ARTICLE / ARTICLE Risk Map in Brazil: The Limits of Applicability of a model Brazilian Workers Ris k Map: Limited Applicability

of the Model Worker Ubirajara A. O. Mattos1 Nilton Benedito B. Freitas2 MATTOS, U. A. º & FREITAS, N. B. B. Operating Risk Map: Limited Applicability of the Model Worker. Cad Saúde Públ., Rio de Janeiro, 10 (2): 251-258, Apr / Jun, 1994. This paper shows the limitations Identified in Brazilian risk map applicat ions from a legal and methodological perspective. First, the conception, origin, and value of the risk-map of the methodology are presented under the Italian Pe rceived Health Reform. Next, the authors report on introduction of the methodolo gy into Brazil in the early 1980s and the reactions by companies' When It Became the legal requirement for Those Which HAD Accident Prevention Committees. Final ly, a brief discussion on the effectiveness of ITS use by workers in Preventing health risks is included. Key words: Worker's Health; Risk Assessment: Italian W orker Model WHAT'S STATEMENT OF RISK? It is a graphical representation of a number of factors present in the workplace , can lead to health workers. Such factors arise in various aspects of the work (materials, equipment, facilities, supplies, and work spaces, where the changes occur) and the form of work organization (layout, work pace, work method, workin g shifts, working posture, training, etc.). 70, through the union movement, originating in the Federazione dei Lavoratori Me talmeccanici (FLM), which at the time, developed its own model of action researc h and control of working conditions for workers, the well known "Italian Worker Model." This model was premised on the formation of homogeneous groups, working experience or subjectivity, consensual validation and non-delegation, allowing t he employee participation in planning activities and health management in the wo rkplace, not delegating such duties to technicians and building on existing expe rience and knowledge workers. "For the work environment is free from harm which always accompanies it is necessary for scientific discoveries in this field are socialized, ie brought to the attention of workers in an effective manner, it is necessary that the working class to take ownership of them and position itself as a protagonist in the fight against disease, disability and deaths at work. On ly a real position of hegemony of the working class on the problems of harmfulne ss can guarantee the changes that can and should determine an appropriate work e nvironment for man. WHAT IS YOUR SOURCE? The mapping of risk emerged in Italy in the late 60s and the early 1 Center for Occupational Health and Human Ecology, National School of Public Heal th. Rua Leopoldo Bulhões, 1480, 3rd floor, 21041-210, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. 2n d Inter Department of Studies and Research in Health and Work Environments, Repu blic Square, 386, 3rd floor, set 33, 01045-000, São Paulo, SP Brazil. , Cad Saúde Públ., Rio de Janeiro, 10 (2): 251-258, abr / jun, 1994 251 Mattos, U. A. O. & Freitas, N. B. B. Only the fight with a union activities conducted with precise objectives vindica ted, with the achievement of a real power of workers and the union, it is possib le to impose the changes, whether technological or technical standards, which co uld nullify or minimize the risks that a worker is exposed in the workplace. " (

Oddone et al. 1986: 17) This methodology has an important role in the Italian He alth Reform (Law 833 of 23/09/78 which established the National Health Service), which created conditions for building a participatory and self -regulation in t he elimination of risk by providing in Article 20 risk maps (Oddone et al., 1986 ). Minas Gerais, preparing 40 new instructors from different areas of activity, abo ut 200 companies are already applying this technique with positive results "(Abr aham, 1993: 22) In 1986 was released in Brazil Workplace: the struggle of worker s for health, by Ivar Oddone and other union members to union activity with tech nical and academic. Besides Diesat, which adopts this instrument since 1983 and that in the last six years has used in the training courses for local acronym CI PA (Internal Commission for Accident Prevention) or monitors Cipa, the National Institute of Occupational Health (INST) of Central Unica dos Trabalhadores (CUT) is currently "one of the main signatories of the method" (Davis 1992a: 11). HOW THE STATEMENT OF RISK COME TO BRAZIL? The Risk Map has spread throughout the world,€coming to Brazil in the early 80s. There are two versions as to its introduction in Brazil. The first, made attrib utes such trade union and academic areas, by David Capistrano, Mario Gaawryzewsk i, Hélio Martins Baís Son and of the Inter Department of Studies in Health and W orking Environment (Diesat). The other version gives the Foundation Jorge Figuei redo Duplat Safety and Occupational Health (Fundacentro) spreading the risk map in the country. According to Engineer Mario Abraham: "Technicians Fundacentro of Minas Gerais were assigned to study the method of work and monitor the results. After a long follow-up and confirmation of positive results, they began as mult ipliers to teach this technique throughout the country in São Paulo, through the joint efforts of Fundacentro Sao Paulo Regional Labor Office of Osasco and Meta lworkers Union of Osasco, who in 1982 sponsored two courses with the technical THE CONSTRUCTION OF MAPS OF RISKS mandatory? The completion of hazard mapping has become mandatory for all companies in the c ountry that have Cipa, by Ordinance No 5 of 17.8.1992 of the National Department of Safety and Occupational Health, Ministry of Labour. According to Article 1 o f the decree lies with the local acronym CIPA construction of risk maps of the w orkplace. Through its members, the CIPA should listen to the workers of all sect ors of business and can count on the collaboration of the Department of Medicine and Specialized S eguran ç ado calculated using data (SESMT) of the company, if any. Risks should be represented in a blueprint or sketch of the workplace (ske tch) and the types of risks related to their own tables, appended to that order. Later, the maps should be posted in visible locations in all sections for knowl edge workers, remained in place until a new management Cipa, when then they shou ld be remade (Brazil, 1992). 252 Cad Saúde Públ., Rio de Janeiro, 10 (2): 251-258, abr / jun, 1994 Risk Map THE LIMITATIONS ON APPLICABILITY OF STATEMENT OF RISK Apart from limitations when the theory of this instrument, identified by researc hers as Laurel & Noriega, there are also other criticisms related to the impleme ntation of that ordinance, both derived from the business and the labor union en vironment. The limitations Theorization In the former, Laurell & Nuriega note the lack of differentiation between theory and practice (without theorizing the experiences of research) and that with aa technological restructuring and reorganization of work the particular knowledge

becomes useless, and impossible to redesign the knowledge in the future , with r espect to construction of new proposals. Thus, according to Laurell & Noriega (1 989: 94-95): "... when the reality changes drastically factory, the special know ledge - for that is rich - becomes essentially useless, because its goal disappe ars. Moreover, since there has extracted from it what specific situations must g enerally becomes impossible to design knowledge in the future, when considering the construction of new proposals. That is, the particular knowledge based on ex perience is, at best, a phenomenological knowledge of past and present, so far a nd this until you have gone through a time of theorizing. The lack of generaliza tion and theory of knowledge, finally, makes it hardly isolable their specific c arriers. It becomes a personal experience shared by several or even many, but no t memory becomes final class, retrievable at times when changes in the correlati on of forces allow us to advance the workers' positions. " Beyond these issues, there are other limitations mentioned by Lauar et al. (1991: 48) that should not be ignored: "One limitation is not overcome by the model is the poor approach of the factors of risk group 4: Issues related to fatigue and mental health. In particular, .. ., it is necessary to deepen the research and improving the methodology, because the trial comprehensive and concise workers on these issues has proved insuffic ient to detect changes early and define preventive actions ... Another difficult y to be overcome is the question of 'homogeneity' of the 'Workers Party'. Note t hat in a given condition of social stability, organizational and technological, a group of workers can be considered homogeneous in a particular department of t he factory, despite the observed difference in working time, prior experience, p revious exposure, degree of responsibility ,€as well as external factors of the plant itself (culture, education etc. .)... When speaking of difficulties, shoul d not be neglected the weight represented by the threat of unemployment, which n ow affects about 10% of the workforce and Italian which causes a deviation from the priority placed on health by fighting for workers' organizations. " Kuchenbe cker (1992) comments on the need for upgrading the research tool that enables a working practice of research with the participation of experts in the group and health assessments and work combined with the Occupational Health Programs. Limitations The Ordinance This ordinance has been the subject of much discussion in business and unions, a nd alleged difficulties in their compliance of technical and business directions , as regards its construction, ie as the symbology employed (use of circles of d ifferent sizes and colors) and the definition of environmental risks (which were introduced two new categories, plus the three existing ones). Cad Saúde Públ., Rio de Janeiro, 10 (2): 251-258, abr / jun, 1994 253 Mattos, U. A. O. & Freitas, N. B. B. Rather conservative and corporate sectors of the technical means of Safety Engin eering and Occupational Medicine have also been manifested through-circulation m agazines in the area, in defense of an alleged "technical expertise" to the detr iment and criticism of the "knowledge worker" "subjective knowledge" and "qualit ative assessment" of the conditions of work (Zocchio, 1993). Sustained only in t heir own professional interests and trade, these sectors can not clearly articul ate his speech with some technical-scientific basis. However, they acquire acade mic value in bringing to light reflection on the traditional model of Occupation al Health (who knows his limits just in the very fragmented approach to structur ing the work into different areas with different knowledge and responsibility al so known as Medicine Labour (medical activity directed primarily to the worker), Occupational Hygiene (which acts on the desktop) and Safety (concern for the pr evention of accidents at work) (Mendes, 1980). It is precisely this fragmentatio

n that Italian Worker Model and methodology of the Risk Map condemn, in addressi ng the health of the whole, unitary, dynamic, from the interaction of various fa ctors and agents in the environment with the social agents (capitalists and work ers). "In Firstly because the employee lives and realize their employment status as a unit ... and secondly because the causal point of view, these different fa ctors constitute a complex system that includes multiple interactions (Mendes, 1 988: 15). This was including understanding which led to the WHO (World Health Or ganization) recently to change its program of "Occupational Health" for "Health Workers", recognizing the traditional models of the Occupational Health Services "a system that either was successful in controlling accidents and occupational diseases, judging by the persistence of significant magnitude "in many companies and in most countries (Freitas, 1992b: 6). This is exactly why the ass umptions of the Italian Worker Model and Occupational Health are establishing pr inciples that are marked by the analysis of multiple causes of diseases; for wor kers' right to know the risks they are exposed in the workplace, the rights of w orkers to refuse to expose their lives and their health risks at work; the right to access of workers to the result of his medical examinations, the right of wo rkers' representatives monitor the audits of working conditions, the abolition o f the indiscriminate use of PPE in favor of environmental improvements etc.. Fin ally, a model that always appreciates the participation of employees in matters related to their health from the recognition of their knowledge and their role i n the work process. Exactly who do not want those who use the profession for the mere protection of private interests or for the exercise of their undoubted inc ompetence everyday. Victims of their own ignorance, bemintencionados some among them even understand the complex system in which they are enmeshed. Then they tr y at all costs disqualify the knowledge and assistance of those who produce the goods that pay their salaries. The service entrepreneurs often mediocre and imme diacy,€these sectors are also proponents of theories unicausais and reductionist as that Act and the unsafe condition that for years had helped the country to c over herself with the blanket of ignorance and the veiling their eyes not to see and recognize their own mistakes and defects . Meanwhile, the Oriental, with hi s eyes ... little ones, developed theories and techniques of investigating failu res and problems that have always, for those who want to know, by the absorption of knowledge workers ... and analysis of multiple factors involved. Moreover, r evenue "modern" those who really care about quality and productivity. 254 Cad Saúde Públ., Rio de Janeiro, 10 (2): 251-258, abr / jun, 1994 Risk Map Not only is the criticism of the subjectivity of knowledge workers, the voices o f conservatism and the model failed to Occupational Health will also lose out on critical content of qualitative methodology in question. Criticize the workers for being "thinking" this or that, when all their credit analysis of the sensiti vity of measuring devices and submit all results to the numbers established as " Limits of Tolerance (LT)," without realizing that these may or omitting are set according to political criteria determined by the strength of the industry, part icularly the United States of America, where they imported the LT (no update sin ce 1977, it bears emphasis) (Diesat, 1989; Arcuri & Cardoso, 1991). They also ig nore or pretend to ignore the limitations of quantitative analysis of the harmfu lness at work as: • "It is estimated that there are five to seven million known chemical substances, of which 70 000 to 80 000 are most commonly used. Approxima tely 500 new substances are introduced to the market years (ILO, 1989). • "Only if no record of exposure limits, worldwide, approximately 2100 products, many on ly accepted by some countries (ILO, 1991)" (Acuri & Cardoso, 1991). • There is l ittle information about the combined effects of chemical agents and with factors such as heat, noise, humidity, shift work, smoking, alcohol consumption, nutrit

ional status etc.. • There are still few valid methodologies for environmental a ssessments of chemical agents mainly isolated and combined (mixtures of differen t substances). • Few companies and utilities with equipment and staff qualified to perform reliable environmental assessments. • The individual susceptibilities can not be ignored when comparing LT with signs and symptoms of sensitivity to some noxious agent. Coincidence or not, the concept of "quantitative determinati on of unsanitary places "Working is the legacy of the period of military dictatorship in Brazil, when Or dinance 3214 was published on 08/06/78, replacing Decree 491 of 16/09/65, which was later modified by small changes introduced by Decree 122, 22/02/67, both of the then Ministry of Labour and Welfare (MTPS). So had the art. 1., Paragraph 3 of Ordinance 491: "While the relevant bodies in Safety and Occupational Hygiene of the Ministry of Labour and Social Security were not equipped in material and technical staff to verify the limits of tolerance for harmful agents in workplac es admit it will be only the qualitative. " The odd thing is that, effectively, the framework described has not changed much from 1965 to 1978 until the present . It is known that there are few public bodies and equipped with sufficient tech nical personnel for inspection in the workplace. It is also known that this fram ework, proportionately, not much different in private and even more deficient in the public sector employment at all levels and instances. So why not use is the qualitative analysis of risks, allowing the quantitative assessment of their tr ue role in gauging the effectiveness of protective measures taken? Any problems with the recognition of the limitations of our reality, or everything is mere rh etoric to preserve economic and corporate interests? After all, some of the prin ciples of the Risk Map methodology are the "non-delegation" of health workers to technicians and "consensual validation" of the references to the toxicity in th e workplace, reaffirming the radicalism of the proposal in opposition to hegemon y lame the technical and scientific know-authoritarian in the area. Apparently, the reason for such resistance from companies and unions, which are exerting str ong pressure on the Ministry for the ordinance is repealed, it should be much mo re political than technical reasons, because Cad Saúde Públ.,€Rio de Janeiro, 10 (2): 251-258, abr / jun, 1994 255 Mattos, U. A. O. & Freitas, N. B. B. exposure risk maps in visible locations for the company creates a situation of e mbarrassment and a negative image among its employees and people to come visit h er in situations of access to workplaces, after all as the saying goes "wash you r dirty linen at home ...". Another issue related to the first, is the facility that creates an analytical tool for the law enforcement community, particularly the Regional Labor Office (DRT) and the Sanitary Surveillance, inspection activi ties of the workplace, which makes companies more vulnerable to subpoenas, notic es and fines. Perhaps the major flaw of this ordinance is to assign the task Cip a only to his execution, leaving only the workers the right to express their vie ws on its construction, when in reality they should be real builders, according to the original idea. METHODOLOGY FOR • There are doubts about how to start mapping risks. • The need to schedule the visit is responsible for the site. • The need for information prior to workers i n the sector to be assessed and how to do it. • About the Cipa people who should participate and on their representativeness (employer or professional). • About the stoppage or not the sectors to be investigated at the time of visit, regard ing the need to interview workers and / or observe the work. • On the form of "l istening to employees, how to do it and how to consider the views of managers, s upervisors, engineers and others. • On the way to deal with risk or exemplified

in the present Ordinance No. 5, 18 / 08/92 and those reported by workers. • Abou t the time of completion of the mapping for the alternatives industry everyday a t different times of the day, in activities organized in shifts of rotation, in industrial processes semicontinuous or discontinuous, in the public healthcare c enters, activities that are altered constant ( as civil works) and others. • Abo ut how to do a "consensual validation" so that the map represents in fact the ov erall feeling, compared to an extremely rigid organizational structure, which al so does not look "good eye" meeting and discussion of employees within the compa ny. • About how to reach external or indirect indicators of risk in the workplac e such as absenteeism rates, statistics on accidents at work, records of disease or significant changes in health status, reports of the occurrence of abnormali ties etc.. Limitations Regarding Training Courses for Construction Risk Map, which generall y are offered in Brazil Another question worth dealing here with regard to training, which in general is offered in the course of construction of risk maps for members of CIPA and Prof essional Services expertise. These courses, mostly only pass on information dire ctly related to the techniques of mapping, not discussing with students the orig in and purpose of this methodology and the need to transfer their workers as a w ay to become more involved in controlling these conditions work. As a consequenc e, the difficulties encountered by cipeiros's time to make the map are huge, ran ging from planning the action to its graphical representation, let alone the lat er referrals that are needed. From courses on the subject, taught by members of the Diesat Cipa of Banco do Estado de Sao Paulo (Banespa) and various chemical a nd petrochemical industries from ABC, some of these difficulties have been syste matized. ON THE CLASSIFICATION OF RISK FACTORS This task lies a major problem for workers, which increases both quan256 Cad Saúde Públ., Rio de Janeiro, 10 (2): 251-258, abr / jun, 1994 Risk Map to lower the educational level of the same. But the limitation before everything is in itself a ministerial decree that randomly or arbitrarily established risk groups (physical, chemical, biological, ergonomic and mechanical) without conce ptualizing them, just illustrating aspects that would be covered, leaving the do or open using a generic "others" at the end of each group relationship. In parti cular, the authors of the proposal did not follow even the parents of matter (th e Italians), which categorizes risk into four groups: "The 1st includes factors also present in the environment where man lives outside of work (in the living ) ... light, temperature, ventilation and humidity.€The 2nd includes the characte ristic factors of the work environment: dust, gases, vapors and fumes. The 3rd u nderstands the factors that require physical labor, cause physical and mental fa tigue. Finally, the 4 consists of working conditions that generate stress and wo rk organization. " (Saint et al. 1993: 2) not taking a concept from each group, set up discord and even the question: what is meant by ergonomic hazards, as exe mplified by "conflicts" and "shift work"? The post-trauma caused by assault or v iolence of the act, the occurrence of rape in routine access to a secluded workp lace, would be classified as? Mechanics? Biological? Ergonomic? Examples would s ucceed and why it is widely have been appointed. Hence the difficulty and the ri ght people also infer conclusions. Even more when they are not "technical". TRADING ON THE MAP AND ITS DEPLOYMENT Little information is known about how it has been in practice in daily life, rou ting and discussions between employees and employers on the findings of the Map

Risk. This fact implies two reasons: the time of the lawful exercise of the Ordi nance has not behaved this phase or, which would be much worse, it has not happe ned and risk mapping is limited to floor plan design in and displaying the same somewhere in factory. Once again the plight of workers in this field are immense : the information of employees on the results and conclusions of the mapping, va lidation of findings, discussion of the employer's counteroffer, the mobilizatio n of workers in certain sectors most affected etc.. How to cope with the absolut e authority of the employer within the plant, made possible by way of individual contracts of work and the juridical-legal framework of a Consolidation of Labor Laws (CLT) exceeds and undemocratic? How to enable parties with different inter ests discuss and negotiate working conditions that the organization of work is a lready determined unilaterally by the employer, defining the technology being us ed in the production process, from raw materials employed, rhythm and organizati on of production, distribution of production output? In fact, a relationship of unequal power within the organization and business, the difficulties of Brazilia n workers to implement the methodology of the Risk Map, with effective results, is immense. It follows then by the assertion that a methodology for investigatio n and negotiation of the causes of the harmfulness of work in Brazil will succee d only effective when accompanied by the objective conditions for the real exerc ise of democracy and citizenship in the workplace, with possibility of free orga nization of work in collective bargaining with labor, with liberty and union aut onomy, giving both parties the right conditions for dialogue and understanding i n work organization and production, making the "risk" is no longer a phenomenon pre socially-determined. Cad Saúde Públ., Rio de Janeiro, 10 (2): 251-258, abr / jun, 1994 257 Mattos, U. A. O. & Freitas, N. B. B. ABSTRACT MATTOS, U. A. O & FREITAS, N. B. B. Risk Map in Brazil: The limitations of the A pplicability of a Model Worker. Cad Saúde Públ., Rio de Janeiro, 10 (2): 251 258 , abr / jun, 1994. The text reflects on the limitations faced in implementing th e Risk Map in Brazil, under the legal point of view and methodology. Initially, concepts are presented, origin and importance of this methodology in the Italian Health Reform. Next, the authors report on their introduction in Brazil in the early 80s, and its impact on business when it became a legal requirement for tho se companies that have Cipa. Finally, there is a brief discussion as to their ef fectiveness in preventing health risks for workers. Keywords: Occupational Healt h, Risk Assessment; Italian Worker Model. REFERENCES ABRHÃO, M. J., 1993. Mapping of risk CIPA, 159: 22-27. Arcuri, A. S. A. & CARDOS O, L. M. N., 1991. Threshold Limit? Journal of Occupational Health, 74: 99-106. BRAZIL, 1992. Ordinance No. 3214 of 08/06/78. In: Regulatory Standards in Safety and Occupational Health (Ministry of Labour), São Paulo, Atlas. ________, 1992. Ordinance No. 2005 of 18.08.1992. Provides for changes in the NR-9 (Environment al Risks) and the obligation of keeping Risk Maps for companies that have CIPAS. Brasília: Diário Oficial da União, 08/20/1992. DIESAT (Inter Department of Studies in Health and Working Environment), 1989. Un sanitary, Slow Death at Work. São Paulo: Oboré.€FREITAS, N. B. B., 1992. Map of environmental risk is now federal law. Work and Health, 33: 10-11. ________, 199 2. The Occupational Health Occupational Health. São Paulo: Diesat. (Mimeo.) Kuch enbecker, R., 1992. The Italian worker model 30 years later. Saúde em Debate, 36 : 48-50. LAUAR, E. C. D., LAMB, R. & PINHEIRO, T. M. M., 1991. The Italian worke r model 20 years later. Saúde em Debate, 32: 47-48. LAURELL, A. C. & NORIEGA, M.

, 1989. Production Process and Health - Work and Workers wear. São Paulo: Hucite c. LOPES-NETTO, A., Pascoal, R. M. & CARVALHO, S. A. M., 1993. Mapping of enviro nmental risks - Applicability and definition of responsibilities. CIPA, 159:32-3 7. MENDES, R., 1980. Occupational Medicine and Occupational Diseases. São Paulo: Savier. ________, 1988. Subsidies for a debate on the revision of the current o rganizational model of occupational health in Brazil. Journal of Occupational He alth, 64: 07-25. ODDONE, I.; MARRI, G.; GLORIA, S., Briant, G.; CHIATTELLA, M. & RE, A., 1986. Work Environment: The Struggle for Workers' Health New York: Huci tec. SATO, L.; VALENTE, L. A. & FREITAS, N. B. B., 1993. Risk Map: origin and ap plying legal. Decision, 14: 13-15. ZOCCHIO, A., 1993. Of compliance to the state ment of environmental risks. CIPA, 159:28-29. 258 Cad Saúde Públ., Rio de Janeiro, 10 (2): 251-258, abr / jun, 1994