open: the st rting point (st r ting point or PP) does not coincide with the end point (point of rriv l or PC). b) Closed: The point of dep rture coincides with the rriv l point (PP ≡ PC). c ) Supported: p rt of known point nd re ches point well known. C n be opened

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or closed. d) Semi Supported: p rt of known point nd re ches point which i s known only the zimuth. C n only be of the open. e) Not Supported: from poin t th t c n be known or not, nd rrives t n unknown point. C n be opened or cl osed. Civil Engineering -76 M ri Cecili Bon to BRANDALIZE Topogr phy PUC / PR Note: one point is known s UTM coordin tes (E, N) or geogr phic l (φ, λ) are de termined. These points are dep oyed on the ground through concrete b ocks (ca e d andmarks) and are protected by aw. Usua y, part o a nationa geodetic netw ork, the responsibi ity o the principa organs mapping o the country (IBGE, DS G, DHN, among others). When these points are known a titudes (h), these are ca ed RN - Re erence Leve . The o owing igure i ustrates a rame o concrete an d its dimensions.

2. Survey o Po ygona : During this phase, goes or the seasons o the po ygon, one by one, c ockwise, measuring ang es and horizonta distances. These va ues a s we as the sketch o each point are recorded in books o appropriate ie d or recorded in the memory o the app iance. The choice o method or measurement o ang es and distances, and o such equipment, is a unction o the precision re quired or the work o the contractor and the demands or services (customer). 3 . Survey o Detai s: In this phase, it is customary to emp oy the method o tria ngu ation or perpendicu ar (when the device is used to anchor the tape), or the method o radiation (when the device is used or the theodo ite station tota ). 4 .Orientation Traverse: is done by determining the direction or azimuth o the i rst a ignment. There ore, it is necessary to use a compass (direction / azimuth magnetic) or rom a known base (bearing / azimuth true). Civi Engineering -77 Maria Ceci ia Bonato BRANDALIZE Topography PUC / PR 5. Computation o Data: cessation o the ie d, there shou d be a computer in th e o ice, the data obtained. This is a process that invo ves the angu ar and in ear c osure, transportation o the course / azimuths and coordinates and ca cu a tion o the area. 6. P ant Design and Dra ting Memoria Description: A ter deter mining the coordinates (X, Y) o the measured points, it wi resu t in making t he design o the p ant as o ows: a) Topographic Drawing: the vertices o the p o ygon and the points key re erence must be p otted according to their coordinat es (X and Y axes), whi e the common points o detai ( eatures) shou d be p otte d with the aid o esca ímetro, compass and protractor ( or drawings made by hand ). In the drawing must inc ude: - The natura eatures and / or arti icia (as represented by standard symbo s o r conventions) and accompanying toponymy - True or magnetic orientation - the date o the survey - the graphic and numeri

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Size (mm) 841x1189 1682x1682 594x841 420x594 297x420 210x297 Area (m2) 2 1 0.50 0.25 0.1250 0.0625 -78 Maria Ceci ia Bonato BRANDALIZE Topography PUC / PR A5 148x210 0.0313

Civi Engineering -79 Maria Ceci ia Bonato BRANDALIZE Topography I = 360 Hz-Hz and PUC / PR 2. Angu ar error o c osure Σ i = 180 Hz n -). (2 If the sum of the internal horizontal angles measured did not result in the amou nt stipulated by the above relationship, there is an error of closure (e). The e rror found can not be greater than the tolerance angle (ξ). The angular toleranc e, in turn, depends on the equipment used. For the TC500 total station, the angu

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c) Memoria Description: It is an indispensab e document or the record in o ic e, the raised sur ace. Must contain a detai ed description o this sur ace with respect to its ocation bordering area, perimeter, owner name, etc. .. 12.4. Dat a Processing Data processing inc udes the c osing o the horizonta ang es, tran sport o azimuths, the c osing o horizonta distances, transport and the ca cu ation o the coordinates o the area. The o owing is the sequence o ca cu ati ons: 1. Trans ormation o externa into interna horizonta ang es

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Margins (or ooseness) are norma y app ied d 5 to 15mm or the other side.

rom 25 to 30mm or the

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These ormats correspond to the t that is A0:

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c sca e - the egend and conventions used - the tit e (the work) - the number o vertices, distance and azimuth a ignment - the coordinate axes - area and perim eter - those responsib e or imp ementing the design can be: - Mono: a in b ac k ink. - Po ychromatic: b ue → red → hydrography bui dings, roads, streets, side wa ks, paths ... → → vegetation green b ack egend, mesh and toponymy b) Range: the choice o the sca e o the p ant is a unction o the size o the paper bein g used, the remoteness o the coordinate axes, or margins o s ack and the preci sion required or work. The o owing tab e indicates the paper sizes used or m anu acturing p ants, according to the ABNT. 2xA0 ormat A0 A1 A2 A3 A4 Civi Engineering

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lar tolerance is given by: ξ = 5 "n Where n represents the number of vertices of the polygon measured. 3. The angula r distribution of the error correction due to angular error of closure is propor tional to the angle measured at the station and is given by the following relati onship: Cn = i Hz. And Σ i Hz The correction values found for each angle should be added or subtracted to the same as for error is plus or minus. 4. Transportation Azimuth From the first pos session of the azimuth alignment of the polygon (measured or calculated), it is the transport to the other alignments through the relation: Az (P) = Az (P -) - 1 Hz (P) If Az (P)> 180 ° → Az (P) = Az (P) - 180 ° If the Az (P) <180 ° → Az (P) = Az (P ) + 180 ° To check whether the transport of azimuth was processed correctly, the azimuth of arrival must be not equal to the azimuth output. Civil Engineering -80 Maria Cecilia Bonato BRANDALIZE Topography PUC / PR 5. Variations in X and Y variations in X and Y each season polygon are calculate d by the following relations: Δ (P) DH = X (P). sin (Az (P)) Δ (P) DH = Y (P). cos (Az (P)) 6. The linear closure linear closure of a polygon is done through the following relations: Σ X = 0 Δ and Σ Y Δ = 0 If the sums are not equal to zero, there is an error of linear closure in X (e ) and the other in Y (y). 7. Distribution of Linear Error Corrections due to the error of linear closure are proportional to the distances measured and are given by the following relations: C (P) = e . DH (Q) Q and Cy (P) = ey. DH (Q) Q The correction values found for each variation in X and Y should be added or sub tracted to the same as the errors are lower or more. 8. Accuracy The accuracy of the survey (M) of the survey is determined by the relationship: M = P ε wh r ε =

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Th valu of M should b gr at r than 1000 for th surv y is consid r d th topo graphic (fourth ord r). 9. Arm d Transport coordinat s of X and Y coordinat s (U TM or local) of th first point of th polygon, it is th transportation to oth r points through th r lationships: Civil Engin ring -81 Maria C cilia Bonato BRANDALIZE X (P) = (P -) + X (P -) X 1 Δ 1 Topography PUC / PR and Y (P) = (P -) + Y (P -) Δ Y 1 1 To check whether the transport of coordinates was processed correctly, the value s of X and Y of arrival found to be equal to the values of X and Y output. With the coordinate values found proceeds to calculate the scale and design of the pl ant. 10. Area The area of the polygonal measure is found by applying the Gauss. 12.5. E ercises 1.Dada the table of values below, determine the coordinates of t he points and the polygonal area. eason 1 2 3 4 5 Hze 258 36'00 "210 ° 47'00" 2 79 ° 01'30 "243 41'00" 267 ° 55'30 "DH f 1253.94 1317.52 m 1208.27 m 1899.70 m 1 148.62 m Az 51 ° 22'00 " The coordinates of point 1: X (1) = 1000.00 m and Y (1) = 1000.00 m. 2.Com the c oordinates of the previous financial year, draw a polygon on a sheet of A4 paper (lying) discounting 2 cm margins on each side of the sheet. Civil Engineering -82 -

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x 2 + y 2