GROUP DYNAMICS Booklet Course: PSYCHOPEDAGOGUE Course: Group Dynamics Prof.

Rosa li Oliveira Mendes :_________________________________ POLO LESSON PLAN OBJECTIVE To provide the participants with learning about group dynamics as well as the d evelopment of related skills, enabling them to act as group facilitators. MENU T he dynamic is the activity that takes the group to move, a job that is perceived , how each person behaves in a group, as is communication, the level of initiati ve, leadership, thought process, the level of frustration, if you accept the fac t and not have your idea considered. The group dynamics are usually part of the process of candidate selection and observations of the institutions or therapist s. The dynamics that serve to get to know the individual characteristics and beh avior in teams. COURSE OUTLINE Operation and development group. The use of games and Dynamics. The process of learning. Working group and the experiential proce ss. Various dynamics with different goals: integration, decision making, communi cation, planning, formulation of goals, learning, etc ... - The Group Dynamics a s a process and set of methodological techniques. Stages of group development Phenomena of groups and their influence on the dynamics of relationships - Opera tion and development group - Limits confluence of Group Dynamics - The role of t he facilitator - Group Dynamics - Awareness and production of the group; - The g roup's influence on perception, attitudes and values of individuals. SUGGESTIONS FOR FURTHER READING OF TEXTS Psychodrama as educational practice to the devel opment of the worker by Lucia Adams The psychotherapy groups on the grounds ex istential - Psychologist Therese Peres (JL Moreno and psychodrama, Carl Rogers a nd Client-Centered Therapy) Group Dynamics: all that the HR professional needs to know - Suely Andrade Gregori The Man and the current situation, the group dynamics, the facilitator of groups and the role of group leader in the group Features How to raise self esteem to make improvements at work Block dynamic s starting in paragraph. 02 to the no. 31. Dynamic integration - www.curriex.c om.br Group dynamics - The bodies reveal a social position Apostila Group Dynamics WHAT IS A GROUP? According to Pichon-Riviere, is when a group of people motivate d by similar needs come together around a specific task, ie a group with a mutua l goal, but each participant is different, has its identity. According to Zimmer man, "The individual from birth to different groups involved in a constant diale ctic between the pursuit of their individual identity and the need for group ide ntity and social" Every individual spends most of the time of their lives in gro ups - living and interacting. Every educator teaches her group, but only knows w hat will teach when you know your group. Wallon for the individual is a social b eing genetically There are two types of groups: primary and secondary schools. T he family is a primary group. Secondary groups are working, studying, institutio ns, etc.. According to Pichon, the structure of the groups are composed by the d ynamics of 3D. The deposited, the depositary and the depositor. The deposit is s omething the group can not take place as a whole and am someone, which allows th eir characteristics and accepted. Those who receive our deposits are our custodi ans, we, we discard these contents, placing them outside of us, we are the depos itors. This movement begins to deposit in the family, with parents unaware of th e project. The components of the group are five: Leader of change, Scapegoat, sp okesman, leader of resistance and Representatives of silence. The change leader is one who is in charge of carrying out the tasks, facing conflict, seeking solu tions, venturing ever before the new. Resistance leader, always pull the group b ack, brakes advances; Leader and leader of change of resistance can not exist wi thout each other. Both are needed to balance the group. The scapegoat is the one who takes the blame for the group. Serve as the Depositary to such content, fre eing the group that causes you discomfort, fear, anxiety, etc.. The mufflers are those who take the difficulties of others to communicate, making the rest of th e group feel obligated to speak. The spokesman who is liable to be the "chimney" where the anxieties of the group emerge. Through the exquisite sensitivity of t he spokesperson, it can express, verbalize, to form feelings, conflicts that are often hidden in the discourse of the group.€The spokesman is like an antenna th at picks up from afar what is to come. FEATURES OF GROUP 1 - search for a common

goal that motivates their participation in group activity. 2 - multiple exchang es between them (smiles with each other, complicity), psychological interaction. 3 - Life itself (through common purpose and enter-psychological relationship. T he group => dynamic, has its problems, its difficulties, its failures, its succe sses and its joys. Group => Dynamism own => clearance or arrival (1 member) => can change profoundl y. Untimely / LIABILITIES / Untimely ⇓ BALANCE To become a CONFLICT (1) group is necessary ame common goal and that between them there l authenticates (accept the common work, to lities and to combine their efforts in this to realize that we are seeking the s is an interrelationship psychologica participate in collective responsibi work . GROUP:

A moral entity, endowed with purpose and dynamism own existence, separate from t he sum of the individuals that constitute it, but these are established between different individuals. Microgroups => does not exceed 25 members, to overcome the communication channel s become more difficult. MACROGRUPOS => more than 25 members and is divided into sub groups. OBJECTIVES OF THE GROUP => divide into groups: work, training and b lended. Working => concerned with a job to do, seek the common goal. Group train ing => concerned with the functioning of the group as such => laboratory to anal yze the process itself. The training group does emerge to consciousness studies for them => teamwork. Mixed Group => intermediary, seeks to ensure a real unders tanding between people of the social plan (group 1) and emotional (group 2), uni tes the efficiency of the working group, the psychological realism of the traini ng group => your main concern => solving their work problems. GROUP TRAINING => Dynamism of the group => 2 factors: 1. circumstances in which they form the grou p 2. relations established between its members. A BRIEF REPORT ON THE HISTORY OF GROUP DYNAMICS It started in the Paleolithic period, with the naive games of children. Izabel m ind that at this stage there are already records of drawings in caves, probably depicting the wars between the tribes or fights with animals (for subsistence). The children then imitate their parents in using the weapons of war simulation g ames. In this period there have impressions of archaeological they were aware of the game, using an animal bladder as a ball, for example. In the Middle Ages, the idea of the simulation of situations. The footmen simulatin g a "war" with the children, using bow and arrow and games like "tug of war." At this time there is already including the idea of gain and loss that a game can cause. Later, in the industrial age in 1933, a survey was conducted to verify th at the stress and the structural conditions of the plants affected the labor of workers. Research has proven that working conditions, extremely poor, undermined and caused fatigue in employees. With some improvements, such as adequate light ing, the workers had a significant improvement in performance. "Since then it wa s proved that external factors affect the dynamics of groups." CONCEPTIONS OF GR OUP DYNAMICS There are several designs for the Dynamic Group. We observed that, in general, each reflecting a particular position of what is, and how is that sp ecialty of knowledge that deals with human relations in social groups. The scien tific interest group dynamics is recent - it is a twentieth-century science. How ever, since the eighteenth century who, having been characterized by great advan ces in human knowledge and the great political revolutions of England, France an d American Independence, was called the Enlightenment, lived Giambattista Vico ( 1688-1744), an Italian thinker who is now recognized for its aura of precursor o f the humanities. Vico, in his book: "Principles of a New Science", established the difference between natural sciences and humanities, and proposed, as a case study of the latter, an epistemological principle as fundamental to the developm ent of various fields of human knowledge - what are, Anthropology, Sociology, Ps ychology and Group Dynamics, a branch of social psychology. This principle is ex

pressed in the Latin formula: verum ipsum factum - that is, only done is true, o r, I can only logically show what my work is [13: back cover]. Under the Dynamic Group, this provision directly involved in contemporary scientific methodology called action research - that,€the subject can demonstrate logically a group phe nomenon that is also made truly by him as a member of that group under study. Th at is, it becomes subject and object of research. There is also a remarkable epi stemological relevance of this proposition to the Theory of Spontaneity de Moren o. The word spontaneous, a central term in the theory Moreno, etymologically der ives from Latin sponte their 'free will', which is produced by the agent's own i nitiative, without the effect of an external cause. Since it shows the relations hip between the states with the spontaneous creative functions [4: p. 53], then one can assume that, in truth, only what is created spontaneously, 'voluntarily' , can be seen through my work, and also infer that it only voluntarily done is t rue. Basically, you can classify all concepts in three ways: ideological, techno logical, phenomenological. Ideological design. Considers that the Dynamic Group is a special form of political ideology in which are highlighted aspects of demo cratic leadership and participation of all in decision making. They also point o ut the advantages, both for society and for ordinary individuals, in cooperative activities in small groups. It has been scientifically tested by Kurt Lewin. Wi th research on the phenomenon of good leadership, Lewin has shown that when huma n beings engaged in activities in democratic groups, not only their productivity was enhanced, but also their level of satisfaction was high and its relations w ith other members based on cooperation and reducing tensions (...) these circums tances, the group became independent enough to pursue their task even when the l eader was away [2: p. 98]. Design Technology. Under this conception, the Dynamic s Group refers to a set of methods and techniques used in interventions in so-ca lled primary groups, such as families, work teams, classrooms, etc.. Strictly speaking, the use of any of the se techniques aims to increase the capacity of communication and cooperation and thus increase the spontaneity and creativity of human beings while in group act ivity. All of them can didactically be grouped into two variants of intervention : one, the dramatic games, another of Psychodrama. Dramatic games. This variant favors spontaneous play, often without pre-established rules, to streamline the human groupality. This variant design of the Dynamic Group is universally diffus ed, it is basically the fact that the need of the game play is inherent in human growth and development, and also because it is especially applied in education. - In Anglo-Saxon spontaneous dramatic play is a common activity in schools in f irst and second degree, being included in the discipline known as Theatre in Edu cation, it is recognized as an effective means of learning both for the content of the material as for life [3: p. XI / XII]. Psychodrama. As well as its coroll ary the Sociodrama, Psychodrama historically originated in theater or Spontaneou s Improvisation Theatre founded by Moreno in Vienna in 1921. Spontaneous Theatre of it intended to stop the repetition of dramatic saves the theater and cliches of conventional roles, allowing an entirely creative and spontaneous contributi on so that we can develop new roles, born Psychodrama [4: p. 31]. This variant t echnology that is centered on the notion of social roles, and that emphasizes bo dily action, has been used in a very particular therapeutic field. For this, mul tiple techniques have been developed especially directed training roles (role pl aying) characterized as healthy. Among the techniques developed by Moreno, the m ost commonly used are: soliloquies, role reversal, doubles, mirrors, holding sym bolic Psychodancing. Phenomenological design. Here are authors who prioritize th eir activities around the idea that psychosocial phenomena that occur in small g roups is the result of an articulated human system as a whole, a gestalt. Among these phenomena, we mention: cohesion, communication, conflict, leadership train ing etc.. This conception can also observe two theoretical backgrounds: one, the Gestalt psychology, which is descriptive, it focuses its postulates in the desc ription of phenomena occurring in the here-now the world group - for example, th e spatial configuration regularly adopted by a unit group, the other Psychoanaly sis, which is explaining why it seeks to explain the unity of the group through

the idea of a 'group mind' (social instinct)€often unconscious for members of th e group itself. Gestalt psychology. This school of psychology, the major driver of the Dynamic Group was Kurt Lewin. Lewin, in his Field Theory, developed a sui generis scheme for explaining human interaction: based on the principles of top ology - a branch of geometry that deals with spatial relationships without regar d to quantitative measurement, established a dynamic theory of personality cente red on idea of the psychological field [5: p. 83] that maintains interpendência with multiple social forces, hence, developed a working methodology: action rese arch (action research), in which the individual is at the same time, subject and object of the action under study, and created the first laboratory Group dynami cs, where in studies of primary groups (face to face groups) introduces concepts taken from the physics of magnetic field to describe the phenomena of human soc ial existentialism - among the most common terms are: cohesion, movement toward goals , looking for uniformity, attraction and balance of forces, and from them conceived the idea for the group as a dynamic whole, a gestalt that is not only a result of the sum of its members, but is possessed of special properties as a 'whole' [6 : P. 5323]. Anyway, to Lewin, this dynamic group as a whole, seeks wa ys to balance within a field of social forces, and this, for example, which expl ains the emergence of leaders, as phenomena that appear as a social gathering of high privilege, and acts as cynosure of all collective movements [7: P. 10]. Psychoan alysis. The use of the postulates of psychoanalysis to explain the group dynamic s was first attempted by Freud in his "Group Psychology and the Analysis of the Ego." However, the conceptual schema, referential and operating [8: p. 98] in wh ich he developed his task was not properly referred to what is currently conceiv ed as a human group (micro-groups, primary group, face to face groups), but the sociological phenomena such as races, castes, professions, etc. crowd. However, Freud's recognition that individual psychology is at the same time, also social psychology [9: p. 13] had a primary intuition: when people organize themselves i nto groups, there are phenomena such as expression of a special instinct that is not reducible - social instinct: herd instinct, group mind - which do not come to light in any other situation [ 9: p. 14). Complete your intuition with an irr efutable argument: it is possible to discover the beginnings of the evolution of this instinct in the family [9: p. 14]. Wilfredo Bion, starting with the propos itions put forward by Melanie Klein in his research in psychoanalytic practice w ith children, he explained, with the term group mentality, the meaning of this s ocial instinct - this term refers to a collective mental activity that occurs wh en people gather in group (...) the hypothesis of their existence comes from the fact that the group works on many occasions as a unit, though its members it do es not intend or are aware of it [10: p. 24]. The group mind would be so kind of a continent, a 'whole' that would include all contributions made by members of the group. As the design bionian, this phenomenon has two levels: task level, le vel of basic assumptions - first, more or less related to a conscious thing, cal led, the second, less obvious, but is routinely present in the form of three pro cesses that can be inferred from the group dynamics, ie, dependence, pairing and fight-flight. [11: p. 23]. Enrique Pichon-Rivière, an Argentine psychoanalyst K leinian school has developed with his theory and technique of the Operative Grou p, the scheme of Bion. Pichon-Rivière begins with a definition of the group - a group of people bound together by constant time and space, articulated by their mutual internal representation, it proposes, explicitly or implicitly, a task th at is its purpose [12 : p. 53]. In this definition Pichon-Rivière synthesized th e two preconditions for the existence of all human groups: first, the term peopl e as articulated by their mutual internal representation, means that these peopl e have something that connects them to a level higher than what the French philo sopher Jean Paul Sartre defined as seriality [12: p. 53], that is, when people a dd up without actually establishing that the communications come together emotio nally as it does any human in a row (in banking establishment, for example), the second condition is the task that is its purpose. In this task, according to th e construction bionian, Pichon-Rivière noticed two levels: explicit,€implicit. T

he explicit is represented by the productive work and planned the realization of which constitutes the raison d'etre of the group - for example, material produc tion, learning, healing, leisure etc. Under this task explicitly, behind another , the implicit task, which consists of all the mental operations that must take the group members together to form, maintain and develop its groupality. [12: p. 53/54]. Bion's basic assumptions are thus implicitly contained in the mentality of the group task. And then stand as true organizing schemes of behavior of thi s group, which often can determine a working group aberrant or overly focused on a personal leadership (in the case of dependency), or overly focused on an idea posed as a promise, hope for the future (assuming mating), or too focused on se lf-preservation, which is maintained as the group reacted by attacking or fleein g from internal or external threats (hypothesis of the fight-flight). The group dynamics is used as a tool for learning purposes in the United States since 1950. In Brazil, it is thought that it started being used in schools and b usinesses in the 70's, but no data to prove it. The stages of group dynamics The momentum is the activity that takes the group to move, a job that is perceived, for example, how each person behaves in a group, as is communication, the level of initiative, leadership the thought process, the level of frustration, and if accepted the fact of not having your idea considered. Group dynamics is a tool for harmonization of interests. For organizations, not enough to get the best pr ofessional market, but also one that fits your needs. For professionals, it work s the same way. There must be harmony. Stages of Dynamic Submission may be made orally only when each participant will make a brief description of your personal and professional life. It may also be a more dynamic, in which candidates recei ve cardboard, newspapers, magazines, scissors, glue, pens. The goal is to have e ach one is set using these resources. It is allowed to write, draw, put magazine clippings, paste illustrations. Serves to "break the ice" and make everyone awa re. This heating stage can be the first or second. The heating serves to break t he ice and slowing down the team. This means that the facilitator of the dynamic body need to do a reading group to see if there is rapport. From that defines t he type of heating, which can be physical, to relax and diminish the excitement, or some kind of play that provides opportunities for integration of the group. An example is the game of hot potato. Each person receives the ball, to finish t he phrase spoken by the driver of the dynamics. "I like ..."," I lose any sleep ...", "What saddens me is ..."," Sometimes I feel like ...". Principal activity can be subdivided into three types: Implementation and Performance - constructio n of a product or project as a marketing campaign, for example. In this case, it is proposed to the candidates to create an innovative product, showing the feas ibility of cost, marketing strategy, turnaround time and audience. Thus, there i s creativity, game belt, dynamism, clarity of ideas, market knowledge, vision, b ehavior toward the group, harmony, and the principal, how each member contribute s to this. Communication - is always based on stories or discussions. The group is divided into two parts, then presents a topical issue (often controversial) o n which participants will discuss to develop argumentation. It is estimated capa city of argument, subject knowledge, bargaining power, interpersonal relationshi ps, ease of display ideas, maturity and cultural level. Situational - can be don e verbally or through questionnaires. Before the presentation of a situation rel ated to everyday problems of businesses, each participant must point out possibl e solutions. The group can be divided into two teams and then each present their solutions. The aim is to check the ab ility to understand, summarize, leadership, analytical ability, acceptance of wh ich was exposed by opposing group, bargaining power, group cohesiveness and matu rity. Another example: in a situation where a boat is sinking, throws up the que stion: Who would you save? The facilitator shows the profile of each of the occu pants of the boat and each makes its choice. This kind of dynamic will identify the values (economic, religious, human) and if you're a person more dreamy, prac tice,€Organized or disorderly. APPLICATIONS OF GROUP DYNAMICS How is the rating on Dynamic Group is an interdisciplinary science. This means that their are many

technical applications, and therefore are also many fields of human knowledge t hat can benefit from their knowledge. Between the knowledge benefit, citaríamos a huge role: health, education, social work, business, politics, sports, religio n etc.. However, for descriptive purposes, we chose only the first four listed a bove - Health, Education, Administration and Social Service, to make a brief des cription of the terms that are particularly benefited by the knowledge of group dynamics. Health In the area of human health is where are the most promising res ults of the practical applications of the Dynamic Group. In this sense the empha sis lies with the psychotherapy group already presented. However, beyond this sc ope, which has already been sufficiently reported in previous chapters, the work group have proved extremely useful in many other areas of human health. Educati on. The pedagogy of the groups allows a perfect synthesis of education and socia lization. All aspects of group dynamics contribute to this perfection, however, were the findings of Lewin and Moreno contributed most to this pedagogical aim. Didactically, to differentiate the contributions of one another these authors, o ne can say that the postulates Lewinian relate more to the apprehension of knowl edge in the learning process and the findings are directly applicable in Morenia n training educator's role in the process of their professional training. Seizur e of Knowledge. The previously reported experiences of Lewin allowed the develop ment of a new educational mentality that emphasized three principles: the first group (class) is not designed as an environment of competition, but as himself, a fact of cooperation, and by an object that their own instruction and the secon d states that the role of the monitor (teacher) is to motivate the group, monito r its operation and its results, and help them define their problems and finally the third involves an active teaching method. That is, it the "students" throug h their own experience, should reach the knowledge. Observe that the triad envir onmental educator, teaching is articulated at times considered ideal by some edu cators for the teaching-learning process, ie fertile moments where you feel the tension in the student to know, which realizes the disruption of the balance in his vision and understanding of the world around him, and with it the rise of in terest to regain that balance. At such moments, then to be surprised or staggeri ng to the student begins to ask, and the issues that formula is true, because th ey are spontaneous, and for this reason, provocative new interests [36: p. 47]. REFERENCES BIBLIOGRAFICAS Group dynamics - Cartwright and Zander - Spaulo. Ed Pedagogical and Universal Ltda. The dynamics of group work. Golden Castilho RJ - Qualutymark, 1994. Organizational Behavior - RJ - LTC - Stephen P. Rolbin s, 1999. and David Zimerman - Luiz Carlos-Os'sorio and collaborators. "As we w ork with groups - Porto Alegre-RS - Medical Arts - 1997.

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