WRITING Professor Sandra Franco LECTURE 3 I.

Narration The narration has the basic matter the fact, event, real or fictional, that will be counted on 1st or 3rd person. 1. Elements of the narrative. From the reading of a poem by Manuel Bandeira, we will explore some elements of the narrative. Taken from a poem News Journal John Gostoso loader was open stree t and lived on the hill [of Babylon in a shack without number One night he arriv ed at the bar Twenty November Drank sang danced Then he shot the Rodrigo de Frei tas Lagoon and died [Drowned. Let's do the analysis of the text: 1) What is the plot of this narrative? It is reported the suicide of a man on the Lagoon. 2) About whom is history? The man i s called "John Gostoso. 3) Where develop these facts? For over a space of Babylo n Hill, in a shack without number, at Bar Twenty November. 1 4) When the incident occurred? There is a general reference "one day" and the ve rbs are in the past. 5) Who is this story told? An unidentified narrator who obs erved the facts. Well, answering these questions, we understand what are the key elements that make up the narrative. 1.Enredo: the plot of the narrative, the w ay it builds the text. 2.Personagens: those who engage in the story: there are m ain and secondary. 3. T e m p o: when the actions occur. Can be chronological or psychological. 4.Espaço: where the actions occur. 5.Narrador: one who tells the story, do not confuse it with the author. Let's examine some of these elements, we start by the narrator. Imagine a single fact, for example, a car crash told by different people: one who was in the window of a building, the driver of one car, the driver of another car, a passenger who was in the back seat of one of v ehicles, a child who has witnessed the collision. Each of these people tell the same event with a different combination of words, a different sequence, perhaps even with different versions. This is not news to you ... It happens that there are specific names for these different ways of telling the facts. See: 1) 1a.pes soa narrator: one who participates in the action, which is included in the narra tive. It is the narrator-character. 2) 3a.pessoa narrator: one who does not part icipate in action. It is the narrator-observer or narrator-omniscient. 2 Another element that is not considered as basic in a narrative, but which undoub tedly influences the development of the plot is the speech. The narrator will ch oose if the characters speak for themselves, or if he will tell us what they sai d and even the narrator can translate the thoughts of the character. Read some e xcerpts with me and try to understand these different discourses: direct, indire ct and free indirect, and the types of narrator present. The text ... Suddenly, Honorius looked down and saw a wallet. Duck, catch it and save it was the work o f a moment. No one saw him, except one man who was at the door of a store, and t hat without knowing him, he said, laughing: - Look, if it does not, lost it all at once. - Yes, agreed Honorius embarrassed this example, there is the presence of narrative focus in third person, with a narrator and observer direct discours e. The narrator is an observer, because it participates in the story, tells us j ust the facts, from his point of view. The direct speech is the record of the ch aracter's own speech, the announcer introduced the speech used directly. See the

presence of the stud, the verb used in the present tense. Note also the presenc e of the verb dicendi, or called the speech that is "said" in this text. Note: T he verbs dicendi or speech impairments are used to advertise the direct speech, prior to exposure or after exposure by the narrator. Also in this type of indire ct discourse verb may be present to introduce the narrator who reads the play (n arrator) will make the speech of the character. Text B I was afraid to open his wallet, could not find anything, ess to him. At the same time, and this was the main cause e and asked him if he could use up the money he found. Do one who does not know, but with an ironic expression and just papers and worthl of thoughts, conscienc not ask him the air of 3

censorship. Could make use of the money and go with him to pay the debt? Here's the point. Awareness eventually tell you that it could not (...) In the fragment above, there is the narrative focus is on third. person, omniscient narrator: h e shows the reader what the character thinks. There is the free indirect discour se. The fragments presented in "A" and "B" belong to the short story "The Wallet , Machado de Assis. As I have isolated the fragments, we believe the narrator in each of the parties, but if we were asked the narrator of the entire text,€we o bserve how it arises predominantly: the omniscient prevails over the observer. T ext C He began by saying nothing, put me in two eyes of cat watching, then a kind of e vil laughter alumino his features. that were hard. After all, he told me that no ne of the nurses who had, good for nothing, slept a lot, were respondões and wal ked to the nose of the slaves; Two women were even sneakers! This is an example of the narrator character: the narrative focus is in first person and there is p resence of indirect speech. The fragment was also removed from one of Machado's called The Nurse. Practice Usually they to the text rs and their in the case 4 In the dissertation, the reading of all texts of a collection is essential so th at we can realize all possible approaches and which ones you are interested in d efending his thesis. Today, I chose three proposals, which were already present in vestibular three important that we start to practice. Remember that you, thro ughout the course, entitled to the correction of four texts, so select those pro posals that most closely identify with the entrance exam that you intend to do. It is important in all disciplines, so you get a good result, to see how the tes ts were passed (at least the last three). You should indicate the tender so I ca n make the correction. Not yet developed, in class, formal and theoretical aspec ts of a text, but first consider this text as a kind of diagnostic essay: is it possible to identify how you write and if your text has the appropriate elements to writing the entrance exam. Look limit the text to 35 lines in cursive handwr iting as sending a text to be entered, do so before the draft to see how many li nes used in combination? The first proposal is the proof of Unicamp, 1999. Unica mp is one of the few universities that offers more of a chance not only thematic , but rather formal for the students wrote their text; vestibular fact that make s this more democratic, I believe. You must indicate the proposal number (if the first, too, should say whether the subject chose A, B or C). The second proposa l is the buccal Fundacao Getulio Vargas, it is a dissertation, as well as third proposal was that the UNESP. Good writing! After correction (duly noted), you ca are asked to write a text based on another, so you must be faithful elements motivator: the events and their consequences, the characte characteristics; space, time, the causes, how the actions developed of a narrative text.

n take your questions via the strip-doubt or chats. Big hug! ___________________ ____________________________________________ PROPOSAL 1 - THE THEME UNICAMP (choose one of three themes) GENERAL GUIDANCE The re are three suggested topics for writing. You must choose one and develop it ac cording to the type of text indicated, according to the instructions found in th e guidance given for each theme. Collection of texts: The texts are drawn from d iverse sources and present facts, data, opinions and arguments related to the th eme. They do not represent the opinion of the board of examiners: are texts such as those to which you are exposed in daily life reader 5 newspapers, magazines or books, and you should read and comment. See the collect ion and use it according to specific instructions given to the subject. Do not c opy. When writing your essay, you can also use other information it deems releva nt to the development of the chosen topic. WARNING: If you do not follow the ins tructions for the theme you chose, your essay will be canceled. BACKGROUND TO Br azil is in the process of completing five centuries of existence in the eyes of the European world. Are already known 500 years of its discovery, which will be celebrated officially in April 2000. As in any important date, the time is oppor tune for a review and reflection. The balance could lead very partially, if it h olds exclusively to economic facts and circumstantial social data. Therefore, it is necessary in this case, consider the question of who we are today. With that in mind, and with the support required of the fragments below, write a disserta tion on the theme 500 years of Brazil 1. Forget everything you learned in school about the discovery of Brazil. (...) The two years of official celebrations for the 500th anniversary of the discovery of Brazil, the latest work of researcher s Portuguese, Spanish and French reveal a story far more fascinating and epic ab out the arrival of Portuguese colonists to the New World. The first Portuguese a rrived in Brazil was the navigator Duarte Pacheco Pereira,€a genius of astronomy , navigation and geography and man of the utmost confidence of the king of Portu gal, d. Manuel I. Duarte Pacheco discovered Brazil a year and a half before Cabr al, between November and December 1498. (...) The new research on the true story of the discovery finally bury the innocent version taught in schools that Cabra l arrived in Brazil by chance, after he was diverted towards the Indies. (This, November 26, 1997.) 2. ... despite our apparent wealth, we are a poor nation in its generality, where the distribution of money is vicious, where land ownership is an anachronism. He walks into the hands of foreign merchants; those under th e heel of some feudal lords. The great mass of the population, plundered by both sides, cut off from trade and agriculture in this country in June primarily agricultural, as they say, downcast and toils over there hungry, havin g no other industry that works, for which even the sticks and broom sticks send you come from abroad. (...) Educated people like a flock soft automatic chastise s under the absolute power, vibrated by governors, viceroys, captains-mores and the fathers of the company, all the people plagued by robberies - have never bee n, nor 're still a cultured nation, free and original. (Romero, Silvio. History of Brazilian Literature. 1881.) 3. The Brazil emerges and builds itself, but not because of the design of their colonizers. They just wanted us to factory profi table. Contrary to their expectations, we rise, reckless, unexpectedly, as a new people, distinct from those there, including them in the pursuit of our being a nd our destiny. (...) We are a new people, that is a singular kind of people mar ked by our mothers, but unlike all without return path to any of them. This sing ularity condemns us to invent ourselves in, since we are not natives, transplant s overseas or in Portugal or Africa. (Ribeiro, Darcy. Brazil as problema.1995.) 4. We know of the proletariat, or colossal fortunes that they will never earn us through our habits and succession. Argentarismo nor worse than tyranny, or paup erism, worse than slavery. (...) Brazil has never led, never attacked, never pre judiced, never humiliated other nations. (...) The statistics of crime after muc h in favor of our morals. He travels to the interior without weapons, with full security, we always topando simple, honest, helpful. Men tend to leave the state

power poorer than it entered. Junior magistrates, poorly paid, sustain terrible struggles obscure, for justice against local potentates. (...) Nearly all Brazi lian politicians bequeath misery to their families. (Affonso Celso. For me arrog ant for my country. 1900.) 5. (...) If you win Calabar! / If instead of Portugue se / Dutch!? / Ah! / Woe to us without the delicious things in which we live: / networks / prayers, / novenas, / processions, / and this sadness, Calabar, / and that joy damn, that feels / climbing, swinging, the soul of the people . / Cala bar, you do not feel / this tasty joy of being sad! (Lima, Jorge de. Complete Po etry, vol. 1.) 7 6. Brazil wood was the first state monopoly in Brazil: the metropolis could not exploit it (or outsource the project). It would also be the most durable of cart els: the exploration has only been open to private enterprise in 1872, when the reserves had already brutally rarefied. Exploration is not the end, what happene d was a devastation, with the felling of 70 million trees. As if to confirm the vocation symbolic, Brazil wood was used in September 1826, for the first payment of interest on foreign loan taken by Brazil. When faced with the Treasury devoi d of gold, d. Peter I sent to England 50 yards (3t) of Brazil wood logs to aucti oning it in London. The Emperor's hope to repay the debt with the "stick-to-pain t" bumped into a technological innovation: the advent of aniline industry greatl y reduced the value of the symbolic tree of Brazil. Interest was paid late. Cash , not sticks. (Bueno, E. (ed). History of Brazil. Recent memories. 2nd ed. 1997) 7. Never be known with certainty, but when the Portuguese arrived in Bahia, Bra zil's Indians numbered over 2 million - almost three, according to some authors. Now, decimated by flu, measles and smallpox, enslaved and exterminated by the t housands by tribal wars and the advancement of civilization, no more than 325,65 2 - less than two packed Maracanã. (...) The average age of Brazilian Indians is 17.5 years, because more than half the population is under 15 years. Life expec tancy is 45.6 years,€and infant mortality is 150 per thousand births. There are at least 50 groups that never had contact with white men, 41 of whom did not eve n know where they live, but their fate seems to track: persecutes and the extinc tion threat. (Bueno, E. (ed). History of Brazil. Recent memories. 2nd ed. 1997). 8. There is a Code of Consumer Protection, there are laws that take care of rac ism, the right to strike, the heinous crimes of the small claims courts, the sec recy of telephone conversation, torture, etc.. The country grew. (Carvalho Filho , LF Folha de S. Paulo. October 3, 1998). THEME B Imagine this situation: one da y, instead of lying in 1998, you (keeping the expertise we have in our time) is in April 1500, participating in some form of the following episode reported by P ero Vaz de Caminha: 8 "He saw one of them [Indians] are rosary beads, white, waved gave them to him, I am very pleased with them and threw them around his neck. Then he took them and wrapped them in the arm and pointed to the ground and then to bills and the col lar of the master, as that would give gold for it. That we were taking so we wis h, but if he meant it would take over the accounts and the necklace, it did not want us to understand, why do not we give him. " (Caminha, Pero Vaz de. Letter t o El Rey Don Manuel.) Write a first person narrative. In this narrative, you sho uld: a) participate necessarily action, b) bring up the cultural differences bet ween the three parties: you, who came from the late twentieth century, the India ns and the Portuguese at the time of discovery. THEME C Pretend that you have a friend in Portugal who trust you much and was lo oking to spend a season in Brazil and perhaps even migrate. Suppose further that , recently, he has written him a letter saying he is considering abandoning this project, as a result of news about Brazil that has been reading lately. To just ify himself, he included in the letter the following sample of headlines, which impressed him, especially published in less than a month, in one newspaper: LOW WATER, LIGHT AND TELEPHONE IN SCHOOLS, SAYS SEARCH THE MINISTRY OF EDUCATION (Sh

eet S. Paulo, September 16, 1998) HALF OF VOTERS ARE NOT first. GRADE (Folha de S. Paulo, October 20, 1998) BRAZIL IS CHAMPION OF CASES OF DENGUE, LEPTOSPIROSIS LEPROSY AND THE AMERICAS (Folha de S. Paulo, September 21, 1998) miserable are 25 MILLION (Folha de S. Paulo , September 26, 1998) 83% are functionally illiter ate (Folha de S. Paulo, September 26, 1998) part of children increased by 81% RI O (Folha de S. Paulo, September 29, 1998) 9 SP scooped from the street ONE THIRD OF YOUR TRASH (Folha de S. Paulo, October 4 , 1998) Write him a letter in which, discussing the headlines above, you try to convince him that, although there is indeed problems, the image that makes our c ountry from the news, is partial and, therefore, still worth the effort to come to Brazil. Please note: by signing the letter, use initials only, not to be iden tified. ________________________________________________ PROPOSAL 2 - FGV / 2000 INSTRUCTIONS This test consists of only one text. Based on it: • Give a loaded title for your essay. • Compose a text from the ideas pre sented. Defend your views using the logical argument. In the evaluation of your essay will be considered: • The correct expression in English. • Clarity, concis eness and consistency in the exposition of thought. • Its ability to logically a rgue in defense of their views. • Your level of update and information. • Origin ality in approaching the subject. The dealer will accept testing. any ideologica l stance of 10 Avoid making''draft''and''clean''spend to save time. The essay can be written in pencil. Attention to write with legible handwriting. TEMA''I did not want to be in his skin.''With these words, addressed to the vice-president of Globo Organi zations, Joao Roberto Marinho, president of TV Cultura, Jorge da Cunha Lima poin ted out the immense social responsibility that the television stations have give n their influence on the thinking of the Brazilian. Lee saw the TV''the great tr ainer of the Brazilian soul,''saying that TV Globo and Culture represent two par adigms of audiovisual media in the country:''I'm not afraid to say that the futu re of TV will be the Brazilian we'll both be.''According to him the TV culture, being a public broadcaster (and therefore did not compromise with profits) shoul d be''an experiment''to improve programming, which can be exploited more later i n TV commercial. Cunha Lima,€who got a standing ovation by the participants comp leted their presentation reaffirming the role of TV in Brazil trainer:''We are t he only form of entertainment for millions of people, because we are free.''But he said that TV can not replace the School: ''The TV must be an additional train ing of the man, informing and raising their taste.''(Natasha Madov, IHT / appren tice) ______________________________________________________ PROPOSAL 3 - VUNESP/2000 INSTRUCTIONS: Read the following parody by Millor Ferna ndes. 11 In: Butt, year 1, 4, 6 to July 12, 1999, p. 5. PROPOSITION (adapted) Today, we learned of various forms of corruption through t he media, and to see addressed in theater, soap operas and illustrated in comic books, cartoons and comics programs. Most Brazilians condemns corruption, consid ering her guilty of the main ills that plague the country, but there are those w ho say it is an "incurable disease" or that is in the nature of our society. In this context, the cartoon by Millor Fernandes, parodying a genre of advertising officer, sarcastically calls young people to participate in corruption in all se ctors of national life. Posing as someone who thinks about his future and knows

he can find the path to corruption, expressing their opinion on the subject, wri ting an essay, gender essay on the theme: THE YOUNG BEFORE CORRUPTION: AN ENEMY OR A FIGHT The ACCEPT A GIVEN? 12