THE SCALE OF INTELLIGENCE OF F.

Goodenough BACKGROUND The psychologist Florence Goodenough is the creator of a test of maxi mum simplicity in its foundations, administration and evaluation. It is a techni que that allows us to measure general intelligence through the analysis of the h uman figure. It consists of a single test to draw a man. The assessment is reduc ed to compute the number of accurate details that inhibits the figure made. It e nds in making that score and then Mental Age IQ. Why FUNDAMENTALS analysis of th e human figure drawing becomes possible to estimate the intelligence of the arti st? What is the basis for the test? The author started from a simple working hyp othesis: when the child draws the human figure does not draw on paper what he se es, but what he knows about it and therefore does not make an aesthetic work, bu t intellectual, gives an expression not their talent, but his conceptual reperto ire. The volume of the conceptual repertoire, this "knowing" mental increases wi th age, and this process is reflected in human figure drawing that makes the chi ld from 5 to at least 10 years. The psychometric derivation of this fact is imme diate: the quantitative evaluation of "knowledge" involved in the typical human representation of every age, provides a rule to establish, before a particular d rawing, the artist's mental age. Why is the measurement of this "knowledge" invo lves the measurement of intelligence? According to Goodenough to measure the val ue of a design is measured the value of the functions of association, observatio n, analytical, discrimination, memory details, spatial sense, trial, abstraction , eye-hand coordination and adaptability. In her simple act of drawing the figur e of a man (to express their knowledge of the human figure), the child artist sh ould activate different mental resources: PAIR graphic features with the real ob ject, analyzing the components of the object and representations, values and SEL ECT characteristic features, analyze spatial relationships (position); make judg ments quantitative relationship (proportionality); abstract, that is, reduce and simplify parts of the object in graphical features, and finally, coordinate eye -hand work and adapt graphic outline his concept of object represented. 2 SCALE After a long study, complex and vast collections of graphic efforts of t housands of children between 2 and 15 years of different sex, nationality, race, grade and school performance, scrupulous working and repeated statistics, as we ll as rigorous and fair checks its validity and reliability, Goodenough finally managed to establish its Scale and Scale. This scale is only the inventory of gr aphical features (items) that best reflected the children's repertoire of that " knowledge" of the body shape. The catalog allows you to compare the degree of co mpletion and perfection of a drawing by the mere presence or absence of items, s et out from certain points of view empirical. It should distinguish these 8: 1. Amount of detail represented: Has represented the head? "Legs? Does the hair? Is the correct number of fingers? etc. 2. Proportionality: The trunk is longer tha n wide? "The head is proportionate to the arms and legs? etc. 3. Dimensionality: The neck is in two steps or a single line? And the mouth and nose? etc. 4. Tran sparency: Garments are opaque or transparent? And the hair? 5. Consistency: Are the members are attached to the trunk? "The hair does not go beyond the contour of your head? "The various items of clothing or are discordant harmony with each other? etc. 6. Plasticity: The thumb is in opposition? Does the difference in a rm hand and fingers? "The ears are correctly located? 7. Visuo-motor coordinatio n: The layout drawing shows up without crossovers or sinuous? "The factions are symmetrically distributed? 8. Profile: Have you managed to draw the profile? How many mistakes? Goodenough selecting built his 51 item scale (scale units) that meet one or more of these criteria and cataloged in order of increasing complexi ty. Then computed the number of items (raw score), gathered in a large mass of c hildren, calculated the average score (norms) of normal children of every age, t hese rules and was tabulated in the table (schedule) to measure mental age of an y child for their raw score. The test assesses the drawing verifying the presenc e or absence of each scale item credited one point for each item for which the r equirements are met,€from first (in which a point is given by the mere presence of the head) to last (as it requires the representation of a correct profile.

3 GENERAL INSTRUCTIONS FOR THE TEST OF Goodenough (As Jaime Bernstein) Board 1. Warning: This test is particularly applicable to children between 3 and 10 years . For the test has value is essential that every child make the best drawing tha t is capable of. 2. Attitude Examiner: To provide the maximum of children, the e xaminer must show at all times friendly and caring attitude. 3. Test Conditions: The copy collectively Avoid ordering the students to keep their books, figures, etc. 4. Material: Please provide as each child a sheet of paper and a pencil. 5 . Luggage: Say to the children "In these pages you must draw a man. The cutest p icture you can. Work carefully and used all the time they need. I like their des igns are as good as those of children from other schools. Work with enthusiasm a nd see what nice pictures do. "6. Control: As students work, runs through the ro om or the classroom. Check that the implementation of the slogan. Prevents child ren exhibit or discuss their drawings. If so tell them "No one should show or ta lk now about your drawing. Wait until everyone is finished. "No criticism of any drawing. Encourage in general "are working very well" or "I really like his dra wings, etc.. Avoid any suggestion, do not display errors or omissions, and answe r any questions invariably "do as you see fit." 7. Comment: If the child has rui ned the paper with erasures, give her a new one. If a child has drawn a bust, as k yourself to do the same, prompting you to draw "a complete man." If a man has drawn back, ask that another, not in back. " If a child has become more of a dra wing, choose for you the best evaluation. Computation and Evaluation 1. Form of Work: Make sure you score the heel of the folder. Put the picture in evaluating the lateral or upper side that query. 2. Score: Puntúese each item faithfully ac cordance with the rules, and if in doubt, having established the computation in the examples in the manual. Until you are familiar with the abbreviations for th e score folder, decrypt using the key that appears at the top. 3. Scoring: Give one point (in any half-point) for each item and record successful in heel, marki ng (1) in columns of correction. In order to avoid omissions, the items also bri ng negative (-). Get the total score by adding up the points credited. 4 4. Chronological age (CA): Set the person's chronological age in years and mon ths. 5. Mental Age (MA): Convert the total score consulted mental age scale for the table. 6. Intelligence Quotient (IQ) IQ Get the mental age divided by chrono logical age and multiplying by 100. CI = EM * 100 EC 7. Diagnosis Intelligence: Get the diagnosis of intelligence as the result of th e IC, in consultation with its respective classification. 8. Record: Record the results in the boxes listed in the heel marks. Attach it to the sheet drawing te st. EVALUATION OF THE MANUAL OF ABBREVIATIONS Pos Neg FP. Tam. cb. fr. pa. tr. hm. c ll. ::::::::::: Drawings drawings against negative positive profile also head ag ainst the trunk legs neck shoulder oj. cj. na. bo lb. lin. pts. mg. dd. ma. br. ::::::::::: Eye brow nose lip line mouth finger hand arm sleeve pants cd. mn. ca d. me. rll. pi. esp. pch. or. fcs ang. ::::::::::: Elbow wrist hip knee foot bac k chest member features narrow ear 5 MANUAL Goodenough test scores 1 2 3 4a 4b 4c 5a 5b Trunk Trunk Arms Legs Head Shoulders Arms and legs Arms and legs Pos: Neg any contour: fcs. shapeless Pos: 2 dc. Pos: 1 or 2 Tam: 1 dc. 2 pi. Tam: pa. detached from the tr. F: Pos: two fr ee segments with the intention of br. P: 1 or 2 br. Pos: Figure 1-2 dimensions. Tam: Fig single (cb-tr) if fcs. Neg grouped top: row of buttons without lower li mit line longer than wide. Pos: minimum difference is enough perfectly united. F and P: Pos: deformation concave - convex part sup. tr. Neg: circle or ellipse p rimitive Tam: hm. tr attached to rectangular. Pos: br. attached to the tr. or to cll. or a lin. cb-tr union Tam: pa. together with tr. Tam: 1 dc. and 1 br. if o nly visible. pa. attached to the tr. - Br. attached to the tr. in correct locati on F Pos: br. exact location P Pos: insertion axis of the sidewall beneath the c ll. Neg: br. attached to cll.€pch-expansion or under is Pos: Neg any clear indic ation: cb-tr juxtaposition as a follow-cb, tr, or both. Event. Pos: 1 or 2 oj. T

am: any indication for that is uncertain F Pos: P any indication Pos: 1 or 2 na. Pos: as in the previous case in two dimensions. lb indicated: F Pos: na. centra l ellipse with vertical or triangular base down or a U with extension in the cj. Neg: 2 points or 1 lin. P Pos: bo. divisor of the lb lin. na. different fr. and lb. superior. Tam. lb. shaped holes. F Pos: P any clear indication Pos: contour concavity any indication, not to be confused with a hat that does not exceed th e circumference of the head, rather than a simple doodle and not transparent (to conceal the skull) Pos: exíjanse the three requirements. Pos: a simple row of b uttons. Tam: A series of horizontal and vertical lines (striped fabric) Neg: a s ingle center circle (considered navel) The 6th 6b 7a 7b 7c 7d Neck Contour Neck Nose Eyes Mouth and Nose Mouth 7e 8a 8b the 9th Nose Hair Hair Dress 6 9b Attire at least two pieces of clothing (eg hat and pts.) Are not transparen t. Neg: hat on the crown. Tam: a simple row of buttons. complete picture without transparency, should be represented mg. and pts. Pos: exíjanse the three requir ements. least four well-defined clothing (unmistakable) Pos: among these hats, s hoes, jacket, shirt, collar, tie, belt, handles, pts. complete without inconsist encies, specie of clothing (street, work, uniform, etc..) essential complements well defined. Pos: No. and any form, loose or not. Tam: on 2 ma. if the two are and if only one visible. No exact. Pos: dd. 1 or 2 ma. according to the visible. dd correct detail. Pos: longer than wide and angle less than 180 ° in 1 or 2 ma . according to the visible. thumb opposition (1 or 2 ma. according to the visibl e) Pos: 1 dd. shorter side. Tam: angle greater than the others. Tam: insertion c loser to MN. ma. other than br. or dd. (1 or 2 ma. According to the visible) Pos : just small portion protruding from his pocket. (City, hm., Or both) cd. Pos: b r ½ angle. Neg: bend br ½. (Just a br) hm. Pos: axis parallel br tr. hm and rope . Neg: br. not parallel to tr. (Rll., cad., Or both) rll. Pos pa ½ angle. Tam: s limming ½ pa. Neg: ½ pa curve. Tam is not enough pts. cad short. Pos: lin. pa in terior. converge at the same point. Pos: CB. tr ½ equal. Tam: cb. Like 1 / 10 bo dy Pos: br length. equal to or slightly greater than tr. Tam: br more ang. that tr. Neg: br. to rll. Pos: pa. equal to tr. Tam: pa. double equal tr. Tam: more a ng. that tr. Pos: longer than high pi. Like third pa. Tam: length pi. Like 1 / 1 0 pa. Neg: pi. as golf clubs Pos: br and pa. Two dimensions, but ma. and pi. are in a single dimension Pos: any clear method Tam: F. pi. in perspective or not. Pos: lin. more or less firm without crosses or overlaps (tolerance on the criter ion) Pos: lin. firm with good connections (strict criteria) 9c 9d 9e Attire Attire Attire Fingers 10b 10c 10th Fingering Fingering Fingering 10e 10d arm, hand, arm, finge r joint 11th Leg joint 11b 12th head 12b Proportion Proportion Proportion arms legs 12c 12d 12e walk ratio bidimensionality 13 Tacos 14th CM: Lines 14b CM A: B July 14c CM: Well head contour: contour without intentional irregularities Neg: circle or ellipse primitive 14d CM: Outline trunk as in the previous case 14e CM

: Arms and legs Pos: br. and pa. in two dimensions Neg: narrowing the insertion or any irregularity. 14f CM: Features F Pos: oj. na. and bo. in two dimensions a nd symmetry P Pos: oj. in 1st third cb. and na. fr obtuse angle. and bo. provide d to other fcs. 15th Ears F Pos: 2 or. P Pos: 1 or. 15b Ears correct position an d proportion Pos: taller than wide P Pos: just point and cond. ear, and in 2nd t hird cb. and flag back. Detail of the eye 16th cj., Tabs, or both: 16b easily De tail of the eye iris. Pos: surrounded by lin. of the eyelids, and 1 or 2 as visi ble. Detail of the eye 16c proportion: F Pos: 2 wider than high. P Pos: almond i n perspective. 16d Detail of the eye gaze: (always P) Pos: almond in perspective , iris shifted F. 17th Front and chin F Pos: oj space above. lb and under. Neg b ottom: if there is no lin. separation with cll. P Pos: oj may be missing. and bo . Projection 17b Chin, chin clearly represented. P provides credit, F it difficu lt. F Pos: clear demarcation on cll. Profile A cb 18th. and tr. and pi. P: accep t one of these errors: a transparency or pa. F. or br. attached to the contour o f the esp. Profile B 18b true, without error or transparencies. 8 TABLES mental age (MA) (Converting mental age score) Schedule of Goodenough ye ars 0 months 3 months 6 months 9 months 3 2 3 4 4 5 6 7 5 8 9 10 11 6 12 13 14 1 5 7 16 17 18 19 8 20 21 22 23 9 24 25 26 27 10 28 29 30 31 11 32 33 34 35 12 36 37 38 39 13 40 41 42 Plate Scale YEARS 0 months 3 months 6 months 9 months 3 0 0 1 2 4 3 4 5 6 5 7 8 9 10 6 11 12 13 14 7 15 16 17 18 8 19 20 21 22 9 23 24 25 26 10 27 28 29 30 11 3 1 32 33 34 12 35 36 37 38 13 39 40 41 42 Figures from the first horizontal column for the years, and the first vertical, months. Proceed as follows: Locate the table to be converted score. The numbers that correspond to the columns of years and months show the mental age (MA) soug ht. Example: 14 is an MS score of 6 years 6 months in the Goodenough scale, whil e the scale of the Silver EM corresponds to a 6 years 9 months. Note: Chile is u sed more than the scale of the Silver 9 GOODENOUGH TEST SCORES card No Name ____________________________ Date of Birth ___________________ ___________________ E. Chronological Course ___años___meses School ____________________________ Date of Exam ___________________ __________ _________ ______________________________ E. Scoring Mental ____años____meses Dia gnóstico______________________________________ CI_______________ 1 2 3 4a 4b 4c 5a 5b 6b 7a 7b the 6th 7c 7d 7e 8a 8b 9a 9b 9c 9d 9e 10th 10b 10c 10d 10e 11a 11b 12c 12d 12b 12e 12th 13 14th 14b 14c 14d 14e 14f 15b 15th 16th 17th 16d 16c 16b 18b 17b 18th Examiner