SOURCES OF ENERGY IN BRAZIL In the current world energy has become an important and expensive input for econ

omic activities. Even in agriculture is no longer possible to think only in the use of animal power to perform a job. In the industrial, trade and energy servic es is crucial. The search and refinement of new energy sources require large inv estments and development of new technologies. Moreover, the environmental issue also pressing for the use of renewable energy sources and clean. In this lesson we will make a brief assessment of the energy issue in Brazil, without leaving a side a presentation and comparison of our reality with the rest of the planet. * Primary energy - those sources are obtained directly from nature such as oil, n atural gas, coal, hydropower and wood, among others. * Secondary energy - one th at is only converted from primary sources by various processes such as diesel, g asoline, coke, coal, electricity and others. Initially it would be interesting t o present energy consumption in the world for sources. Note the chart below: Energy consumption in the world -% 2.3% 6.7% 11.2% 0.4% 35.7% 20.3% 23.3% natural gas oil coal nuclear renewable alternative water We can observe that the world, despite the impairment of the environment, especi ally those still using fossil fuels as energy source. So we can understand the g reat concern of many countries with the issue of oil and gas and concern about the conflicts that aff ect the production areas and / or routes of transportation of these resources. I ncreasing pressure from environmentalists to reduce use of fossil fuels, directl y responsible for acid rain and the greenhouse effect, and compromise the atmosp here during a temperature inversion. Fossil fuels are sources of non-renewable e nergy but the depletion of known and likely still around, even considering the g rowing global needs for energy. In the early seventies it was speculated the pos sibility of depletion of oil fields until the turn of the millennium. Today we d iscuss the possibility that there are still exploitable reserves by at least hal f a century or more. So we can understand that, before there is final depletion of petroleum, natural gas and coal is possible that these have already replaced by other energy sources cleaner due to environmental pressures. Surely the plane t's ecosystems and the environment will not stand for this entire period with th e prospect of increasing the burning of fossil fuels. For the sake of humanity a nd the ecosystems of the Earth we must work to become viable new alternatives fo r clean energy. However, the United States, the largest energy consumer on the p lanet still holds forecasts on oil imports which should take place in the coming decades including the panel considering geopolitical world and in these studies , Brazil appears as one of its future oil suppliers. Let us now look at the Braz ilian case in relation to energy sources. Note the chart below: Energy consumption in Brazil - by source 9.5% 3.1% 5.7% 39.0% 7.4% 35.3% electricity derived from oil bagasse firewood other ethyl alcohol Unlike what happens in general in the world, Brazil has a greater use of renewab le energy sources. Is still expressive use of oil but Brazil uses much hydropower, and biomass.

PRODUCTION OF PRIMARY ENERGY RENEWABLE ENERGY SOURCES NOT PRIMARY OIL NATURAL GAS COAL STEAM metallurgical co al URANIUM (U3O8) PRIMARY ENERGY RENEWABLE ENERGY HYDRAULIC WOOD PRODUCTS CANE S UGAR other primary sources. RENEWABLE TOTAL 1985 1990 % 1995 1997 1999 26.29 19.41 3.74 1.82 0.63 0.70 73.71 36.53 22.96 13.12 1.10 100 26.95 21.55 4.10 1.06 0.21 0.03 73.05 40.48 19.03 12.11 1.42 100 26.98 21.12 4.66 1.17 0.04 0.00 73.02 44.54 13.90 12.83 1.75 100 29.38 23.10 5.14 1.12 0.03 0.00 70.62 43.68 11.55 13.64 1.75 100 33.95 27.25 5.68 1.01 0.01 0.00 66.05 41.89 10.49 11.82 1.85 100 It is very important to make an assessment of each energy source in Brazil. Let us seek to know the areas of production, domestic consumption, pros and cons of these energy sources: * power - it can be achieved in different ways in hydroele ctric, thermoelectric and nucleoelectrical. Most of the electricity produced in Brazil comes from the potential of our rivers. Brazil has one of the largest hyd roelectric potential in the world, but still largely untapped.€The basins of the Parana and Sao Francisco are widely used, with the potential of major rivers al most sold out, but the Tocantins-Araguaia Basin, Amazon, Uruguay and some second ary can still be exploited much more. The Brazilian hydroelectric potential is e stimated at around 210 000 MW of energy which we use just over 60 000 MW. Meet b elow the major hydroelectric plants in Brazil, the river that are installed and their output (the shading differentiates various river basins). Besides the plan ts mentioned below, is also important to remember that currently develop works f or the expansion of some existing plants and construction of new plants that will add more energy to the Brazilian hydroelect ric system soon. Note the table: Plant Location (Rio) Installed capacity (MW) 12 600 Tucuruí Tocantins Itaipu Parana 4240 - (8370 MW by 2006) Island Single Para ná Xingó 3444 San Francisco 3000 San Francisco Paulo Afonso IV Itumbiara Paranaí ba 2460 2280 1814 Parana Porto Primavera (up the end of 2002) S. Simon Paranaíba 1710 Jupiá Paraná Itaparica 1554 San Francisco 1500 Wasp Major Ita 1488 Uruguay 1450 1420 Iguazu Salto Santiago Paulo Afonso I, II and III San Francisco 1417 R ed Water 1396 Furnas Grande Grande 1312 Three Brothers Tietê 1292 Serra da Mesa Tocantins 1275 1260 Secret Iguaçu Iguazu Salto Osorio Sobradinho 1078 San Franci sco 1050 The use of hydropower depends on river flow and the existence of waterf alls. Will therefore be important also that the regular flow and height of the f alls. Often it is necessary to arrange the construction of a reservoir (dam) tha t may also be used for leisure activities, tourism, irrigation and fish farming. It is important to know the pros and cons of each type of energy we use. Consid er this question in relation to hydroelectricity: Pros: Easy clean renewable tra nsportation con abundant environmental impact social cost of transport dependenc e on rain Hydropower is not polluting but brings environmental impact when so large reserv oirs flooding large areas, changing the local ecosystem and hindering the moveme nt of fish by preventing them from ascending the river to spawn. You may have no ticed the concern at the time of filling of the hydro lakes to make a capture an d relocation of animals that are stranded and in danger of drowning. The plants also produce a social impact leading to displacement of populations and changing their way of life. There are technical problems that affect the cost of that sy stem. When located far from centers of consumption it is necessary to build larg e linhões power transmission, with high cost and loss of a percentage of energy

transmitted. Another problem is the dependence of the regularity of the rains. D uring long periods of dry runs the risk of shortages as in the recent energy cri sis in Brazil. Notice now the consumption of electricity in Brazil by sector: Consumption of electricity in Brazil - GWh 150 Thousands 100 50 0 other residential commercial industrial The production of electricity in Brazil is also made by power plants, burning oi l products (with the problem of air pollution) and nucleoelectrical plants. Thes e two forms can be considered sources of thermal power generation, even as the n uclear fission reactors used in power plants nucleoelectrical generate heat that is used to turn water into steam and the steam pressure is what drives the turb ines connected to generators electricity. Thus, the fuel and the production proc ess in a plant of this type are more sophisticated than in a plant that burns co al, oil or gas. Brazil is currently developing a program of expansion of power g eneration by thermal plants in order to make better use of natural gas (mined in Brazil and imported from our neighbors). Natural gas is less polluting than die sel and coal (villain from fossil fuels) but is not exempt from this problem, it would also not be renewable. Note the chart of the origin of production of electric energy in Braz il: Production of electricity in Brazil 8.0% 92.0% thermal sources hydropower The Priority Programme aims to deploy Thermoelectricity 40 plants in the country by adding 13 637 MW to the system, as we have expanded the import of electricit y from our neighbors and increased investment in power transmission systems.€Thi s transmission system is interconnected allowing energy transfer from regions th at are filled with hydroelectric reservoirs for others who struggle to meet dema nd. Moreover, in case of system crash it causes blackout in much of the country (blackouts). Look at the next table: Pros uranium reserves located flexible "red uced environmental impact" against accident fate of nuclear waste expensive Brazil has reserves of uranium in significant quantities (sixth largest in the w orld), sufficient for national consumption and for export. A nuclear-power plant will not cause significant environmental damage: it occupies a much smaller are a than a hydroelectric dam and emits no pollutants into the atmosphere. The inst allation can be done close to consumer centers which reduces the cost of power t ransmission and little uranium can produce large amounts of energy. However the cost of installing a nuclear power plant is still high. They have become increas ingly safer but still fear the risk of a nuclear incident at Chernobyl causing r adioactive leaks and the death of thousands of people. Another problem with resp ect to the use of such energy is the fate of nuclear waste that nobody wants and must be stored with ca

re and protection until losing his lethal danger. Brazil has two nuclear power p lants currently in operation, producing only 1.3% of the electricity generated i n the country. Angra I, with lower production (657 MW) and oldest project and An gra II, the latest project and greater volume of energy production (1300 MW). Bo th are installed in Itaorna Beach in Angra dos Reis (RJ) in a strategic position to be studied among the two largest energy consumers (Sao Paulo and Rio de Jane iro) and to enjoy the sea water as a cooling element. Facing the Brazilian energ y crisis of 2001, discusses today the resumption of the Brazilian Nuclear Progra m for the reactivation of the construction of Angra III, in the same place. The question is: are there alternative, less costly and safer to not have to restart building nuclear plants? One of the bets in this sense is natural gas. In recen t years Brazil has sought to intensify research to raise the known and proven re serves of gas, as well as the country has invested in pipeline networks and dist ribution of this gas to the consumer centers. Already in operation the Brazil-Bo livia pipeline. In 2000, Brazil imported six million m_ of gas, 95% of the total 5% of Bolivia and Argentina. Currently natural gas accounts for only 3% of Braz il's energy matrix, but the government expects to raise this rate to 12% by the year 2010. In 1991 the Brazilian production was 4 billion m_ and in 2000 had rea ched 8 billion m_. Natural gas is used in households for heating water replacing tap and electric shower, as well as in food preparation to replace the LPG (gas cylinder), with less risk of explosion as well. Will be used in transport, flee t of buses, taxis and passenger cars, replacing gasoline, diesel and ethanol fue l itself. And will also be used in industries such as thermal energy source to r eplace other energy sources. Problems involving the use of natural gas are the c ost of network deployment and distribution pipeline and in fact be more of a non -renewable fossil fuel. But it can be a great complementary alternative for the next three or four decades. Note the chart below on fossil fuels: pros use versa tile technology known for low cost pollution Cons insufficient production nonren ewable Fossil fuels can be used in various situations: e vehicles, in steel plants, thermal plants and oducts. Involves relatively simple technologies dy well known. In Brazil it is worth mentioning as fuel for transport and privat also material for a series of pr for the current stage, and alrea the pioneering and advances

significant in oil exploration in deep waters (inflating the cost of the oil ext racted in Brazil in relation to the average oil price in international market wi thin a normal situation - when the price is not affected by political manipulati on or becomes unstable due to conflicts producing areas). Regarding cost-effecti veness remain viable sources of energy (it is important to note that the price o f oil today is relatively low comparing with the period of global shocks of the '70s). However,€Fossil fuels cause too much environmental pollution, especially to the atmosphere (acid rain, greenhouse effect, heat islands ...). The cost of cleaning the environment should be added, so the cost of this energy source. Are non-renewable resources, yet there are no indications of a rapid depletion of t hese sources. And besides all this, the Brazilian production is not sufficient t o meet domestic demand. The Brazilian production of coal is very poor. Our reserves are concentrated in the South, especially in Rio Grande do Sul and Santa Catarina (Shark River Valle y). But the Brazilian coal is of low quality, with many impurities and low calor ific value. The extraction areas are degraded and are located far from the cente rs steel (in Southeast) who use this energy. There are also problems of storage and transportation to these industries. Over 60% of coal used is imported from Brazil, while Brazil has the world's rese rves of only 0.7 and 0.1% of world production. Still, the domestic production of coal energy has increased in recent years due to increased demand in power thermoelectric. Most coal produced in Brazil, however, is of metallurgical coal

(which is for steel). OIL The Brazilian oil production is still insufficient to supply the domestic market , but the prospects are to achieve self-sufficiency by the year 2005. Brazil cur rently imports 26% of its consumption, the percentage has been decreasing in rec ent years. The Brazilian oil production is concentrated in Continental (operating at sea). The main area is producing fields in northern Rio de Janeiro. In the continental shelf highlight the states of Sergipe, Alagoas and Rio Grande do Norte. also st ands out with production on land. Platform Basin The latter also National oil reserves 2.0% 2.0% 4.0% 4.0% 88.0% RJ RN BA SE Other Domestic oil production 3.0% 3.0% 4.0% 9.0% 4.0% 77.0% RJ RN BA SE Am Other Once removed the oil in our territory or imported from other countries, it is tr ansported by pipelines, rail cars or trucks to refineries where it is processed to give rise to gasoline, diesel, lubricant oil, LPG and raw materials for a ser ies of products. The refining capacity is currently 1,773,343 BPD. The Brazilian refineries are located especially close to major consuming centers, hence its c oncentration in the Southeast that is the biggest consumer of oil. After refinin g, petroleum products are transported to final consumers. REFINERIES Unit (Federation) IPIRANGA (RS) LUBNOR (EC) Manguinhos (RJ) RECAP (SP) REDUC (RJ ) REFAP (RS) REGAP (MG) REMAN (AM) REPAR (PR) REPLAN (SP) REVAP (SP) RLAM (BA) R PBC (SP) SIX (PR) * Effective refining capacity m_ / day 1,808 904 2,013 7,685 34,808 27,123 21,699 6,600 27,123 50,630 32,548 4 4,030 24,411 556 BPD 11,373 5,687 12,659 48,337 218,938 170,601 136,481 41,513 1 70,601 318,455 204,721 276,942 153,541 3,497 TOTAL

281 938 1773343 * SIX - oil from shale The Brazilian oil production is experiencing continued growth. There are prospec ts of even that Brazil is an oil exporter until 2010. The opening of the oil mar ket to domestic and foreign investors has attracted new capital to the sector. P etrobras also has raised the total of their investments in research to increase the amount of our known and proven reserves and the total extracted. Note below the table with our oil production according to the Federation and loc al units of production (land and sea) Production (thousands of BPD) Amazonas Ceará Local Terra Terra Mar 1995 4,564 932 4,305 25,447 3,735 1,564 9,909 3,177 19,412 709 2,903 434 170,619 1,41 0 1,245 2,583 6 1996 6,889 983 4,326 29,315 3,436 1,499 18 9,812 3,030 19,749 831 2,980 331 196,833 1 ,860 1,261 3,698 1997 8,453 1,146 4,384 30,007 3,039 1,456 171 9,389 2,691 18,354 737 2,833 267 218,01 6 1,502 1,161 3,537 1998 11,894 1,170 4,179 31,521 3,003 1,551 218 9,007 3,835 18,033 609 3,245 202 261,9 54 1,252 1,267 2,983 1999 12,423 1,083 4,098 30,209 4,239 1,746 258 8,740 5,079 17,164 3,846 148 308,892 9 63 1,279 1,894 2000 15,773 849 4,027 27,340 4,417 2,035 272 8,904 4,564 16,848 11 4,568 99 358,751 5 66 1,259 1,603 Rio Grande do Norte Terra Mar Alagoas Terra Mar Sergipe Terra Mar Bahia Terra Mar

Holy Spirit Terra Mar Rio de Janeiro São Paulo Paraná Terra Mar Mar Mar Santa Catarina Sea Subtotal Terra Mar 65 977 186.97 7 4 72 488 214.36 4 72 800 234.34 4 77 688 278.23 76 489 325.57 2 77 575 374.31 0 Total 252.95 5 1 286.85 307.14 4 2 355.92 1 402.06 451.88 5 In the history of oil in Brazil until 1907 we can say that the polls were disorg anized, amateurish and performed by individuals. In 1907 it established the Geol ogical and Mineralogical Brazil (SGMB) and then searches also are being made by public bodies including the National Department of Mineral Research (ANP) was cr eated in 1933. But until the late 30th the results were disappointing. From 1938 the oil activity is being carried out compulsorily, and only for Brazilians and that year is created the National Petroleum Council (CNP). From there the oil f ields will then be considered assets of the Union The discovery of oil in Lobato , Bahia, in 1939 is another milestone in this period. In 1941, in Candeias, one finds the first commercially viable oil well. On October 3, 1953 President Getul io Vargas establishes the state oil monopoly with the creation of Petrobras (res earch, mining and oil refining and transportation of oil and its derivatives). F rom 1963 are included in the monopoly to import and export of petroleum and its derivativ es. In 1974 Petrobras discovered the Garoupa field, the first of the Campos Basi n. Later, when looking for oil in deeper waters in the Campos Basin, Petrobras s

tarts the discovery of giant fields of production. In the 1970s, with world oil shocks, Petrobras seeks to increase the pace of investment to raise its stake in domestic oil consumption, and, in parallel, are put in risk contracts to attrac t new investments in research to production. During the 80s and 90s, Petrobras a dvances in technological development for deepwater production and expanding refi ning capacity. In the second half of the 90 constitutional changes break the mon opoly of the company and created the National Petroleum Agency. Begins the inves tments of foreign companies and emerging partnerships with Petrobras. Other energy sources Biomass is the origin of organic matter (litter, sawdust, bagasse, the remains o f plants such as bark or grains) that can be used to obtain heat or electricity in thermal plants. Thus, it is worth giving the use of renewable energy resource s in Brazil. It is important to remember that more than half of our energy consu mption comes from renewable sources (this is a differential of Brazil in the wor ld of energy sources). * Alcohol fuel - before the global oil shocks in the 1970 s to seek alternatives and Brazil invests in renewable energy and cleaner. Thus arises the Pro-alcohol to replace gasoline automobile. Develop technologies in t he auto industry that allowed the country to create a large-scale program to sup ply vehicles to the use of ethanol as a substitute to petroleum derivatives. The creation of the Pro-Alcohol caused great expansion of cane cultivation especial ly in São Paulo. Reduced oil imports and brought gains in air quality in major c ities. However, this program has been criticized as for example in relation to s ubsidies for sugar mills to produce sugar cane and alcohol, to make it attractiv e to the consumer. Environmental damage from the sugarcane monoculture (pollutio n during the burning of sugar cane, soil erosion ...) and social damage (to repl ace the use of manpower by permanent temporary land concentration ...) are also relevant . Today the production of vehicles running on ethanol is very low, even with recent leaps in oil prices in international market. Maintain a program tha t occupy large tracts of land for the cultivation of a kind used as fuel by a mi nority of the population while there is still lack of food to supply the domesti c market, it seems irrational. It is worth mentioning also the burning of sugar cane bagasse, following the principle of power plants for generating electricity that contribu tes to the consumption of the sugar mills themselves. * Firewood / Charcoal - co nsumption of this energy source is extremely harmful to the environment, is the devastation of the vegetation, either by burning the material that contributes t o the greenhouse effect. The use of this feature is found in shops (bakeries, pi zzerias, steak houses), in homes (wood stoves, grills) and steel (compensating f or deficiencies of coal). However there is a reduction in the consumption of thi s energy source in Brazil. Minas Gerais is the state of increased use of this en ergy source, which has destroyed their forests and tropical savannas.€The use of alternative energies like wind, solar, tidal, babassu oil or other vegetable oi ls is insignificant in Brazil. Some of them demand the creation of an infrastruc ture for large or present problems for generation and large-scale distribution, or storage. The solar-purpose thermal (water heating in homes - replacing electr ic showers and faucets) allows savings of up to 35% in electricity consumption o f a residence and is becoming feasible and cheaper. However, for electricity gen eration through photovoltaic cells with electrochemical properties still implies a high cost and large areas for installation, and is restricted to sites with s trong and regular sunshine and present problems for storage. Some experiments ar e promising in the use of clean and renewable energy. You are at the early stage wind energy in the country with a production of only 20 MW. The greatest potent ial for exploitation is in the Northeast, especially the state of Ceara. It is a lso a clean and renewable energy that is included in the Energy Emergency Progra ms and expectations are to expand the supply of energy to 1050 MW over the next fifteen years. In the case of energy obtained from tides, it is possible to thin k of their use in some parts of the northeastern coast, especially in Maranhao, where they have the highest amplitude tides of our coast. It is evident that the

energy issue ance to avoid sides causing reduction of

is serious and requires an efficient and careful planning, and adv shortages in the market, which compromises the quality of life, be huge economic losses for businesses and job losses Working for the economic activities and / or consumption.

Learn more on the Internet * Petrobras: http://www2.petrobras.com.br/portugues/index.asp * National Department of Mineral Production (ANP): http://www.dnpm.gov.br/ * National Energy Agency (ANEEL): http://www.aneel.gov.br/ * Ministry of Mines and Energy: http://www.mme.gov.br/ * National Petroleum Agency (ANP): http://www.anp.gov.br/ * Energy in Brazil: http://www.energiabrasil.gov.br/ * Itaipu Dam: http://www.itaipu.gov.br/ Exercises 1 - (FGV) on energy consumption in Brazil is correct to say that a) the Southeas t Region can not consume all the energy it produces b) the residential sector an d trade represent 80% of total energy consumption c) more than half the energy c onsumed in Brazil comes from renewable sources such as hydro and biomass d) in t his decade due to the successive economic crises, there has been no increase in energy consumption and) oil and coal account for more than 70% of the energy for consumption in the country 2 - (PUC) the removal of the hydraulic potential of the main Brazilian basins demonstrates the supremacy of the great rivers of the basin: a) Amazon b) San Francisco c) of Paraná d) of the Araguaia and Tocantins) East 3 - (FGV) During the 70s, Brazil was importing about 80% of the oil neede d for domestic consumption. Already in the 90s, this import was reduced by half. One cause of this is: a) the high price of fuel in international market, b) the success achieved by alternative energy sources like nuclear and Proálcool c) th e increase of domestic production, especially in the region of Campos (RJ) d) th e savings achieved by means of transport oil savers, e) the discovery and exploi tation of large reserves of oil shale, which also produces energy. 4 - (MACKENZIE) The second section of the Bolivia-Brazil pipeline, connecting Ca mpinas to Porto Alegre, was inaugurated on March 31 ... The pipeline is a key pa rt of the Priority Program of Thermoelectric ... O Estado de Sao Paulo - 04/04/2 000 On this topic, it is not correct to say that: a) thermal generation is more flexible than hydraulic, as it arose in which fuel flow is controlled by man, b) the provision of energy can be calibrated by increasing the moments of pique an d falling off at times when demand is lower, c) despite the deployment of the pi peline, the installation of thermal power plants will still take a decade and sh ould be concentrated only in the Mid-South d) the program will support the devel opment of markets for co-generation of energy by combining, for example, the use of gas and sugar cane producing areas, e) the country's energy matrix will chan ge, approaching the economies more developed in which the environmental damage c aused by dams are very controlled. 5 - (UNICAMP) petroleum, non-renewable resour ce, is the main source of energy consumed in the world.€a) Point two alternative sources of energy for the reduction of oil consumption. b) What are the advanta

ges and disadvantages of using these alternative energy sources to oil? Answers 12345C ACC a) ethanol and natural gas b) Alcohol is renewable and cleaner, but i ts cost is high, it causes concentration of land and environmental damage with t he monoculture of sugarcane (erosion, fire). Natural gas is cheaper and less pol luting than oil, but it is renewable and requires the assembly of an infrastruct ure of high cost and sometimes complicated (adaptation of equipment and engines) .