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Electronics
Transistors.
Transistor (transfer resistor) is a component consisting of a monocrystalline wa
fer of semiconductor material (germanium or silicon) regions doped with impuriti
es of the type N and type P Transistors depending on the intended purpose, can f
unction as: a) current amplifier; b) Signal Amplifier c) Key electronics .. Trad
itionally the transistors are divided into two (2) groups: namely 1.Bipolares; 2
.Unipolares or field effect.
Bipolar-first - those formed by three (3) regions of semiconductor polarities
alternating between them there junções.As two regions are named emitter (E), Bas
e (B) and collector (C). Based its operation with power supply at the base. Symb
ol: Appearance:
We can get the structure indicated in two different ways, which leads to split t
he bipolar transistors, as its structure into two types: Type NPN and PNP. See t
he pictures in the sequence:
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Internal layout of the types NPN and PNP.
1.1 Basis, Collector and Emitter. We now understand what is Base, emitter and co
llector. • Base-is the part that controls the passage of current, when the base
is energized, there is passage of current from the emitter to the collector when
there is no signal there is no such driving. The basic schematic is the center
of the transistor. • Collector is one of the ends of the transistor, is that it
"enters" the current to be controlled. The relationship between the collector an
d base is a parameter or property of the transistor known as β ( eta) and is dif
ferent in each type of transistor. • Emitter-is the other end, where the current
leaves it was controlled. 1.2 General Considerations and Polarization of transi
stors. 1.2.1Considerações general. For the purpose of an initial study we will t
ake as example a NPN structure, ie an NPN transistor .. Each of the junctions of
the transistor ehaves like a diode, ut when applied voltages on the device in
a certain way and the two joints can take action at the same time, the ehavior
of the structure ecomes more complex than simply two diodes connected together
. In order to have a different action of these joints, we from the situation whe
re the transistor is supplied with external sources and characteristics of certa
in polarities. In summary, for the transistor to work, we need to polarize it co
nveniently. 1.2.2Polarização transistors. Initially we will make a ias that onl
y allows us to study its operation. In practice there are other ways to ias the
transistors. Taking our NPN transistor as an example, it polarizes to switch on
a attery of higher voltage (B2) etween the collector and emitter and a atter
y voltage lower (B1) through a pot at the ase of the transistor. See the figure
in the sequence:
3 Let's see what happens: we start initially from the condition in which the cur
sor is all the pot to the negative side of attery B1, ie, the voltage applied t
o the ase of the transistor is zero (0). Accordingly, the joint that exists et
ween the ase and emitter, which would e the route to a current from the atter
y B1, has no ias whatsoever, and no current can fluir.A ase current (I ) of th
e transistor is zero (0). Likewise, under these conditions the current etween t
he collector and emitter of the transistor, natural pathway for current from the
attery B2 is zero. See figure elow:
Gradually moving the cursor of the potentiometer to increase the voltage applied
to the ase of the transistor, we see that nothing unusual occurs until we reac
h the point where the potential arrier of the emitter- ase junction of transist
or is unsuccessful. (0.2 V to germanium and approximately 0.7 V for silicon). Wi
th a voltage of this order, egins to run a small current etween the ase and e
mitter. This chain however has an interesting effect on the transistor: a curren
t also egins to circulate etween the collector and the emitter and this curren
t varies proportionally with the ase current. See the figure in the sequence:
As we move over the pot to increase the ase current, we o served that the colle
ctor of the transistor increases proportionately.
4 If a ase current of 0.1 mA causes a collector current of 10mA, we say that th
e current gain or amplification factor of the transistor is 100times, ie the col
lector current is 100 times greater than the ase current Proportionality etwee
n the ase current and collector current however is not maintained throughout th
e range of possi le values. There is a point at which an increase in ase curren
t does not cause a further increase in collector current which then sta ilizes.
We say that we reached the saturation point, ie, the "transistor saturates" Belo
w the graph that shows this phenomenon.
Then notice that there is a linear portion of this chart is called "characterist
ic curves of the transistor." In the following figure we have the operation of a
PNP transistor. O serve that the only difference if it were used in the example
given a ove is the sense of movement of currents and therefore the polarity of
the atteries. Note in the figures to follow these guidelines the currents in a
transistor NPN and PNP.
In NPN: • Basic current I -=>> clockwise. • Collector Current Ic => Counter-cloc
kwise. In PNP: • Basic current I =>> counterclockwise. • Collector Current .= I
c.sentido schedule.
5 To finish the matter, we note the following: a) when I = 0 Ic = 0. The tran
sistor does not work, and in this case we say that it works like a key or open i
s represented y: ) I = Ic = grows grows in proportion. d) = I reaches a ce
rtain level (saturation point) and from there even if we increase I = Ic rema
ins constant
Second transistors in Practice.
The first transistors were simple devices intended to operate only stream of low
intensity, which is why almost all alike in key characteristics. However, over
time there were many advances in manufacturing processes, which led manufacturer
s to produce a huge amount of types, capa le of operating with small current int
ensity ut also with high currents, so did the tensions and even same with speed
. There are today in terms of types of transistors more than one million, requir
ing ulky manuals queries when you want to pick a particular type. So to facilit
ate the study of transistors in practice it is necessary to divide these devices
into "families" in which the main features remain. For other characteristics, t
he differences are normally supplied y manufacturers in the form of data sheets
called datasheets. Below one of these types of datasheets from Motorola.
Indicated in those datasheets the physical aspect of the family, identification
codes, data current, collector-emitter voltages, frequencies, material they are
made, curves, identifying the terminals etc.
6 In general, in practice only a few hundred can e considered 'owned principais
'e is a good manual and a good knowledge one can always find one capa le of repl
acing types considered difficult. 2.1-transistors use geral.-transistors are des
igned to generate or amplify signals of low intensity and relatively low frequen
cy.
Material Specification
Setting Small ta lets
Description Silicon Germanium Metals Plastics NPN and PNP
Most of the o servations is current silicon transistors.
External appearance envelopes type semiconductor Types Terminal 3 Terminal conte
nt
Base (B) Identification must Collector (C) may e made y the type emitter (E) a
nd varies greatly Ic-Icmax current = current varies etween: collector. sink 20m
A and 500mA maximum. VCEO VCEOmáx-voltage varies etween: etween the collector
and voltages 10V and 80V. the transmitter with the maximum ase off operation. f
T FTmáxVaria frequency etween 1 and 200 MHz maximum frequency or maximum freque
ncy of the transition transistor can operate. Applications Audio or General Use
7 The most common types of these transistors are BC548, BC558, BC107, 2SB75, OC7
4,
2N2222, 2N107 etc.
2.2-Power Transistors-transistors are designed to operate with currents even mor
e intense signals with low frequencies.
Material Specifications
Definitions
Description Silicon Metal Plastics
Remarks
Ta lets of various sizes Aspect external envelopes
Tend to warm (high current) use envelopes that allow the assem ly in a sink (rad
iator) heat. (Picture a ove)
Type semiconductor types of terminals Ic-collector current.
Usually three terminals Content
NPN and PNP ID must e made y type and varies greatly
Base (B) Collector (C) Emitter (E) = Icmax = Maximum collector current maximum 1
5A.
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VCEO-voltage etween the collector and emitter with the ase off. fT-maximum fre
quency or frequency transition Application
Maximum operating voltage VCEOmáx
Ranges from: 20V and 100V.
fTmáxVaria entre100khz maximum frequency that the transistor can operate 40Mhz.
Audio Amplifiers
The most common types of these transistors are: TIP31, TIP32, 2N3055. BD135, BD1
36, AD142, etc. BU205. 2.3 Transistors RF (Radio Frequency)-transistors are desi
gned to generate or amplify signals at high frequencies, ut with small intensit
ies of currents.
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Material Specifications
Inserts definitions of small sizes
Description * Silicon Germanium Gallium Arsenide (GaAs)
Remarks For the most part. Little used.€* The GaAs are already eing used for th
e manufacture of transistors and are capa le of generating (amplify) signs at th
ousands of Mhz
External appearance type semiconductor types of terminals
Usually three envelopes Content terminais.Alguns have four terminals. The fourth
terminal is connected to the actual casting of the transistor, metal, and serve
s as a shield * (see figure a ove) Icmax = maximum collector current. Maximum op
erating voltage VCEOmáx
Plastic Base Metals NPN and PNP (B) Collector (C) Emitter (E) * Shield Identific
ation must e made y type and varies greatly
Ic-collector current. VCEO-voltage etween the collector and emitter with the a
se off.
= 200mA maximum ranges from: 10V and 30V.
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fT-maximum frequency or frequency transition Application
fTmáxfreqüência maxim that the transistor can operate.
They even 1500MHz
Switchers UHF TV and other similar applications.
The most common types of these transistors are: BD494, BF254, etc. 2n2218. 2.4 r
ating on the power dissipation is usually still classify the transistors as its
power dissipation, the transistors in this classification may e: a) Low-power e
x: BC548 ) Average power-ex: BD137, BD135, BD139 c) High-power ex TIP120, TIP12
1, TIP122, ZN3055, etc. BU205
Third Codes, Types and terminal IDs.
To use a transistor is essential that we know what it is for a given type and al
so how to identify their terminals. 3.1-Origin-American use in your coding to di
fferentiate the sym ol 2N diodes using 1N 2N .. This sym ol is followed y a num
er that corresponds to the model, ut does not serve to inform you that we kind
of transistor if it is commonly used or audio, or RF power, whether it is NPN o
r PNP, whether or germânio.Para silicon transistors, giving 2N is necessary to c
onsult a manual, CD Rom disks provided y manufacturers, or even try to find inf
ormation on the Internet. In the figure elow are some examples with indications
of terminals:
11th
European-3.2Procedência for these transistors, the very type of transistor alrea
dy provides lots of information a out what it is. Thus, for the first letter we
have information on the material used in its manufacture: A = Germanium, B = Sil
icon. For the second letter we have information if the transistor is commonly us
ed (audio), or RF Power: C = Use general or audio D = Power, F = RF. The transis
tors for professional applications have a three letter indicativa.Para the commo
n numero.Damos have a few examples: BC548 - NPN general purpose, low power or au
dio. BD136 - PNP power transistor; BF254 - NPN RF Transistor. See this way to in
dicate the types does not say whether it is NPN or PNP. The manual is still need
ed to identify the terminals. In the following figure, we show some transistors
of European origin with the identification of terminals.
3.3Procedência Japanese-1S utilize the acronym the rest of the information is id
entical to the U.S., or have to consult the manual.
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4th Examples of acronyms of some manufacturers.
a) Siemmes-BC, BCX, BCU, BD, BF, BFN, BFR, BS, BU, BUW, BCY. ) Texas2N, 3N (MOS
FETT), TIS, IN, MN, NP.
c) Motorola-2N, NJ, MIE, MTN, TIP. d) Philco-AO, BO, BD, PA, PB, PC, PE. e) Hita
chi-2SA, 2SD. 5th Wrappers identifying characteristics of ipolar transistors. C
ertain germanium transistors, circuits used in radio-frequency RF, are fourth te
rminal, identified y the letter S "shield" (shield). This terminal is connected
internally to the metal enclosure (TO-7) and, when connected mass, acts as a pr
otection against electro-magnetic fields. Examples of this are: TO-71 TO 72, AF1
16, AF117.Veja the figure elow:
To identify the S in the a sence of information, just check via continuity test
which of the four terminals is R = 0Ω in relation to the metal housing. Power tr
ansistors in plastic cased TO126 eg, the sink is usually the terminal center. Fo
r BD139, BD140 etc., The collector is connected electrically to a metal lade th
at is in one of its faces. See figure elow:
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In the BD 135 SOT-93, TIP 30 TIP31 etc.. There is a wire loop which is also conn
ected to the coletor.Figura a ove. In oth cases, the identity of the collector
is done y checking which of the terminals has a zero resistance (R = 0Ω) over t
he lade or wire loop, via continuity test. The power transistors with a metal c
asing (TO-3 TO-66 for example), typically have only two terminals: emitter (E) a
nd ase (B) as indicator. The third terminal (collector) is the container itself
metálico.Veja figure elow:
Sixth configuration of transistors in circuits.€6.1-Emitter common.
14 In this case the signal comes in, etween the ase and emitter in and out et
ween the emitter and collector. As the emitter is the common input and output th
is type of configuration is called a common emitter.
In the phase diagram of common emitter output signal is inverted in relation to
the phase of input signal, has as its main features high gain voltage and curren
t. It is the most common and is also the one that produces higher power gain. 6.
2 Common collector. In this configuration the signal is applied etween the ase
and collector and is drawn etween the emitter and collector coletor.O then is
the common element in the input and output signal configuration and therefore is
called the common collector.
The phase of the output signal, this configuration is the same input signal, ie
no reversal fase.Tem characteristics as a very high current gain, which means th
at small variations in the ase current variations cause very largest in the col
lector, plus a voltage gain not so high as in the common emitter. It also presen
ts a power gain is not very high. Note: This setting is also called "emitter fol
lower". 6.3-Common ase. In this configuration the signal is applied etween the
emitter and ase and is taken etween the ase and collector. As we see, the a
se is the common element, which carries the name given to the setting of "common
ground"
There is no phase inversion for the signal amplificado.Como features we have in
this configuration we have a good voltage gain, ut the current gain is
15 less than one .. In general then we get a smaller power gain than the common
emitter configuration, ut higher than that of the common collector configuratio
n. 7th-Darlington transistors. It is a type of transistor structure, comprising
two transistors (T1 and T2), two resistors (R1 and R2) and a diode (D1), contain
ed in a single chip and interconnected to form a power transistor with high gain
DC Jackets DC Darlington transistors can e either metallic (TO-3 for example)
or the plastic type (TO126). As with ipolar transistors. 7.1-Internal structure
, sym ol and aspect of a Darlington NPN. Internal Structure.
Sym ol and Appearance.
In this type of NPN Darlington (see figure a ove) T1 and T2 are NPN and the anod
e of D1 is connected to the emitter of T2.
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7.2-Internal structure, sym ol and aspect of a Darlington PNP. Internal Structur
e.
Sym ol and Appearance.
In this type of Darlington PNP (see figure), T1 ET2 are PNP and the anode of D1
is connected to the collector of T2. For oth NPN and PNP structures the R2 valu
e is almost insensitive to temperature and voltages applied to the component. De
pending on the manufacturer, its value is etween 50-200Ω. Moreover, the value o
f R1 varies oth with temperature and with the voltages applied to the transisto
r. The values specified y manufacturers ranging from a few to tens of quiloohms
quiloohms.
17 7.3-Applications of Darlington transistors. There are countless applications
of these components. Among them, we highlight the following: • Audio power ampli
fiers; • Electronic Ignitions; • Voltage Regulators for Power • Control of DC mo
tors, solenoids • Control. 8th-polarization, and direction of the current classi
fication of ipolar transistors.
I - Clockwise; Ic = counterclockwise; Ie = Anticlockwise
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I - Counter-clockwise, clockwise = Ic, Ie = 8.1-Clockwise Nomenclatures: = Basi
c current I , Ic = collector current, Ie = emitter current, R = ase resistor,
resistor Rc = collector; re = emitter resistor; V e voltage = ase / emitter. Vc
e = voltage collector / transmitter; Voltage VCB = collector / ase.