ACIDS AND BASES INTRODUCTION • known since ancient times many substances of great interest and is now called

acids and bases. His presence in our daily life is continuous and in many facets of vital importance. • The earliest definitions of acids and bases were based o n sensory properties (sensory). General Ideas about acids • They have sour taste. • changes to red, the color of blue litmus paper. • Reac t with active metals: 2HCl (aq) + Mg (s) → MgCl2 (aq) + H2 (g) • React with carb onates and bicarbonates to produce carbon dioxide gas: HCl (aq) + NaHCO3 (s) → N aCl (aq) + H2O (l) + CO2 (g) to neutralize bases • General Ideas on Bases • They have a bitter taste. • They are oily to the touch. • Change to blue, the color of red litmus paper. • neutralize the acid HCl (aq) + NaOH (aq) → NaCl (aq ) + H2O (l) Definitions of Acids and Bases • Definition of Arrhenius (1884) - Acid: The substance that in aqueous solution dissociates into ions, releasing H + ions. HCl (aq) → H + (aq) + Cl-(aq) CH3COOH (aq) H + (aq) + CH3COO-(aq) - Base: It is the substance that when dissolved in water, dissociates into ions, releasing ions ( OH) -. NaOH (aq) → Na + (aq) + OH -(ac) Limitations of the Definition of Arrhenius • Despite its undeniable successes and the considerable progress that theory had supposed drawbacks. Advantages • Define what is a base • Justify the neutraliza tion process • Introduce the concept of degree of dissociation • Presents the fi rst quantitative notions about the acid-base behavior of a solution, because if [H +]> [OH-] the solution would be acidic. [H +] <[OH-], the solution would be b asic. Limitations of the Definition of Arrhenius Disadvantages • Define acids and bases in aqueous solution only. • There is in a queous solution H + ion isolated due to its tiny size, the most common represent ation is H3O +, since the H + ion is surrounded by water molecules. • This defin ition applies only to species that possess chemical groups in their structure OH disociados and H + dissociated. But how to justify the basic character of a larg e group of substances such as NH3 .. Definitions of Acids and Bases Brönsted-Lowry definition (1923) simultaneously, but following different lines o f work, two scientists proposed a broader definition of acids and bases. Accordi ng to this theory: Acid: Any chemical species capable of donating a proton or protons (H +) to anot her substance. Base: Any chemical species capable of accepting a proton or proto ns (H +) to another substance. With this definition, an acid-base reaction can b e understood as a proton transfer reaction between two substances. When an acid loses its proton potentially becomes a base (which is called the conjugate base) and back base accepts a proton it becomes a potential acid (conjugate acid). Every base has its conjugate acid and all acid has its conjugate base Conjugate pair conjugate pair ACIDO1 H2SO4 HSO4-H3O + NH4 + NH3 CH3COOH H2O HCl + + + + + + + + + base2 H2O H2O OH-Cl-NH3 H2O NaO H2O ACID CONJUGADO2 + BASE CON JUGADA1 H3O + H30 + H2O HCl NH4 + H3O + Na +. H2O H3O + + + + + + + + + HSO4-SO4 2-H2O-NH3 CH3COO-NH2-Cl-OH Amphoteric substances or amphiprotic

The Bronsted-Lowry theory to justify that many substances can sometimes act as a cids and other such bases, such substances are called amphoteric. ACIDO1 H3O + + H2PO4-+ H2O H2PO4 + base2-AC. BASE CONJUGADA1 CONJUGADO2 + H3 O + + + H3PO4-H2O HPO42 Polyprotic Acids • These are substances that can give more than one proton. Some very typical exa mples include H2SO4, H3PO4 etc. The important thing is that: • The protons are t ransferred all at once but in successive stages each of which is characterized b y an equilibrium process. • Successive assignments are becoming more difficult. Polyprotic Acids • Many acids have more than one ionizable H atom. These fatty acids are known as polyprotic. • Example: H2SO3 (aq) + H2O (l) H3O + (aq) + HSO3-(c) HSO3-(aq) + H 2O (l) H3O + (aq) + SO32-(aq) Strong Acids and Bases Acids and strong bases are strong electrolytes in aqueous solution exist as ions . The strength of an acid and a base is determined by the ability to donate or a ccept a proton. Strong Acid: proton Donate fairly easily, completely dissociate Ex: HCl (g) + H2O (l) → H3O + (aq) + Cl-(aq) Home 1mol 0 0 Final 0 1 mol 1 mol Strong Acids and Bases Example: HCl, HBr, HNO3, HClO3, HCl04, H2SO4 Strong Base: accepts the proton fai rly easily, completely dissociate Example: NaOH (s) Home 1mol Final 0 + H2O (l) → Na + (aq) + OH-(ac) 0 0 1 mol 1 mol Strong Acids and Bases The most common strong bases are soluble ionic metal hydroxides of groups IA and IIA group. These compounds completely dissociate into ions in aqueous solution. Example: NaOH, KOH, Ca (OH) 2 Weak Acids Weak acids only partially ionize in aqueous solution, establishing a balance. If we represent a general weak acid HA, we can write the ionization equation as fo llows: Ex: Home Reacts Balance HA C0 x C0 - x + H2O H3O + (aq) + 0 xx xx A0 You can write the expression for the equilibrium constant in aqueous solutions a s [H3O +] [A-] Ka = [HA] Relative strength of acids Relative strength of acids Weak Bases Many substances behave as bases partially dissociate weak and establishing a bal ance. Let B be the weak base, we can write the ionization equation as follows: Example: B Home Reacts x C0 + H 2O HB + (aq) + 0 x x OH0 Balance C0 - xxx can write the basic dissociation constant as follows: [HB +] [O H-] Kb = [B] Relative Force bases

Degree of dissociation or ionization (α) Indic tes the r tio of the concentr tion of ions re lly differenti ted between t he tot l could h ve been dissoci ted ions (initi l concentr tion of cid or b se ) X α = C0 Where: X = concentr tion of dissoci ted species C0 = initi l concentr tion of id or b se % X 100 = α α Determin tion of K nd Kb from the degree of dissoci tion Ex: St rt M king X = αC0 B l nce + HA + C0 C0 - C0-αC0 x H2O H3O + ( q) 0 x αC0 + A-0 x αC0 [H O] [A] K = K = α2C0 α2C0 (αC0) 2 → 3 → K = K = HA 1 - α C 0 (1 - α) s α is very sm ll, 1-α in t he denomin tor is close to 1 being: K α = C0 Simil rly α = K b C0 very sm ll sc le, nd must be tre

H3O + ( q) + OH-( c) 2 + [H O] [OH] → Kc [H O] = [H O] [OH] Kc = [H 2 O] 2 M rch 2 Kw = Kc [H2O] 2 Kw = [H3O +] [OH-] Kw is c lled the ionic product of w ter. In pure w ter t 25 ° C h s been determ ined experiment lly: Kw = 1 x 10-14 From the stoichiometry of the re ction of u toioniz tion [H3O +] = [OH-] = 14 Kw = 1x10 - = 1 x 10-7 Kw is n equilibrium const nt nd its v lue ch nges with the temper ture nd 40














The ionic product of w ter The w ter utoioniz tion re ction occurs in ted s c se of b l nce. 2H2O (l) 3 +









































° C h ve THE POTENTIAL OF HYDROGEN ION (pH) In queous solutions, the concentr tions of hydroxide ions nd hydroxide ions r e linked through the ion product. But wh t usu lly h ppens th t the v lues of th ese concentr tions re sm ll nd very v ried, so it is desir ble to more e sily sc le to determine the cidity or lk linity. Therefore the D nish chemist Peter Sorensen in 1909 introduced the concept of pH is defined s: pH =-log [H3O +] L ikewise: pOH =-log [OH-] pH Sc le: Neutr l or cid solution Solution B sic Solution July 14 Types of solutions ccording to their pH Neutr l solutions: 25 ° C is observed th t: [H3O +] = [OH-] = 1 x 10-7 pH = 7 Acidic solutions: [H3O +]> [OH-] [H O +]> 1 x 10-7 nd [OH-] <1 x 10-7 pH <7 Solutions B sic: [H3O +] <[OH-] [ OH-]> 1 x 10-7 nd [H3O +] <1 x 10-7 pH> 7 3

C n be obt ined: pH + pOH = 14


Rel tionship between pH nd pOH From the equ tion: Kw = [H3O +] [OH-] = 1.0 x 10-14 log [OH-]

nd pH =-log [H3O +] pOH =-