DETERMINATION OF MOLECULAR FORMULA DETERMINATION OF MOLECULAR FORMULA The Molecular formula represents the composition of the constituents of a compound

, ie the number of atoms of elements of a compound and its proportion. The deter mination of Molecular formula involves the prior determination of the Empirical Formula. DETERMINATION OF MOLECULAR FORMULA After obtain the empirical formula to obtain the molecular mass determination involves molecular obtainable by the following methods: 1-Cannizzaro cryoscopy 2-3 -4-Rast Boiling-Point Osmometry 5-6-Mass Spectrometry DETERMINATION OF MOLECULAR FORMULA 1-Method Cannizzaro Background: Equal volumes of gases and vapors at normal temperatu re and pressure have the same number of molecules. This implies that the ratio o f masses of equal volumes of gases and vapors is equal to the ratio of their mol ecular weight. The gas that is used as a benchmark is Hydrogen. M = mass of ga s / mass of Hydrogen DETERMINATION OF MOLECULAR FORMULA 2-Method the freezing point Background: It is based on lowering the freezing point of camphor by the addition of small amounts of other substances. The mathematical formula which enables this application is the drawdown cryoscopic Δt = Kc. p / PM .1000 DETERMINATION OF MOLECULAR FORMULA = Δt lowering the temperature of the freezing point of camphor P = weight of foreig n substance added Kc = Constant Freezing-Point molality This method uses spe cial thermometers for temperature variations are very small. The thermometers are used to: Beckmann Menzies-Wright DETERMINATION OF MOLECULAR FORMULA 3-Method Boiling-Point of Background: It is based on increasing the boiling point of Camphor by adding small amounts of other substances. The mathematical formula wh ich enables this application is to increase the Boiling-Point Δt = Ke. p / PM .1000 DETERMINATION OF MOLECULAR FORMULA = Δt increase the temperature of the boiling point of Camphor P = weight of foreign substance added Ke = Constant Boiling-Point molality This method uses speci al thermometers for temperature variations are very small. The thermometers ar

e used to: 4-Method

Beckmann Menzies-Wright

Basis of Rast It is based on lowering the freezing point of camphor by the a ddition of large amounts of other substances. In the circumstances may be used as ordinary thermometers lowering the freezing point of camphor is significant. DETERMINATION OF MOLECULAR FORMULA 4-Osmometry To Plea Very dilute solutions of a substance at a pressure of 1 atmosphere the occupied volume can be regarded as corresponding to a mole, according to the mathematical formula: WV = nRT n = p / M DETERMINATION OF MOLECULAR FORMULA In that p = mass of dissolved substance M = Molecular Weight W = 1 atm Pressu re V = Volume of 1 liter R = Ideal Gas Constant T = Absolute Temperature of 298 K-5 Mass Spectrometry This method will then be treated. DETERMINATION OF MOLECULAR FORMULA Example The Retaking the problem of determining the empirical formula that told us tha t the hidroccarboneto showed the molecular weight = 114 g, we can calculate the molecular formula. Calculation Molecular Formula Knowing that the empirical formula is C4H9 we estimate the m inimum mass of this formula. C4H9 = 4x12 +9 x1 = 57 DETERMINATION OF MOLECULAR FORMULA How the molecular weight of the compound was 114g then: 114/57 = ies that the molecular formula is twice the constituents C8H18. DETERMINATION OF MOLECULAR FORMULA Example B Calculate the molecular formula of a compound containing M = 123 58.53% C, 4 .09% H and 11.38% N. C = 12, H = 1, N = 14, O = 16 a) Check whether there is a difference in the molecule. 58.53 +4.09 +11.38 = 74 100-74 = 26.00 The The molecule has 26.00% O DETERMINATION OF MOLECULAR FORMULA b) Deterrminar the number of moles of each element in the molecule. 58.53 / 12 = 4.88 C 4.09 / 1 = 4.09 11.38 H / 14 N = 0.81 26/16 = 1.63 The DETERMINATION OF MOLECULAR FORMULA c) determine the proportion of elements in relation to what is found in smaller numbers. n = 2 This impl

4.88 / 0.81 = 6 (C) 0.81 4.09 / 1 = 1.63 / 0.81 4 (H) = 2 (O) Empirical = C6H4NO2 Formula

/ 0,1 = 1 (N)

DETERMINATION OF MOLECULAR FORMULA d) Determine the molecular formula Calculate the mass of empirical formula 12x6 +4 x1 +14 x1 +16 x2 = 122 So practically the empirical formula corresponds to the molecular C6H4NO2. DETERMINATION OF MOLECULAR FORMULA Example C A . A 23 ml , O = compound has the following composition: C = 55.8% and O = 37.2%, H = 7.03% sample of 1.462 g of the compound when evaporated occupies the volume of 6 to 127 º C and 680 mm Hg. Determine its molecular formula. C = 12, H = 1 16

DETERMINATION OF MOLECULAR FORMULA a) Calculate the number of moles of each element in the compound C 37.2 / 16 = 2.33 The 7.03 / 1 = 7.03 H DETERMINATION OF MOLECULAR FORMULA b) Calculate the empirical formula 4.65 / 2 = 2.33 C 7.03 2.33 = 1 The empirical formula = CHO 23 DETERMINATION OF MOLECULAR FORMULA c) Calculation of molecular weight 1 mol gas = 22.4 liters 760mm Hg and 278 K A pplying the ideal gas equation because the vapor is composed of 680 mm Hg and a temperature of 273 +127 = 400 K, we have: DETERMINATION OF MOLECULAR FORMULA 760.V/623.680 T/T1 PV/P1V1 = 298/400 = 0.6825 = 760V/423640 134 = 415 V 1.462 g ml 415ml compound occupy at 760 mmHg and 25 º C . DETERMINATION OF MOLECULAR FORMULA M in a gaseous state occupies 22 400 1.462 g ml occupy 415 ml M = 78.9 gd) As the mass of empirical formula is 12x2 +16 x1 x1 +3 = 43 The molecular formula is C4H6O2 760V = 289 / 3 H = 2.33 2.33 / 55.8 / 12 = 4.65