CLASS 20 - LITERATURE Prof.

Edna Prado VANGUARD EUROPEAN I - THE VARIOUS-ISMS The major artistic events of the early twentieth century were crucial for the de velopment of literary Modernism. It is often called the Vanguard group of Europe an artistic movements, not only in literature but also in painting and sculpture , which had in the early twentieth century the common desire for renewal, breaki ng with the traditional aesthetic. European avant-garde is rebellion, is denial. See what these movements were: FUTURISM EXPRESSIONISM * * * * Cubism Dada Surrealism * The beginning of the twentieth century is characterized as a period marked by la rge and rapid technological change. Literally fast. This is the era of electrici ty, the automobile, the airplane, ie, the time-velocity caused by the improvemen t of machinery and the increasing industrialization. Futurism was the first avan t-garde movement, colliding with his rebellion entire population of the time. Se e a futuristic image: Within this framework, called The Dynamism of a car, Luigi Russolo, we found a m arked characteristic of Futurism: the speed, movement and strength of machines r epresented in strong colors and strokes. The main representative of Futurism was the Italian writer Marinetti, who in lit erature, preached the destruction of the syntax, the disregard for punctuation. For this author it should be new and fast, his desire was a celebration of moder n life and the complete break with the past. Futurism presented several manifest os. See a fragment of the best known, written by Marinetti: "We want to sing the love of danger, the habit of energy and eternity. The essential elements of our poetry will be courage, audacity and revolt. Literature has up to now magnified pensive immobility, ecstasy, and sleep, we wa nt to exalt movements of aggression, feverish sleeplessness, the gymnastic step, the mortal leap, the slap and punch. We declare that the splendor of the world has been enriched by a new beauty: the beauty of speed. A racing car (...) is mo re beautiful than the Victory of Samothrace (...) We want to glorify war - the w orld's only hygiene - militarism, patriotism, the destructive gesture of anarchi st, the beautiful ideas which kill, and contempt for women. We want to demolish museums and libraries, fight morality, feminism and all opportunist and utilitar ian cowardice. " Victory of Samothrace is the name of a famous Greek sculpture w hich is in the Louvre in Paris, considered one of the most perfect works of art of all time (The Louvre is one of the most famous museums in the world). The nex t move is of German origin and is characterized by the expression of the inner w orld, the term of images irrespective of the concepts of beauty. What was import ant was the expression, hence be known as Expressionism. See an expressionist pa inting: Note the density of expressionist painting. The image seems to become the very p ain of the man who screamed. The main characteristics of this movement were: * Compositions * abstract * Subjectivism illogicality Compositions abstract = Li ke in painting, the writers also liked expressionist abstract deformations of th e real. Subjectivism = The expressionist artist wanted the violent expression of subjective emotions, inner world. Illogicality = Once everything was expression was not a concern with the logic of the outside world as in the previous aesthe tic. Les Demoiselles d'Avignon This painting by Pablo Picasso, 1907, is considered by many scholars the first milestone of C ubismoe of modern art. Note that the sha

pes are geometric, hard and flat color. Picasso managed to break with centuries of artistic tradition. In painting, geometric shapes and objects viewed from various angles simultaneou sly characterize Cubism. See the characteristics of Cubism in literature: illogicality * * * Language cha otic time this illogicality Humor * = The Cubist texts are marked by cessation o f formal logic. The thought is not rational, it appears between the conscious an d unconscious of the writer. Language = chaotic Since there is no logic, words a re loose, apparently arranged at random. For the present time = cubist writer, e ager to live out their time, this time, everything becomes a theme for poetry, f or example: travel, exotic landscapes and views. Mood = Very common in Cubist te xts, caused not only by the ironies, but by the graphic arrangement of words. Se e a picture of the next move: Note that table, is called the hat that makes man, 1920, Max Ernst, the juxtapos ition of objects, associated freely.€The artistic freedom was a major feature o f the movement called Dada. Dadaism is considered by many the most radical of all movements of the European vanguard. He was the negation of all existing cultural values for centuries. Dad aism is the aesthetic of the absurd, the incoherent, the illogical, starting wit h its name. When asked about the meaning of the word, Tristan Tzara, founder of Dada, said that given meant nothing, he found that word at random, opening a dic tionary. The Dadaists were concerned to ridicule, to deny everything and everyon e. Here's how to write a Dadaist poem from a recipe given by the creator of the movement: "Take a newspaper. Take the scissors. Choose a newspaper article in th e size you want to give your poem. Cut out the article. Cut then carefully some words that make up this article and target them in a bag. Stir gently. Take each piece and then one after another. Copy conscientiously in the order they are dr awn from the bag. The poem will resemble you. And hey it an infinitely original writer and a graceful sensibility, even though the public misunderstood. " Trist an Tzara In this famous painting by Salvador Dali called The Persistence of Memory, melti ng clocks found in a kind of dream, the suggestion about the shortness of time a nd life. This picture is a symbol of Surrealism. The surrealist writers, influenced by Freud's studies have shown great interest in the human unconscious and the dream, regarded as the ultimate expression of h uman freedom. Through the dream the man was free of any criticism of any censors hip, especially of logic. See a surrealist text: The Realities (fable) was once a reality with his sheep wool real king's daughter came by and the sheep bleatin g how beautiful you are re re reality. The night was once a reality that he suff ered from insomnia Then came the fairy godmother and really took her by the hand re re reality. On the throne there was once an old king who was bored at night and lost his queen robe and put it next to the re re reality. Tail carried Dade tion tion tion to the reality the real age real age gives the real Ali A re real ity was once the REALITY. Louis Aragon