1 Electronics Diodes.

Before we get into the issue itself, it is necessary to make some considerations about the material they are made some very important electronic components such as diodes and transistors among others, this is known as a semiconductor materi al. First-Semiconductor Materials. Exist in nature materials that can conduct el ectric current with ease: Ex-metals: copper, aluminum, iron etc.. Materials that do not allow the passage of electric current, because the charge carriers (elec trons), has no mobility neles.São insulators. Eg mica, rubber, glass, plastic e tc.. In an intermediate group, between conductors and insulators are semiconduct ors, which are neither good conductors and insulators is not even. Featuring amo ng the semiconductor, they will be targets of this study, silicon (Si) and germa nium (Ge). Other factors are also important semiconductor for electronics They s elenium (Se), Gallium (Ga) etc.. The main feature that matters in the case of si licon and germanium is that these elements have atoms with four electrons in its last layer and that they have a geometric structure and ordered. The silicon an d germanium form crystals where the atoms sharing the electrons of the second la yer. We know the chemistry that atoms of different elements have a natural tende ncy to achieve equilibrium, when the last layer acquires the maximum number of e ight electrons. Thus form, both the silicon and germanium crystals form when the atoms next to one another share the electrons there is always eight of them aro und each core, resulting in a fairly stable equilibrium for these materials. See Fig.1, below: 2 Figure 1 In this crystalline form of high purity silicon and germanium are not s uitable for production of electronic devices, but the situation changes when we add certain "impurities" to the material. These impurities consist of atoms of a chemical element that has in its last layer a number of different four electron s, which are aggregated structure of germanium and / or silicon in extremely sma ll proportions of the order of parts per million (ppm). In our example we will u se silicon with the addition of two possibilities. a) Elements with atoms of fiv e electrons in the last layer, b) elements with atoms endowed with three electro ns in the second layer. In the first case, shown in Figure 2, the addition and u sing the element arsenic (As). Like the neighboring atoms can only share 8 elect rons in the formation of crystalline structure, one that will remain not having to login, get mobility in the material, and therefore may serve as charge carrie rs. Figure 2 The result is that the resistivity or capacity to conduct current chang es and if the semiconductor is silicon, which is called "dope" and becomes a goo d conductor of electric current. As the carriage of cargo is done by electrons i n the materials left over or free electrons are negative charges, the semiconduc tor material thus obtained, 3 by adding this type of impurity is called N-type semiconductor (Nnegativo). Th e second possibility, we added to the silicon crystal as an impurity, which cont ains three electrons in its last layer, where the Indian (In) then obtaining a s tructure as shown in Figure 3. Figure 3. Observe that, in the place where the atom is no Indian 8 electrons to be shared so that it remains a place we call "gap." This gap also works with cha rge carriers, because the electrons want to move through the material can "jump" from gap to gap so finding a route with little resistance. As the charge carrie rs are holes in this case, and the lack of electrons corresponds to the dominanc e of a positive charge, we say that the semiconductor material so obtained is of

type P (P for positive). We can form material type semiconductors P and N both with elements like silicon and germanium, as with some others found in various a pplications in single elec. Second PN junctions. An important electronic device is obtained when we join two semiconductor materials of different kinds among th em forming a semiconductor junction. The semiconductor junction is an important part of various devices such as diodes, transistors, SCRs, framework integrating circuits, etc.. Therefore, understanding their behavior is very important. Supp ose we have two pieces of semiconductor material, a type P and one N-type, if we mixed the two so that they are in very close contact, form a junction, as shown in Figure 4, following. 4 Figure 4. This junction has very important properties.€Consider initially occur s at the junction itself. At the site of junction the electrons that are in exce ss in the N material and can move around looking for gaps, which are also presen t at the site of the junction in the P side of the material, filling them. The r esult 'and that these charges are neutralized, while there appears a certain ten sion between the two materials (P and N). This voltage appearing at the junction is a real barrier that needs to be overcome so we can move the chain between th e two materials. This barrier is called a barrier potential or voltage or thresh old voltage driving. Germanium for this voltage is 0.2 volts and for silicon is 0.7 Volts. The structure indicated, with both P and N semiconductor materials, form an elec tronic component with electrical properties very interesting and what is called a diode (semiconductor). Third diodes. A semiconductor diode is formed by two ma terials of opposite electrical characteristics, separated by an area without loa d (empty) called a joint. This combination is what gives the characteristic of t he diode. Normally the diodes are made of crystal "doped" silicon and germanium. 5 Figure 5. Symbol: Several diodes: 6 3.1-Specifications Specifications of the diode common diodes are made on the bas is of the maximum current that can result in the direct sense, If by short (of t he forward = right), and the maximum voltage that can withstand in reverse, abbr eviated Vr ( reverse = Reverse) and also according to code, as follows: 1N - U.S . Code (a junction), 1S - Japanese Code, AO = BA - European Code. 3.2-polarizati on of the diodes. 3.2.1 Polarization-Direct. To polarize a diode switch on the a node to the positive pole of the battery while the cathode is connected to the n egative thereof. Occurs both repulsion of charge carriers in N part moving away from the negative battery as the charge carriers moving away from the part P of the positive pole of the battery. Converge, both those with N as patients with P , for the junction region. Then we have a junction in the region of recombinatio n, since the electrons are coming to occupy the gaps that are also "pushed" to t he region. The result is that this phenomenon opens the way for new loads in bot h P and N, so that they proceed to junction region, a continuous process which m eans the movement of a chain. This current is intense, which means that a diode polarized in this way, or makes a direct current passes easily. In Figure 6, we can visualize this phenomenon. Figure 6 3.2.2 Polarization-Inversa. When reversed the polarity of the battery, for the semiconductor, ie the positive battery connected to the cathode (N) and the negative pole. The battery connected to the anode (P), what occurs is an att

raction of charge carriers N for the positive pole of the battery and carrying P to the negative pole of 7 mesma.Ocorre then a removal of the carriers of N and P junction. The result is that instead of having an approximation of the charges in the junction region w e have a resignation from, with an increase of the potential barrier that preven ts the movement of any material corrente.O polarized in this way, or reverse, it still passing current. See Figure 7, as in this situation: Figure 7 Fourth Types of diodes. 4.1-silicon diodes commonly used - are those used in logic circuits, protection circuits, transistors etc polarization. They are manufactured to work with curre nts of low intensity of 200mA and maximum voltage not exceeding 100V. Symbols: One of the diodes more popular this group is the reference 1N4148 8 4.2-diode rectifiers .- Their function is to rectify AC current to DC pulsante .São for conducting intense currents and also operate with high reverse voltage s of up 1000v or 1200 in reverse Lead direct currents up to 1 A. Symbols: Several diodes Diode series IN400C Application: General use in rectification of currents and voltages. An important series of diodes is formed by IN4000C that begins with the 1N4001. Types VR (vo ltage maxima-Inverse) 50V IN4001 IN4002 IN4003 100V 200V 400V IN4004 IN4005 IN40 06 600V 800V 1000V IN4007 Reading Code 1N400C 1N = American code of a rectifier diode junction, C = numbers 1-7 which shows the maximum stress when the diode is reverse-biased = Vr = 100 to 1000V 4.3-light-emitting diodes - LED (Light Emitt ing Diodes) .- These diodes polarized directly emit monochromatic light when a c urrent circulates through the junction. Available Colors: Yellow, green, red, orange and blue. 9 Applications: Remote Controls,€Monitors, indicative of operation of devices in a PC etc.. Operating voltage: -1.6 V Red LEDs remaining 1.8 to 2.1 V Identificat ion markers, the LEDs are indicated by the most common types of manufactures, su ch as acronyms TIL (TIL221 etc) from Texas Instruments, CQV (from Phillips) or L D (Icotron). 4.4-Fotodiodos.-those who are being reverse-biased to its ohmic res istance is a function of incidence of light on your joint. The result is that yo u get the current flow depends on the intensity of incident light Features: light sensitivity of the incident, which react with speed variations i n the intensity of incident light. Applications: Reading bar codes, punch cards, optical reading of CD Roms, and, receiving the modulated light from a laser via fiber optics. As an extension of this property of the diodes are light sensitiv e photodiodes have also sensitive to nuclear radiation that also operate with re verse bias. Its symbol is equal to the photodiodes and their appearance is equal to the square type seen in the above aspects, using in its central window mica. 4.5-Varicap. It is a double-diode reverse-biased when it has a capacitance whic h depends on the applied voltage. Applications: Electronic tuning radios AM, FM and TV. 10

.- 4.6-Zener diode reverse-biased voltage of the circuit remains constant, even if the current varies, ie, it acts as a voltage regulator circuit. Note: biased functions as an ordinary diode. Applications: for power supplies to maintain stable and constant tension, beside s being present in other applications that need fixed voltage. Code. A series of diodes which employs many projects and commercial devices is BZX79C Philips Com ponents, formed by diodes 400mA. In this series the diode voltage is given by th e type. Eg BZX79C2V1-2v1 matches where 2.1 V (oV replace the comma). BZX79C12V-c orresponds to a diode 12 V-fifth of current rectification using diodes. In the p receding pages we have seen how they behave in the semiconductor structure when P polarized material attached to the N material, forming a metallurgical junctio n. Called the PN junction. Let's now look at a practical language how it goes. 5 .1-Polarization Diode .- polarize in practice say that a component is to impose on their terminals or DDP potential default. 5.1.1 .- Direct-Bias is one in whic h the anode (A) is more positive than the cathode (K). In this condition say that the diode conducts and that is directly or polarized, ON. 11 The tension between A and K is ideally zero, but this does not happen in prac tice, and for this voltage silicon diodes will be worth 0.7 V for diodes and ger manium worth 0.2 V. This voltage is called voltage or threshold voltage conducti on is represented by VL. The diode is then shown in the drawing by a source volt age value VL Inversa.-5.1.2-Bias in this condition the anode (A) is less positive than the ca thode (K) and the component will not allow the passage of current. Actually pass es through a small current component of the order of nA (nanoampére) which is n egligible. the component is shown in the drawing, like an open circuit. 5.2-Transformers / Taking Center (CT-center tape). Here we have a simple notion of running a processor. We can say that the transformer is a component that has four or more terminals, whose function is to change the value of the peak altern ating voltage, and also adapt the alternating voltage network to predetermined l evels that will feed a rectifier. Representation: : ⠢ The transformer is composed of two coils wound called primary and secondary education in a common core ambas.Quando is applied to an alternating current in the primary winding appears around your coil a magnetic field, whose lines of fo rce expand and contract in same frequency current. The result is that every time these power lines cut the turns of the secondary winding that is driven and a v oltage appears at its terminals. The voltage polarity is given by the movement f rom power lines so that it also reverses at the same frequency of the primary wi nding current. 12 comes to the conclusion that the alternating voltage of the secondary winding of the transformer has the same frequency as that applied in the primary windin g. Note that the above figure in both the primary and secondary signs (+) and () are the same poles.€Important: When the signal from the secondary is equal to the corresponding primary say that the secondary is in phase with the primary w hen the signs of the poles are different in the corresponding poles, we say that the secondary is with inverted phase This phase reversal can be achieved with a transformer winding that has double or endowed with a central outlet (CT = cent er tape) 5.3 Rectifiers. Rectifiers are circuits that transform the voltages and currents alternating voltages and currents continued. There are three types of rectifiers as the waveform of the voltage provided at the output of each circuit

and um.São them: 1. Half-wave rectifier RMO 2. Full-wave rectifier with power center (Center tape)-ROCT 3. Full-wave rectifier bridge-ROCP. 5.3.1-half-wave re ctifier RMO. Firstly we see in general how to enter and leave the chain this typ e of rectifier. We will now explain: The circuit below consists of one common transformer a diod e and a load. Circuit: Semi- cycle-SCP 13 Note in this case, that the most positive point of the circuit is connected t o the anode (A) of the diode and this leads. half cycle. In this half cycle we have to reverse the polar ity of the input voltage causing a negative potential on the anode (A) of the di ode relative to its cathode (K), which causes its non-conducting, ie, no passage of current, represented by a open circuit. See figure below: of current input and output in relation to the cycles. 14 Note that match the picture of the item 5.3.1. Note: a) As we have seen this typ e of rectifier only allows use only half of the semi cycles of alternating curre nt is therefore a process of little income, approximately 30% of the alternating current that comes in is used. b) Good to see that still leaves the current gen erated in the positive semi cycles, although it flows in one direction only, is not a pure DC. It is formed by pulsos.Este type of current is called "pulsed cur rent of" with frequency of 60 cycles / sec. 5.3.2 Full Wave Rectifier with PlugCentral ROCT. In the following figure we see as the current enters and leaves th is type of rectifier. Let's explanation: This circuit has two diodes (D1 and D2) and an outlet center (TC) of phase reversal. Circuit: Semi- cycle-SCP: In this half cycle note that the anode (A) of diode D1 is connected to the posit ive pole of the transformer secondary and thus driving. The diode D2 in the same half cycle in this circuit is connected to a negative pole and in this case cou ld not drive. 15 Semi- negative-SNA. In this half cycle the central outlet inverts the phase of the transformer to th e diode D2 is connected to a positive terminal and may lead (note figure) With t his reversal reverses the negative semi cycles and become positivos.A reversal p hase is simultaneous with the exchange the half cycle and causes the waves are e xploited negative half cycle. To be recovered and now having only one meaning is illogical to speak in positive or negative. These waves are harnessed to those incorporated in the SCP improving performance of the rectifier and improving the quality of the current rectified. In short, this semi-D2 cycle standing with hi s anode (A) connected to a positive pole-driving; D1 having its anode connected to a negative pole-Opens.álise input current and output in relation t o semi-cycles. . Observe the waves generated in the semi-positive cycle-SCP and the waves gener ated in the negative half-cycle-SNA enjoying these last waves and negative inver sion as.Observe even the spaces between the waves generated in the SCP due to th e cutting of negative waves as seen in the RMO, can now be completed by those ob

tained in the SCN when these waves are recomposed. Only now in one sentido.Veja up the final waveform that is obtained using this type of rectifier. 16 Note also that in this case the distance between the waves are smaller (have a higher frequency, ie 120 cycles / sec.) Than in the previous RMO. This process improves the quality of the wave, and the yield (69% in this case) with the use of waves negativas.Mesmo so we do not have a current rectified 100% pura.Contin uamos getting what is called a rectified pulsating current . 5.3.2 Full-Wave Rec tifier in Ponte.-ROCP. In the figure below is viewed, as in other types, such as enter and exit this type of rectifier. Explanation: In this type, we have a common rectifier that uses a bridge rectifi er for rectification,€which is an electronic component with four internal diode s arranged in such a way to put two diodes per cycle connected via its anode (A) to the positive pole of the transformer secondary. Thus positive semi cycles in SCN-leading and have two diodes in the negative half cycle other two leads. In the process for having four diodes get a better yield than the ROCT (80%). Befor e proceeding with the explanation of operation of this system, the illustrations below show the appearance, layout and symbolism of a bridge rectifier. Symbols: 17 Circuit: Positive-SCP-half cycle in the diagram below we see that this positive h alf cycle the diodes D2 D1E polarize directly and carry current in this case the other two inversely polarized D3 and D4, open. .- SCN-negative half cycle. 18 In this half cycle (diagram below) it is observed that the diodes D3 and D4 i s that polarize directly (see they are connected to the positive side) and in th is case is that they now lead the current building on the negative half cycle (a s in ROCT ). The other two D1 and D2 open. The schedule of incoming and outgoing waves is analogous to that seen for full-w ave rectifier with socket. This process are also exploited the waves of a negati ve nature resulting in a higher yield due to the larger number of diodos.Vale no ted that even the current obtained in this process is not 100% pura.A current is rectified pulsed frequency 120ciclos / sec . We note that to obtain a really st raightened it still has to go through other processes. 6th Measuring and testing diodes. 6.1-Testing diodes in general 19 Reading Direction Direct - High Low Reverse Direction Good Condition Direct sense and reverse-down (or close to zero =) Short Direct sense and reverse-Alto (near or = â Trails Open ) reverse below 10Ω

6.2 Tests on polymer double-Varicap 20 In tests done by diode diode (D1 and D2 Direct or vice versa), one can follow th e table above defects. If one of the defects present diodes varicap is broken up 6.3-Testing Bridge Rectifiers: 21 In tests, diode by diode (D1, D2, D3 and D4 Directly or vice versa), one can fol low the table of defects above. If one of the diodes show the defects listed in the table above, the rectifier bridge is broken.