SUMMARY PEDAGOGICAL TRENDS IN PRACTICE SCHOOL ......................................... 3 A. PEDAGOGY LIBERAL ................................................ ......... .................................. 5 1. Traditional liberal .................... ......

..................... ................................. 8 2. Renewed liber al progressivist .............................................. ........... 11 3 . Liberal non-renewed policy ............................................ ...... .......... 13 4. Liberal technicist ............................................ ... ................................. 16 B. PROGRESSIVE PEDAGOGY ............... ................................. ........................... 20 1. Progressive trend liberating ............................................... ............... ...... 21 2. Progressive libertarian trend ..................................... .......... ........................ 25 3. Trend progressive "social-critical con tent" ...................................... 29 4. In favor of critical pedagogy and social content ......................................... 35 PEDAGOGICAL TRENDS IN PRACTICE SCHOOL * The school practice is the realization of the conditions that ensure the achieve ment of teaching. Such conditions are not limited to strictly "educational" sinc e the school fulfills functions given to it by the concrete society which, in tu rn, presents itself as consisting of social classes with antagonistic interests. The school practice thus has behind sociopolitical conditions that shape differ ent conceptions of man and society and, consequently, different assumptions abou t the role of school, learning, teacher-student relations, teaching techniques e tc.. Clearly, the way teachers realize I work, select and organize the content o f the material, or choose teaching techniques and assessment has to do with theo retical and methodological assumptions, explicitly or implicitly. A good part of teachers, probably the majority, based his practice in educationa l requirements that have become common sense, built upon its passage by the scho ol or transmitted by older colleagues, however, this procedure contains implicit theoretical assumptions. Moreover, there are teachers interested in teaching mo re consistently, teachers are able to perceive the broader sense of their practi ce and to explain their beliefs. Even for those who cling to the latest fashion trend, without much care if that choice will reflect, in fact, the answers they seek. It should be noted also that the content of degree courses, or do not incl ude the study of current teaching, or revolve around theories Previously published in the Journal of ANDE, No. 6, 1982. Republished here with some modifications. * learning and teaching that often have little correlation with the actual situati ons of the classroom, not helping teachers to form a frame of reference to guide their practice. In an article published in 1981, aptly described SAVIANI certain confusions that become entwined in the minds of teachers. After characterizing the traditional pedagogy and new pedagogy, indicates the onset, more recent trend of technicalit ies and theories critical-reproductivist, all focusing on the teacher. He writes : "Teachers have the head movement and the principles of the new school. The rea lity, however, does not provide conditions for teachers to introduce the new sch ool, because the reality in which they work is traditional. (...) But drama teac her does not end there. By this contradiction is added another: in addition to n ote that the actual conditions do not correspond to their belief, the professor finds himself pressured by the official pedagogy that preaches the rationality a nd productivity of the system and its work, ie, emphasis in the media (Ai techni cality ).(...) the mixed picture in which he is the teacher: his head is the rea lity is New School rejects the traditional ;"(...) technicality because he feels violated the official ideology, rejects the critical line because they do not w

ant to receive the designation of agent repressor "1. Given these findings, it is intended in this text to survey, albeit precarious, educational trends that have been signed by the school teachers' practice, provi ding theoretical and methodological assumptions of each. a brief explanation of 1 Dermeval SAVIANI, "contemporary pedagogical trends, p.65 It must be noted that trends do not appear in its pure form, not always mutually exclusive, nor do they capture the richness of school practice. They are, moreo ver,€the limitations of any attempt at classification. In any event, the classif ication and description of trends could serve as a tool of analysis for the teac her to evaluate their classroom practice. Using as a criterion that take the position in relation to the sociopolitical co nditions of the school, teaching trends were classified as liberals and progress ives, namely: A - Liberal Education 1 - Traditional 2 - Renewed progressivist 3 - Renewed nond irective 4 - Technicist B - a progressive pedagogy - Liberating 2 - Libertarian 3 - Critical-social content A. LIBERAL PEDAGOGY The term liberal has no sense of 'advanced',''democratic, "" open "as commonly u sed. The liberal doctrine appeared as a justification of the system capitalist who, in defending the predominance of liberty and individual interest s in society, established a form of social organization based on private ownersh ip of means of production, also known as satiety classes. The liberal pedagogy, therefore, is itself a manifestation of such society. The Brazilian education, at least the past fifty years has been marked by libera l trends in their ways sometimes conservative, sometimes renewed. Obviously, suc h trends have emerged, specifically in school practices and educational ideas of many teachers, even if they do not realize that influence. The liberal pedagogy supports the idea that the school has the task of preparing individuals to perform papeias social, according to individual skills. To do so , individuals must learn to adapt to values and norms prevailing in class societ y through the development of individual culture. The emphasis on the cultural as pect hides the reality of class differences, because although spread the idea of equality of opportunity, does not take into account the unequal conditions. His torically, liberal education began with the traditional pedagogy and for the sak e of restoration of the hegemony of the bourgeoisie, has evolved to the renewed pedagogy (also known as new school or active), which is not meant to substitute for each other, since both lived and live in school practice. Trend in traditional pedagogy is characterized by emphasizing the humanistic edu cation, general culture, in which students are educated to attain, by their own efforts, his full realization as a person. Content, didactic procedures, the teacher-student relationship have nothing to do with th e student every day, much less with social realities. It is the predominance of the word of the teacher, the rules imposed, cultivation exclusively intellectual . The trend Liberal renewed stresses also the sense of culture as development of i

ndividual skills. But education is an internal, not external, it's part of indiv idual needs and interests needed to adapt to the environment. Education is life this is part of human experience itself. The revamped school offers an education that emphasizes self-education (the student as object of knowledge), the direct experience about half the activity, a student-centered teaching and the group. The renewed liberal presents, among us, in two different versions: a renewed pro gressivist 2, or pragmatic, mostly as disseminated by the pioneers of the new ed ucation, among which stands out Teixeira (it should be noted, too, the influence of Montessori, Decroly and somehow PIAGET), the non-renewed policy, geared towa rds the goals of self-realization of (Personal development) and for inter-personal relations, American psychologist C arl Rogers. formulation 2 The designation "progressivist" stands for "progressive education", a term used by Teixeira to indicate the role of education in a civilization was changing as a result of scientific development (idea equivalent to "evolution" in biology). This trend is inspired by the philosopher and educator John Dewey U.S.. See Teix eira, Progressive Education. The technicality makes liberal education to society, having as basis the prepara tion of "human resources (manpower for industry). The company provides industria l and technological (scientific) goals economic, social and political education training (also scientifically) the beha viors of students in adjusting to these goals. In technicality it is believed th at reality contains within itself its own laws, just to men descobrilas and appl y them. Thus, the key is not the content of reality, but the techniques (shape) of discovery and application. Technology (use of resources ordered,€based on sci entific knowledge) is an efficient way to obtain the maximization of production and ensure an optimal functioning of society, education is a resource for techno logical excellence. She is seen as a tool to promote, without contradiction, eco nomic development for the supply of skilled manpower for the redistribution of i ncome, by maximizing production and at the same time, developing the 'political consciousness' indispensable to the maintenance of the authoritarian state "3. U sed primarily on the systemic approach, educational technology and experimental analysis of behavior. 1. Traditional liberal Role of school - the school's performance is the intellectual and moral developm ent of students to take their place in society. The school's commitment to cultu re, social problems belong to society. The path 3 Acacia A. KUENZER and Lucilia R. S. Machado, "Teaching Techniques", in N. Guioma r de Mello (ed.), New School, technique and compensatory education, p. 34. toward the cultural knowledge is the same for all students, provided that endeav or. Thus, the less able must struggle to overcome difficulties and conquer their place alongside the most capable. Failing this, they should seek further profes sional education. Learning content - Are social knowledge and values accumulated over generations and passed on to the adult student as truths. The subjects of study aimed at pre paring the student for life, are determined by the law and ordered society. The

contents are separated from the student experience and social realities, using t he intellectual value, which is why the traditional pedagogy is criticized as in tellectualist and, sometimes, as encyclopedic. Methods Based in exposure verbal of matter and / or demonstration. Both the exhibition and the analysis is done by the teacher, obse rving the following steps: a) preparing the student (definition of work, recall the previous matter, arouse interest), b) presentation (highlighting key points, demonstration), c) association (a combination of new knowledge with the familia r by comparison and abstraction), d) generalization (of the particular aspects c omes to the general concept is the systematic exposure), e) application (explana tion of additional facts and / or resolutions of exercises ). The emphasis in th e exercises, the repetition of concepts and formulas to memorize regulates the m ind and form habits. Teacher-student relationship - the predominant authority of the professor who re quires receptive attitude of the students and "prevent any communication between them during the lesson. The teacher conveys the content in the form of truth to be absorbed, as a result, the discipline imposed is the means more effectively to ensure the attention and silence. Conditions for learning - the idea that education is to pass on knowledge to the spirit of the child is accompanied by another: that the assimilative capacity o f the child is identical to the adult, only less developed. The programs must th en be given a logical progression, set by adults, without taking into account th e characteristics of each age. Learning, so it is receptive and mechanical, that they often resort to coercion. The retention of the material taught is guarante ed by the repetition of exercises and systematic summary of the matter. The tran sfer of learning depends on practice, it is essential to retention, so that stud ents can respond to new situations in a similar way to the answers given in prev ious situations. The assessment takes place by checking the short term (examinat ions, oral, home exercises) and longer-term (written exams, homework). The reinf orcement is generally negative (punishment, poor grades, appeals to parents) is sometimes positive (emulation, ratings). Demonstrations in school practice - the traditional liberal pedagogy is alive an d active in our schools. In the description presented here include the secular o r religious schools that adopt an approach or a classical-humanist human-scientific orientation, and this is closer to the school model prevalent i n our educational history. 2. Renewed liberal progressivist

Role of school - the school's purpose is to fit the individual needs to the soci al environment and, therefore, it should be organized in order to portray as muc h as possible, life. Every being has within itself mechanisms for gradual adapta tion to the environment and a subsequent integration of these forms of adaptatio n in behavior. Such integration is through experience that should satisfy at the same time,€the interests of the student and societal demands. At school it is a ddressing the experiences that allow the students to educate themselves in an ac tive process of construction and reconstruction of the object, an interaction be tween cognitive structures of individual structures and the environment. Learning content - As the knowledge results from the action based on the interes ts and needs, the teaching contents are a function of experience that the subjec t experiences the challenges facing cognitive and problem situations. Takes plac e, so much more value to the mental processes and cognitive skills than content organized rationally. It is "learning to learn", or more importantly the acquisi tion of knowledge than the knowledge itself. Teaching method - The idea of learning by doing is always present. Value to the experimental trials, research, discovery, study the natural and social environment, the method of solving problems. Although methods vary, the active or new schools (Dewey, Montessori, De-Croly, Cousinet and othe rs) are always based on activities appropriate to the nature of the student and the stages of its development. Most of them emphasized the importance of teamwor k not just technique, but as a basic condition of mental development. The basic steps of the method are active: a) place the student in a state of experience th at has an interest in itself, b) the problem must be challenging, as a stimulus to reflection, c) the student must have information and instructions that enabli ng researching the discovery of solutions, d) interim solutions should be encour aged and sorted with the help of Professor discreet, and) should be guaranteed t he opportunity to put the solutions to the test, to determine its usefulness for life, Teacher-student relationship - no privileged place for the teacher, but rather i ts role is to assist the free and spontaneous development of the child if involv ed, is to shape the thinking of her. The discipline comes from an awareness of t he limits of group life, so disciplined student is one that is supportive, parti cipatory, respectful of the rules of the group. To ensure a harmonious atmospher e within the classroom is an essential positive relationship between teachers an d students a way to establish the "democratic experience" as it should be life i n society. Assumptions of learning - motivation depends on the strength of stimulation and the problem of domestic interests and the student. Thus, learning becomes an act ivity of discovery, is a self-learning, and the environment only through the stimulator. It retained the activity that incorpora tes the student's personal discovery, which is embedded begins to compose the co gnitive structure to be used in new situations. The assessment is fluid and try to be effective as the efforts and successes are ready and explicitly recognized by the teacher. Demonstrations in school practice - the principles of progressivist pedagogy are being broadcast on a large scale in undergraduate programs, and many teachers s uffer from its influence. However, its application is slim, not only by lack of objective conditions but also because it clashes with a basically traditional pe dagogical practice. Some methods are adopted in private schools such as Montesso ri, the method of centers of interest Decroly, the method of inclusion of Dewey. The teaching based on Piaget's genetic psychology has wide acceptance in presch

ool education. Belong also to the tendency of many schools called progressivist "Experimental", the "community schools" and more remotely (60s) the "modern scho ol" in the version broadcast by Lauro de Oliveira Lima. 3. Liberal non-renewed policy Role of school - Emphasis is placed on this trend the school's role in shaping a ttitudes, why should be more concerned with psychological problems than the educ ational or social. Every effort is to establish a climate for change within the individual, ie a personal suitability to the demands of the environment. 4 * Rogers believes that teaching is a valued activity too, for teaching him the procedures, jurisdictio n in the matter, classes, books, everything has very little importance, given th e purpose of encouraging the person a climate of self-development and achievemen t personnel, which entails being good about himself and his fellows. The result of a good education is very similar to that of a good therapy. Learning content - The emphasis that this trend puts the processes of developmen t of relations and communication becomes secondary transmission of content.€Teac hing processes designed to facilitate more students the means to seek for themse lves the knowledge that, however, are expendable. Teaching methods - The traditional methods is given, whichever almost exclusivel y the teacher's effort to develop their own style to facilitate student learning Rogers explains some of the characteristics of the teacher "facilitator": accep tance of the individual student's ability to be trusted , receptive and have ful l belief in the capacity for self-development of the student. Its function is re stricted to help students organize themselves, using techniques of awareness whe re the feelings of each one can be exposed, without threats. Thus, the purpose o f school work exhausted in the process of better interpersonal relationships, as a condition for personal growth. 4 See Carl Rogers, Freedom to learn. Teacher-student relationship - A non-directive pedagogy proposes a learner-cente red education, to form his personality through the significant experiences that enable it to develop characteristics inherent in their nature. The teacher is an expert in human relations by ensuring a climate of genuine personal relationshi p. "Absent" is the best way to respect and full acceptance of the student. Every intervention is threatening and inhibiting learning. Assumptions of learning - motivation results from the desire to appropriate pers onnel in the pursuit of self-realization is thus an act of procedure. Motivation increases when the individual develops the feeling that is capable of acting in terms of reaching their personal goals, that is, develop the appreciation of se lf. Learn, therefore, is to modify their own perceptions, hence it only learns w hat is significantly related to these perceptions. It follows that the deduction is given by the relevance of learning in relation to self, ie, which is not inv olved with the "I" is not retained nor transferred. Therefore, the assessment lo ses all sense school, focusing on self-assessment. Demonstrations in school practice - Between us, inspired by the pain of non-dire ctive pedagogy is C. Rogers, actually more a clinical psychologist than a teache r. His ideas influenced a significant number of educators and teachers, mainly e ducational counselors and school psychologists who engage in counseling. Less re cently, may also cite trends inspired by the Summerhill school English educator

A. Neill. 4. Liberal technicist Role of school - in a harmonious social system, organic and functional, the scho ol functions as models of human behavior, using specific techniques. In school e ducation the responsibility of organizing the process of acquiring skills, attit udes and specific knowledge, useful and necessary for individuals to be integrat ed in the machine's overall social system. This social system is governed by nat ural laws (there are in society the same regularity and the same functional rela tionships observed between the phenomena of nature), scientific discoveries. Sim ply apply them. The activity of the "discovery" is a function of education, but should be restricted to specialists, the "application" is the common responsibil ity of the educational process. The school operates, thus, improving the existin g social order (the capitalist system), articulating directly with the productiv e system for this purpose, employs the science of behavior change, ie the behavi oral technology. Your immediate concern is to produce individuals "responsible" for the labor market, by providing, efficient, accurate, objective and fast. Sci entific research, educational technology, experimental analysis of behavior to e nsure the objectivity of school practice, since the instructional objectives (co ntent) resulting from the application of natural laws that are independent of th ose who know or perform. Learning content - is the information, scientific principles, laws, etc.. Establ ished and ordered in a logical and psychological specialists. It comes to teachi ng only what is reducible to observable and measurable knowledge, content arise, therefore, of objective science, eliminating any sign of subjectivity. The instructional material is systematized in textbooks, textbooks, the teaching modules, devices etc audiovisual. Methods of teaching - Consists of the procedures and techniques necessary to the arrangement and control of environmental conditions that ensure the transmissio n / reception of information. If the teacher's first task is to model appropriat e responses to the instructional objectives, the key is to get the proper behavi or for the control of education;€hence the importance of educational technology. Educational technology is the "systematic application of scientific principles of behavior and technology, educational problems, due to effective results, usin g a comprehensive systems approach and methodology" 5 . Any instructional system (there are a variety of them) has three basic components: instructional objectives operationalized into measur able and observable behaviors, instructional and assessment procedures. The step s, basic teaching learning process are: a) setting conduct terminals, through in structional objectives, b) analysis of the learning task in order to sort sequen tially the steps of instruction, c) run the program, gradually increasing the an swers corresponding to the correct goals. The essence of educational technology is programming for sequential steps used in programmed instruction in the techni ques of microteaching, multimedia, etc. modules. The use of instructional techno logy in public schools appears in the forms of: planning in a way systemic conce ption of learning as behavior change, 5 Ligia O. AURICCHIO. Handbook of educational technology, p.25 operationalization

of goals, use procedures scientific (Instruction programmed audiovisual evaluation etc. including programming textbook) 6. Teacher-student relationship - relationships are structured and objective, with defined roles is: the teacher manages the transmission conditions of matter, as an instructional efficient and effective in terms of learning outcomes, the stud ent will receive, learn and fix the information. The teacher is only one link between scientific truth and the student, it shall use the system instructional schedule. The student is an individual responsibility, not partici pating in the preparation of the educational program. Both are facing the specta tors objective truth. The teacher-student communication is a purely technical se nse, which ensure the effective transmission of knowledge. Debates, discussions, questions are unnecessary, and little matters the personal relationships and th e subjects involved in the learning process. Assumptions of learning - learning theories that underlie the pedagogy technicia ns say that learning is a matter of changing the performance: good teaching depe nds to organize efficiently stimulating conditions, so that the student from the learning situation different from what came . In other words, education is a pr ocess of conditioning through the use of reinforcement of responses you want to get. Thus, instructional systems seek to control individual behavior against pre established goals. This is a directive approach to teaching, centered on control 6 Acacia cf A. HUENZER and Lucilia S. R. MACHADO, cp.cit. conditions surrounding the organism behaves. The goal of science teaching, from the psychology is the scientific study of behavior: discover the laws governing the physical reactions of the organism learns that in order to increase the cont rol of variables that affect it. The components of learning - motivation, retent ion, transfer - resulting from application of operant behavior. According to Ski nner, the learned behavior is a response to external stimuli, controlled by rein forcements that occur, one hundred or after the answer the same: "If the occurre nce of a (behavior) operant is followed by the presentation of a stimulus (reinf orcer) the probability of reinforcement is increased. "Among the authors contrib uting to studies of learning include: Skinner, Gagné, Bloom and Mager 7. Demonstrations in school practice - The influence of pedagogy technicality goes back to 2nd half of the 50s (PABAEE - Program Brazilian-American Aid for Elementary Education). However it was introduced more effectively in the late '60s with the aim of adapting the educational theme to the political economic orientation of the military regime to enter school in the models to rationalize the system of capitalist production. It's when the New Sc hool guidance gives way to a technician tendency, at least at the level of offic ial policy, the landmarks of the model deployment techniques are laws and 5540/6 8 5.692/71, which reorganized the higher education and teaching 1st and 2nd degr

ees. Despite the official machine, however, there is no evidence that the insura nce of public school teachers have assimilated the pedagogy technicality (planni ng, programmed textbooks, evaluation procedures, etc.) does not configure a post ure 7 For further information, see the AURICHIO Ligia, Handbook of Educational Technol ogy, JGA OLIVEIRA,€Educational Technology theories of instruction. tecnicists teacher, but rather the professional continues for a more eclectic st ance around pedagogical principles seated in traditional pedagogies and renewed. 8 B. PROGRESSIVE PEDAGOGY The term "progressive", borrowed from Snyders 9, is used here to describe the tr ends which, based on a critical analysis of social realities, implicitly support ing the sociopolitical purposes of education. Clear-mind progressive pedagogy, i t has become institutionalized as a capitalist society, hence it being an instru ment of struggle by the teachers along with other social practices. The progressive pedagogy has been manifested in three trends: a liberating, bett er known as pedagogy of Paulo Freire, a libertarian, which brings together the c hampions of self teaching, the social-critical content, which, unlike the previo us ones, emphasized the primacy of content in his confrontation color social rea lities. Liberating and libertarian versions have in common e appreciation of lived experience as the basis of the idea of teaching self-management. As a result, s of group learning (participation in discussions, 8 the anti-authoritarianism, th educational relationship and give more value to the proces meetings, voting) than

On the issue of teaching techniques in Brazil, cf. Barbara FREITAG, School, Stat e and Society; Laymert G. S. GARCIA, dysregulation - Education, Planning and Soc ial Technology as a tool in Brazil, among others. 9 See George SNYDERS, Progress ive Pedagogy. the teaching contents. As a result, the educational practice only makes sense in a social practice among the people, which is why they prefer the methods of pop ular education 'non-formal. " The tendency of critical social pedagogy of content surpassing proposes a synthe sis of traditional pedagogy and renewed valuing the pedagogical action as embedd ed in concrete social practice. Does the school as a mediator between the indivi dual and social, exercising there the relationship between the transmission of c ontent and the active assimilation by a particular student (inserted in a contex t of social relationships); know the results of this joint critically re-drafted . 1. Progressive trend liberating Role of school - is not proper to talk about liberating pedagogy in school, sinc e its brand is acting "non-formal." However, teachers and educators engaged in s chool education are adopting assumptions of pedagogy. So when we talk about educ ation in general, it is said that it is an activity where teachers and students, mediated by the reality we perceive and which draw the learning content, reach a level of consciousness of that reality, so it act, a sense of social transform ation. Both the traditional education, the "bank" - which refers only to file in formation about the student - as for fresh education - one that would seek to re

lease individual psychological - are domesticated, because in no way help to rev eal the reality of social oppression. Liberating education, by contrast, specifi cally questioned the reality of relations man with nature and with others, seeking a transformation - hence it is a critic al education. 10 Learning content - Denominated generative themes are drawn from questioning the practice of life for students. Traditional content are rejected because each per son, each group involved in teaching strategies have on themselves, albeit in ru dimentary form, the contents of which are necessary party. What matters is not t he transmission of specific contents, but to awaken a new form of relationship w ith the experience. The transfer of structured content from outside is considere d as "cultural invasion" or "storehouse of information" because it emerges from popular knowledge. If necessary, reading texts, they should be prepared by the l earners themselves with the guidance of the educator. At no time was the inspirer and mentor of liberating pedagogy, Paulo Freire, fai ls to mention the essentially political character of his pedagogy, which, in his own words, prevents it from being put into practice in systematic terms, in off icial institutions, before the transformation of society. That is why his perfor mance is more of a level of non-school education. What has not prevented, howeve r, that their assumptions are adopted and applied by many teachers. See Paulo Freire: Cultural Action for Freedom, Pedagogy of the Oppressed and Ext ension or Communication? 33 10 Methods of teaching - "To be an act of knowing the process of adult literacy dem and, between educators and students,€a relationship of genuine dialogue, one in which the subjects in the act of knowing are mediated by the object to be known "(...). "The dialogue actively engages both the subject of the act of knowing: t eacher-student and student-teacher." Thus, the form of educational work is the "discussion group", which is responsib le for self-manage learning, defining the content and dynamics of activities. Th e teacher is an entertainer who, in principle, should "descend" to the level of students, adapting themselves to their own characteristics and development of ea ch group. must walk "together", the minimum action necessary, albeit not skimp w hen necessary to provide more systematic. The steps of learning coding-decoding, and problematization of the situation - will allow students an effort to understand the "lived" until you arrive at a more critical understanding of their reality, always through the exchange of experience around social practice. If it is the c

ontent of educational work, to dispense a previously structured, written work, l ectures, as well as any direct verification of learning, these very forms of "ba nking education," therefore, tame. However it is accepted assessing the practice among experienced educator-learners in the group process and, sometimes, self-a ssessment made in accordance with its commitment to social practice. Teacher-student relationship - the dialogue, as the basic method, the relationsh ip is horizontal, where educators and students are positioned as subjects in the act of knowing. The criterion of good relationships is the total identification with the people, without which the pedagogical relationship loses consistency. Is eliminated, by assumption, every relationship of authority, lest it cripple t he work of awareness of "approximation of consciences." This is a "non-directive ness", but not towards the teacher is absent (as in Rogers), but remains vigilan t to ensure the group a human to say "his word" to express themselves without ne utralizing . Conditions for learning - the very definition of "problem-based education" as a correlate of liberating education reveals the motivating force for learning. The motivation is given from the encoding of a situaçãoproblema, which becomes away to examine it critically. "This analysis involves the exercise of abstraction, through which we seek to achieve, through representations of reality, the reason for the facts." Learning is an act of knowing the reality, that is the actual situation experien ced by the student, and only makes sense if it results from a critical approach that reality. What is learned is not due to a levy or memorization, but the crit ical level of knowledge, which is reached by the process of understanding, refle ction and criticism. What the student transfers, in terms of knowledge, is what was built as a response to situations of oppression - that is, their engagement in political activism. Practical demonstrations in schools - pedagogy has liberating and inspiring and promoter Paulo Freire, who personally has applied his ideas in several countries , first in Chile, then in Africa. Between us, has exerted a significant influenc e on popular movements and unions, and practically merges with the most experien ce of what is called "popular education". There are several such groups that hav e worked not only at the level of popular practice, but also through publication s, with relative independence from the original ideas of liberating pedagogy. Al though the theoretical formulations of Paulo Freire are restricted to adult educ ation or community education, in general, many teachers have been trying to put them into practice at all levels of formal education. 2. Progressive libertarian trend Role of school - The libertarian pedagogy expect the school carries a transforma tion in the personality of the students in a libertarian direction and self-mana gement. The basic idea is to introduce institutional changes, from junior levels that then would "contaminate" the entire system. The school set up, based on gr oup participation, institutional mechanisms for change (assemblies, councils, el ections, meetings, associations, etc..), So that students, once working in the i nstitutions 'external', light beyond all that learned. Another way of work of li bertarian pedagogy, related to the first, is - taking the measure of freedom of the system - create groups of people self-management educational principles (ass ociations, informal groups, schools autogestjonárias). There is,€therefore, an e xplicitly political sense, as it affirms the individual as the product of social and individual development only takes place in the coll ective. Self-management is thus the content and method; summarizes both the peda gogical and the political goal. The libertarian pedagogy, in its best known form

internodes, the "teaching institution", is intended as a form of resistance aga inst the bureaucracy as an instrument of action, dominating the state, which con trols all (teachers, programs, tests, etc..), Removing the autonomy. 11 Learning content - the material is made available to the student, but not requir ed. They are an instrument a plus, as important is the knowledge that results fr om the experiences of the group, especially the experience of participation mech anisms critical. "Knowledge" here is not cognitive research of the real, to extr act from it a system of mental representations, but the discovery of answers to the needs and demands of social life. Thus, the contents themselves are the resu lt of needs and interests manifested by the group and they are not indispensably necessary nor the subjects of study. Method of teaching - is the group experience, in the form of self-management, th at students seek to find the most satisfactory basis of their own "institution", thanks to their own initiative and without any form of power. It is "put in the hands of students all that is possible: the whole of life, activities and organ ization of work within the school (unless the schemes and the decision of the te sts that do not depend neither teachers nor students). " The 11 Michel LOBROT cf. Pedagogy instotucional, la escuela hacia la autogestion. Students have freedom to work or not getting the educational interest, depending on their needs or those of the group. The progress of autonomy, not including any direction outside the group, takes a "growing": first the opportunity to contact openings, informal relations betwee n students. Then the group begins to organize itself so that everyone can partic ipate in discussions, cooperative assemblies, ie, various forms of participation and expression by the word: he wants to do something else, or enter into agreem ent with the group or retires. In the third step, the group is organized more ef fectively and, finally, the fourth time, he left for the job. Teacher-student relationship - institutional pedagogy aimed at "first, to transf orm the teacher-student relationship in the non-directivity, ie from the start c onsidering the inefficiency and harmfulness of all methods based on bonds and th reats." Although teacher and student are different and unequal, nothing prevents the teacher put the student's service, without imposing his concepts and ideas, without turning the student into an "object". The teacher is a mentor and a cat alyst, it mingles with the group for a common reflection. If students are free to the teacher ahead, this one is for the students (it can, for example, refused to answer a question, remain silent). However, this freedo m of choice has a meaning quite clear: if a student decides not to participate, because it does not feel integrated, but the group has responsibility for this f act and will put question, when the teacher is silent on a question, your silence has a meaning t hat education can, for example, be a help to the group assume the answer or the situation created. In all, the teacher fits the role of "adviser" and other time s, the instructor monitor the disposal of the group. At no time did these roles of the teacher are confused with the "model" as the libertarian pedagogy rejects any form of power or authority. Assumptions of learning - The bureaucratic forms of existing institutions, for t heir trace of impersonality, endanger personal growth. The emphasis on informal learning via group, and the denial of all forms of repression aimed at promoting

the development of people more free. The motivation is therefore in the interes t in growing within the group experience, because it is assumed that the group r eturn to each of its members to satisfy their aspirations and needs. Only experienced, the experienced is built and usable in new situations. The cri terion of relevance of systematic knowledge is its possible practical use. There fore, it makes no sense any attempt to evaluate the learning, at least in terms of content. Other trends related teaching - A libertarian pedagogy covers almost all the ant i-authoritarian tendencies in education, among them, the anarchist, the psychoan alyst, the sociologists,€and also that of progressive teachers. Although Rogers and Melilla can not be considered progressive (as understood here), also affects some libertarians, such as Lobrot. Among the foreigners must cite Vasquez and Oury among the most recent, F errer y Guardia among the oldest. Particularly significant is the work of C. Fre inet, which has been extensively studied among us, there are even some schools a pplying his method. 12 Among scholars and popularizers of libertarian trend can be cited Mauricio Tragt emberg despite the keynote of his work is not exactly educational, but criticism of the institutions in favor of a self-managed project. In accordance with prop er teaching, including effective proposals for action at school, quoted Miguel G onzalez Arroyo. 3. Trend progressive "social-critical content" Role of school - The broadcast content is the primary task. No abstract content, but alive, concrete, and therefore inseparable from social realities. The appre ciation of the school as an instrument of knowledge acquisition is the best serv ice that lends itself to popular interests, since the school can help eliminate the social selectivity and make it democratic. If the school is part of the soci al whole, to act within it is also acting in the course of transformation of soc iety. If what defines a critical pedagogy is the consciousness of its historical and social conditions, the function of pedagogy "content" is a step forward in the transformative role of school, but from existing conditions. Thus, the condi tion for which the school serves the interests of the people is to guarantee eve ryone a good education, that is, ownership of the school curriculum 12 See in this regard, G SNYDERS, where will the non-directive pedagogy? basic that resonate in the life "of HOT. Understood in this sense, education is" a mediating activity within the global social practice ", ie one of the mediati ons in which the student, the teacher's intervention and his own active particip ation , is an experiment initially confused and fragmented (syncretic), a synthe tic vision, more organized and unified. 13 In summary, t world and isition and cratization the performance of the school is to prepare the student for the adul its contradictions, giving him an instrumental, through content acqu socialization, for an organized and active participation in the demo of society.

Content of education - are universal cultural content that formed relatively aut onomous domains of knowledge, embodied by humanity, but constantly reassessed in the face of social realities. While it is accepted that the contents are realit ies external to the student, which must be assimilated and not just reinvented, they are not closed and refretários social realities. It is not enough that the

contents are only taught, however well taught, we need to turn it on, inseparabl y, to its human and social significance. This way of conceiving the contents of knowledge does not create opposition betw een high culture and popular culture, or spontaneous, but a continuing relations hip in which progressively goes from immediate experience and disorganized to sy stematized knowledge. Not that the first arrest Cf Dermeval SAVIANI, Education: the common sense to the philosophical consciousn ess, p.120; Guiomar N MELLO, Teaching of 1st degree ..., p.24, Charles R. J. CUR Y, Education and Contradiction: elements ..., p.75. 13 reality is wrong, but it is necessary to rise to a higher form of development, a chieved by the student, with assistance from the teacher. The posture of pedagogy "content" - Assuming a relatively autonomous knowledge it takes knowledge as having a relatively objective content, but at the same ti me introduces the possibility of facing a critical review this content. How summ arizes Snvders by mentioning the role of the teacher, it is, on one hand, to obt ain the student's access to content, linking them with the actual experience of it - the continuity, but on the other, to provide evidence of critical analysis that will help students to overcome the experience, stereotypes, diffuse the pre ssures of the dominant ideology - is the rupture. These considerations it is clear that one can go to learn to political engagemen t, but not vice versa, at the risk of affecting the very specific nature of know ledge and even fall into a form of ideological pedagogy, which is what is critic al in traditional pedagogy and the new pedagogy. Teaching methods - The question of methods is subordinated to the content: if th e objective is to highlight the acquisition of knowledge and of knowledge linked to social,€we need to promote the methods matching the contents with students' interests, and that they can recognize the contents to aid their efforts to unde rstand the reality (social practice). Thus, it is not dogmatic methods of transm itting knowledge of traditional pedagogy, nor its replacement by the discovery, investigation or free expression of opinions, as if knowing it could have been invented by the ch ild, in the design of pedagogy renewed. The methods of pedagogy and social critic of content does not start, then a know ledge of artificial deposited from the outside, not knowing the spontaneous, but a direct relationship with the student experience, faced with the knowledge and practice related experienced by students with the content offered by the teache r, when it will happen to "break" in relation to experience little elaborate. Su ch a rupture is only possible with the explicit introduction, the teacher of the new elements of analysis to be applied critically to the practice of the studen t. In other words, a lesson begins with the observation of actual practice and t here, then awareness of this practice to refer it to the terms of the proposed c ontent in the form of a clash between experience and explanation of the teacher. That is to say: go to the action to the understanding and understanding into ac tion, until the synthesis, which is nothing but unity between theory and practic e. Teacher-student relationship - If, as shown earlier, knowledge is the result of exchanges that are established in the interaction between the environment (natur al, social, cultural) and the subject, the teacher being the mediator, then the relation kid is in providing the conditions under teachers and students can coll aborate to advance these exchanges. The adult role is irreplaceable, but also en hances the student's participation in the process. That is, the student, with hi

s immediate experience in a cultural context, participating in the search for tr uth, to confront it with the contents and patterns expressed by the teacher. But this effort of the teacher in guiding, opening perspectives from the contents, implies an engagement with the lifestyle of students, including being aware of t he contrasts between their cultures and the student. Do not be content, however, to satisfy only the needs and wants; seek to awaken other needs, accelerate and regulate the methods of study, require the effort of students, putting content and models compatible with their experiences for the student to take action to a ctive participation. Evidently the mediating role played around the analysis of content excludes the non-directivity for guidance of school work, because the adult-student dialogue is uneven. The adult has more experience about the social realities, has a train ing (at least should have) to teach, he has knowledge and it is doing the analys is of content in comparison with social realities. Non-directiveness leave stude nts to their own desires, as if they had a spontaneous tendency to achieve the e xpected goals of education. We know that trends are not spontaneous and natural tributaries of the living conditions and environment. There are not enough love, acceptance, that the children of workers acquire the desire to study more, to p rogress, the intervention of the teacher to lead the student to believe in its p ossibilities, to go further, prolonging the experience lived. Assumptions of learning - an effort by itself, the student, it is recognized in content and social models presented by the teacher, so it can broaden your own e xperience. The new knowledge builds upon an already existing cognitive structure , or the teacher provides the structure that the student not yet available. The degree of involvement in learning depends on the readines s and willingness of the student, the teacher and the classroom context. Learn, the vision of pedagogy of the content is developing the ability to proces s information and deal with the stimuli, environment, organizing the data availa ble from the experience. As a result, it is accepted the principle of meaningful learning that assumes, as an initial step, check what the learner already knows . The teacher needs to know (understand) what students say or do, the student ne eds to understand what the teacher tries to tell them. The transfer of learning is bad from the moment of synthesis, ie, when the student surpasses his vision a nd partial confusing and becomes a more clear and unifying. Results clearly that schoolwork must be evaluated, not as dogmatic and definitiv e trial of the teacher,€but as a demonstration for the student of their progress toward notions more systematized. Demonstrations in school practice - The effort to establish a pedagogy "content" is to propose models of teaching-oriented content-interaction social realities, so in order to move forward in terms of a joint political and pedagogical, that as an extension of this ie, education "in the service of transformation of prod uction relations." Although the short term it is hoped the teacher greater knowl edge of the contents of its matter and the field of transmission, to ensure tech nical competence, their contribution "will be much more effective as more capabl e of understanding the ties of their practice with the global social practice "in order (...)" the demo cratization of Brazilian society, the attention to the interests of the working classes, the structural transformation of Brazilian society. " 14 Within the general guidelines set out here, we can mention the pioneering experi ence, but more remote, the Russian writer and educator, Makarenko. Among the pre

sent authors cite B. Charlot, Suchodolski, Manacorda and, in particular, G. Skyd ers, besides the Brazilian authors who have developed relevant investigations, e specially Dermeval Saviani. They also represent the proposals presented here are the many teachers of public schools in that deal, competently, in a pedagogy of content combined with the adoption of methods that ensure the participation of the student who, often without knowing it, advance the democratization of educat ion for effective the working classes. 4. In favor of critical pedagogy and social content There will always be objected that these considerations lead to anti-democratic attitudes, authoritarianism, centralization in the role of the teacher and the s tudent's submission. But what is more democratic: to exclude any form of direction, leaving everythin g to free expression, creating a climate friendly to foster good relations, or p rovide students the content acquisition, analysis of social models that will pro vide them with tools to fight for their rights? There are relations 14 Dermeval Saviani, School and Democracy, p.83 democratic non-directive style a subtle form of training, which would lead to cl aims without content? Represent the relationship of non-directive the real condi tions of the adult social world? Would be able to promote the effective release of the man of her condition dominated? A realistic point of view of the pedagogical relationship does not reject the te aching authority as expressed in its function of teaching. But one should not co nfuse authority with authoritarianism. This manifests itself in fear of the teac her to see their authority threatened, in the absence of consideration for the s tudent or the imposition of fear as a way to make more comfortable and less tiri ng the act of teaching. Moreover, the dichotomies are incongruent, as broadcast by many educators, betwe en "teacher-police" and "teacher-people" between direct methods and non-directiv e, between teacher-centered teaching and student-centered education. By adopting such dichotomies, dampens the presence of the teacher as mediator for the conte nt that explains, as if they were always dogmatic impositions and added nothing new. Obviously, when advocating interveiição teacher, one is not concluded by the den ial of teacher-student relationship. The pedagogical relationship is a relations hip with a group and the group's climate is essential in teaching. In this sense , are welcome considerations raised by the "group dynamic" that teach the teache r to relate to class, to understand the conflict, namely that it is dealing with a community and not isolated individuals, to acquire the confidence of students . However, rather than restricted to the ill-fated "work group, "or fall into the illusion of equal teacher-student, it is facing the gro up as a collective class where they worked as models of interaction to mutual ai d, respect for others, the collective efforts, autonomy in decisions the richnes s of life in common, and go gradually expanded this concept (of community) to th e school, the city, the whole society. Finally, place the teacher-centered teaching and student-centered teaching is al most at opposite ends of teaching because there is no denying a student or group of students learning alone, or a professor lecturing to the walls. There is a c onfrontation between the student's culture and heritage of humanity, from their way of living and social models desirable for a new project of society. And ther

e is one teacher that intervenes, not to oppose the wishes and needs or the free dom and autonomy of the student,€but to help you exceed your needs and create ot her, to gain autonomy, to help him in his effort to distinguish truth from error , for helping to understand the social realities and their own experience.