Home gardens Treat and care IF YOU WANT TO BE HAPPY FOR A DAY, DRINK ENOUGH.

IF YOU WANT TO BE HAPPY FOR A M ONTH, CASE-SE. But if you want to be happy forever - PLANTE! (Chinese Proverb) O ne of the biggest benefits of cultivating a home garden is certainly pleased to be yourself producing food that is consumed by the family. Not to mention the pl easure that the management of land can provide. An organic garden, 100-150 m2, e nough to supply 60% of the needs of salts and vitamins of a family of seven peop le (three adults and four children) Here's an overview of the care required for deployment of a garden home and care the vegetables from the garden needs in rel ation to the planting site: • • The vegetables need plenty of sun to produce ful ly. In other words, should be planted in full sun. The land for the garden shoul d be divided into plots, which will be made to hoe. The height of the beds depen ds on the soil. In dry soils, it should be done at ground level and humid with 1 0cm in height. The width should be 1 meter and 25cm and the length can vary, the re should be greater than 8 meters. The streets between the beds should be 60cm, but to save the ground can have a minimum of 30cm. The lands of the beds should be well plowed and no stones or sticks rotten. The land receives manure after p reparation, to be perfectly distributed. The best fertilizer for vegetables is t he well-tanned cattle manure and organic fertilizers, which are commercially ava ilable, such as blood meal, bone meal, fish, etc. • • PREPARING THE LOCATION OF PLANTING The place where the garden will be located must be free of stones, gravel and de bris. If there is the possibility of invasion by animals is interesting to provi de a small wall. • Brush the grass and creepers so that even the roots are uproo ted. Then, mark areas of the beds, which should not exceed 1 meter in width, var ying in length. Let runners from 40 cm to 50 cm between the beds and one meter f rom the wall or fence to facilitate cleaning of the plot. • Dig the marked area of the beds, fluffing the ground at a depth of about 20cm, marking the land into equal parts. • Take soil of a party marked and go doing a rotation, as illustra ted. Remove stones and debris that may have been rooted in the initial cleaning. • Mix ground fluffy, 20 gallons of bovine manure or compost per square foot and flatten the terrain. • Ideally, the beds remain about 20 cm taller than the gro und. This high level is used to improve drainage and prevent erosion caused by r ain water. Leave a ditch between a bed and the other to facilitate water runoff. In home gardens, the ideal is that the area is paved. • Make rows to accommodat e the small seeds or pits, respecting the specific spacing for each plant • • FERTILIZATION Is to correct the natural deficiencies of the soil in some important nutrient fo r plant growth or to replenish nutrients removed by crops. The need for suppleme ntation of nutrients from the soil to grow vegetables is mandatory, and the lack of it is directly related to the attack of pests and diseases. All organic matt er, dead plants and animals, or cut pieces of plants among others, are suffering a slow process of decomposition, after which they return to the elements (carbo n, oxygen, phosphorous, nitrogen, chromium, zinc and others) chemical initials. This process, mainly caused by bacteria and fungi, is essential in the nutrition of plants, animals and the continuity of life on the planet. The rate of decomp osition depends on the ratio between carbon and nitrogen. Very little nitrogen a nd carbon leads to a slow decomposition. The mineral wealth depends on the final composition of the initial organic material. Rich organic material gives rise t o minerals in large numbers. Of the various steps taken by the decomposition, th e most important is the formation of humus matter essential to biological life a

nd the nutritional capacity of soils. Humus increases the plant resistance to fu ngi and insects. The heterogeneous population that creates the soil, prevents th e growth of fungi or bacteria that attack the young plants. Stimulates and balan ces the power plant, developing root, prompting the respiratory activity and cel l. TYPES OF FERTILIZATION Green Manure - Consists of the soil incorporation of any green mass, be it grass or not, and will bring benefits to the soil itself. Legumes are plants commonly used for this purpose,€depending on them be more efficient when compared with t he grasses. MANURE - Since the earliest times, until little more than a century, the organic matter mainly manure - was the only fertilizer used in various hort icultura.Fatores and the need to overcome the fatigue of land among other factor s, facilitated the development of more varied methods of fertilization. The use of manure or organic matter may not be the most economical way of giving back to the main soil nutrients that plants remove it, but its implementation it should be maintained, since the greatest value of manure is in organic matter sí, or r ather, the benefits it brings to campus. COMPOUND - In many cases, the difficult y of getting the manure to the garden setting prevents the intensive culture of many lands who, either by their physical qualities, both for its location, were shown to hortejos. Therefore, we tried to substitute manure for other organic ma tter, fermentation, which were able to produce the same effects. The compound ca n be done on cells or outdoor composters. The cells are given to those who have plenty of space and also generates large volumes of organic waste, have the adva ntage of not requiring special equipment. The composters are indicated for those with space problems or produce small quantities of waste. IMPORTANT FACTORS IN COMPOSTING The quality of compost depends on two factors we can manipulate: aeration and mo isture. The more aerated compost, more oxygen will enter the mass and more carbo n dioxide will come out (we can hasten the fermentation on the first two weeks t urn the compost every two days). In the rainy season should give the hill a roun ded shape so as not to excessively wet. A good compost smells nice, fertile land . Like the smell of ammonia is a sign that there is loss of nitrogen, it is nece ssary to sprinkle ashes and put more plant material. TECHNIQUES OF PREPARATION The techniques of preparation of the compound are numerous and can say that vary from place to place, but whatever the procedure followed, the compound is alway s an earthy organic matter perfectly tanned. The more traditional composting is a bottomless wooden box lid or developed in the 40s in New Zealand. The box from New Zealand has the standard size 1 meter by 1 meter at the bottom and 1 meter in height. Can be used the most diverse materials. In a deposit box (in layers) to follow a ll that remains of plants and animals. When the mixture is dry you should add we t debris, such as fruit peels, vegetables, wood chips, grass or even water. If t he mixture is too wet, add more dry leaves or soil. For smaller areas, a very go od option is the basket mesh, to produce compost in small areas: EXAMPLE OF ORGANIC COMPOUND IN REDUCED SPACE • • • • • • The nursery should have the basket height and width of 1.50 cm. You can use chicken wire or plastic screen. All materials of animal or plant can be used. Use wood chips, twigs, corn cobs, pods of trees. Leftovers should be cover ed with soil to prevent rats and other animals. Do not use materials like glass, plastic, leather, paint, oil or wood invernizada or treated against termites. T he battery should have a larger proportion of material which dissolves slowly, s uch as twigs, straw, leaves, grasses and wood chips that come with carbon. Revol ver compost 3-4 times the first month of composting and at least twice after. To avoid high temperatures (above 60oC, should be made the revolving constant or a

dding water. EXAMPLE OF A COMPOUND THAT USE SAWDUST • • • • Mix the sawdust with equal part by volume of dry leaves or grass to redu ce the compression during the process. Make a layer of 20 cm in height, width up to 2 meters and 20-30 meters long Upon this layer of the mixture of sawdust and grass, put a layer of 5 cm of manure Alternate layers of 20 cm and 5 cm of the mixture cattle manure, to a height of 1.5 meters. • • • • Watering well after each layer of the mixture placed Check every day if the temp erature goes up, putting his hand on the stack formed. If the temperature is hig h enough to not tolerate heat, water and the whole stack. After 15 days revolve layers, mixing well grass, sawdust and manure, organizing new battery and wateri ng well together. Repeat this procedure every 20 days, noting when the temperatu re dipping again and if that is too high. About 90 days later, the compost is re ady to become a dark mass, uniform,€without the appearance of the original mater ial This compound can be used in any culture, but not waive the application of miner al fertilizer, being low in phosphorus and other essential elements. SOWING Sowing can be done directly in the quarry, since the seedlings are protected fro m the sun. Simply distribute the seeds in furrows, evenly, observing the distanc e required for each plant, then covering them with dirt sifted. Ways by planting seeds: • The CAST - used for very small seeds. Before sowing, seeds should be soaked in w ater for 12 hours, to facilitate germination. Spread them on the surface of the bed, starting with the edge inside. In furrows and PITS - they must be spaced ac cording to the directions for each vegetable, which triggers a perfect developme nt. Anyway, when it comes to sowing, the furrows should stay with a distance of 5 to 10 cm from each other. • In accordance with the requirements for planting vegetables can be divided into two groups: the vegetables that can be planted in situ, and those requiring tran splantation. The former can be planted directly in the beds where they are grown . The other, in sowing, which should be transplanted after sprouting, when they reach 15-20 cm in height. One must be careful with the protection, generally mad e with toppings. Structures of wire covered with transparent plastic or transpar ent fiber tiles can be of great value. See example below: - Bury the two ends of the wires along the whole length of the furrow and then c over them with clear plastic. - The same effect has to cover with tiles transpar ent fiber. In this case is only the warp tile, burying the edges or wearing them with stones. TRANSPLANTATION In some kinds of vegetables whose seeds are put in the land of flower beds and t here are born and grow. Others must be sown and transplanted born after the fina l construction site, where you are vegetating until harvest. To transport vegeta bles that were planted in seedbeds, give preference to an evening or a cloudy da y. Do the following: • • • • • Soak the seed. Open final pits per plot, noting t he spacing for each plant. Choose plants more lush withdraw them with a bit of a

clod at the roots. Place the seedlings in the pits, joining land and tightening a bit in return. Water carefully. TUTORS The plants are different in constitution plant preference of cultivation and gro wth habit. This last feature classify them as trees, shrubs and herbs, aquatic o r vines. Some plants need to thrive, find a support in which to climb. In genera l they are the pods, beans, tomatoes, etc., which need a carrier. Below, here ar e some suggestions for staking the plan. IRRIGATION Water is essential for plant development, especially those that have rapid growt h and large amount of green mass. • • • • Never irrigate under the hot sun. Leaves of plants more sensitive when wilted or drooping indicate the need for watering. The irrigation asperção is not suitabl e for plants like tomatoes, peppers, eggplant, cucumber. Mulching with rice stra w or sawdust decreases the water evaporation. ROTATION OF CULTURE The plants by the roots loose certain substances that are characteristic of thei r species. It is called the effect "allelopathic" (a kind of action on the devel opment of another). A large area with plants of the same species, may facilitate the emergence and rapid development of pests and diseases, and even impoverishi ng the soil, since there is a competition for the same nutrients. The eucalyptus plantations of two or more species reduces this risk. This type of planting, ho wever, should not be done without knowing the effects of intercropping. Note tha t around an old hose is difficult to develop a child of that tree. What would ha ppen if all the seeds to turn into trees? There would be a competition for the s ame nutrients from the soil. So the crop rotation is important. With respect to vegetables, as well as crop rotation, which ensures healthy food without soil erosion, it is important to plan the planting of the leaves, so th at not all production will be ready for harvest at once. Avoid then replant in t he same bed the same type of vegetable. The ideal is to alternate the cultivatio n following the scheme: ROOT - FRUIT-LEAF. For example, if you planted carrots ( root) in a bed next time cress plant (leaf) and after harvest watercress, plant tomatoes (fruit). Once again another plant root.€To find out if you're on the ri ght path, always observe the garden. If the grass begins to fade, indicating poo r soil, and begin to appear spontaneous broadleaf species (which indicate good s oil), everything is running perfectly well. Cultural practices PESTS AND DISEASES The vegetables, as the vast majority of cultivated plants are attacked by a seri es of "lovers," we call enemies, pests, etc..: A good tip is not always plant sp ecies of the same family in the same bed, or do crop rotation. The most affected crops are together in the Solanaceae (beets, peppers, etc.), depending on the a mount of diseases and pests that attack them, so should be taken extra care with them. ANTS It is perhaps the most terrible enemy of the garden, the leaf-cutting ants and i n certain places to whosoever. Currently, these two ants are effectively combate d with a series of ant: carbon disulphide, methyl bromide, and others that are c ommercially available and whose package inserts that accompany the product, expl ain how to use. CATERPILLAR

Proliferate with speed and feed on the aerial parts of the plant. To combat them , we recommend manual removal or tweezers. In case you can not find them, just d igging the soil around the plant to be exposed to the sun. To spray the infected plants: Dissolve 10 grams of smoke roll and 100 grams of coconut soap in 20 lit ers of boiling water. Let stand for 12 hours and spray the affected sites. Snails, slugs and pill bugs It is common for these small animals attend to the garden, but if there is imbal ance can cause much damage to the garden. Bait: spreading chunks of chayote squa sh or the garden to attract them and then get them. Cans containing thin salt an d beer are also quite attractive for these small insects. GRUB-SCREW Found beneath the soil to a depth of 10 cm, they can be caught with a bait and e asy to do. Bait: mix 100 grams of sugar, 100 grams of rice powder and 5 grams of insecticide DIPEL (biological). Go by adding water to create floc. Then just sp read the bait around the plant attacked. Aphids It is very difficult praying insecticides in 1 liter of water e the mixture into 4 in parts affected by to do manual scavenging, the best way to fight them is by s natural. Syrup of smoking: 20 grams of smoke pike roll, put and simmer for half an hour. Strain in fine cloth and dilut liters of water. Then just spray on the plants, especially the insects.

MITES They are like ticks, only much smaller and can be discerned only with the aid of a magnifying glass. Syrup smoke with soap: just add soap to the spray of smoke and pulverized in common foliage. KITTY Similar to a beetle, with a major color has green and yellow. Pepper Extract: hi t 500 grams of pepper and two liters of water in a blender until the total macer ation. Drain and mix soap, finally adding the remaining 2 liters of water. Cochineal Are white or red dots, which suck the leaves and stems of plants to stop the sap . Oil emulsions: light 1 kg of chopped soap, 8 liters of mineral oil and 2 liter s of water to the fire until it boils. Stir to a paste, which can be stored for future applications. At the time of spraying the emulsion, dissolve the paste in warm water and mix the equivalent of 300 grams for each 20 liters of cold water . DISEASES The most common are caused by fungi, which leave the plants stained gray, brown, white or black. The only products suitable for use in home gardens are made bas ed on copper and sulfur because they have little toxicity. But beyond the weekly spraying, you should remove the plants with disease symptoms. PLANT COMPETITORS Plants that compete with the bed spontaneously vegetables are most often called weeds. But although considered as weeds, may be indicative of soil, repel or att ract pests and seek nutrients from deeper layers. Surely there is only balance w hen plants are most of the garden. Among the most common herb stand out-of-santa maria, mentruz, break-stone, beggarticks and dandelion. To avoid competing plant s spread in the beds, you can make a cover with rice straw or dry grass, which a ims to stifle its growth. CARING FOR THE EARTH - Solo Soil is a porous system consisting of a solid part and another empty. The void i

s occupied by water and air. The solid part is composed of mineral - sand and cl ay - and the organic part, which are plants and animals that die and decompose. The soil breathes and has its headquarters. It is life for plants, small animals such as worms,€and larger ones such as earthworms and Gongola. These animals, h elp maintain soil life making tunnels for the entry of air and water, turning th e remains of vegetation and livestock manure to the land, helping to feed the pl ant, arresting in its roots. For the soil can provide life to animals and plants should be well ventilated or numerous small channels and give conditions to the roots so that they penetrate and grow pronfundamente abundant. TYPES OF SOIL Source: EMBRAPA ACIDITY If the soil is fertile, but classified as acidic, fertilization are almost alway s in vain, because the acid prevents the nutrients are released to the plants. I n this case, soil amendment, called liming is needed. To recognize the acidic so il (see table), note that is constant in the presence of plants such as sedge th atch, burr-decarneiro fern and if so muddy puddle and not transparent, and if it is clear. Liming To correct soil acidity should put a glass (every two years) of dolomitic limest one per square foot, spreading it evenly and adding it to about 15 inches of soi l - limestone it will only take effect after 2 or 3 months but this does not pre vent immediate planting plot. Plants more resistant to acidity are the eggplant, sweet potato, squash, peppers and turnips. EROSION It is the loss of soil by rainwater or wind. The erosion is very harmful to the soil and must at all costs prevent it from happening. Starts taking the upper la yers of soil where most roots feeds and where there is more life. We know that t here is erosion when: • We observed damage to vegetation, with the appearance of patches of bare soil and small grooves; • In the hills is common appear gullies , which are landslides that start in small grooves and turn into large cracks; • We can see flaws in the plantation, like we forgot to throw the seeds in some p laces; • There is an increase in pests and diseases; • The roots of our cultures do not penetrate very deep; • Rivers and streams in the rainy season, have clay -colored , • When it rains in the hills, the water descends by paths made by it or by farmers who do not planted in contour. WHAT DOES THE EARTH HAVE DAMAGE OR EROSION WITH MORE FACILITIES? The land kept in clean, ie always weeded and exposed to sunlight, wind and rain. Hot land produces little. Under these conditions the soil reaches a loose layer of 10 cm in seven years. Not to let the erosion occurs, or even reduce it, we m ust: • Use the contour cultivation on terraces with species such as sugar cane, weeding napier, pigeon pea, etc.. • Use plants basements, whose roots are able t o break the hard compacted layers - soil, eg pigeon pea, sunn and grasses. • Cro p rotation is essential to maintain soil productivity. To do crop rotation is al ways indispensable. Provides the desired balance to the land, alternating with t he cultivation of at least four successive crops. • Avoid planting the same crop in the same year. Do not leave bare soil. This avoids the risk of erosion. • Us e planting in the consortium. Protects the earth against the impact of rain. Bre aking the cycle of predatory monoculture. If well chosen, the main crop intercro pping benefits, increasing the harvest. Very careful in the choice: the good res ults depend on the use of plants "companions." • keep the stubble of the previou s crop ever in the earth, poking it. The field should be "dirty." This trash wil l be destroyed gradually turning into food for the earth. • Maintain culture alw

ays mowed and never weeded. With this practice comes to earth mulch, causing dec rease the weed or weeds. It also avoids the dryness of the soil, keeping it prot ected. • Use compound that can be done simply through the remains of vegetation, manure, etc.. • Rest the soil whenever possible. • Find plant always in terrace s, and rows grow well together in any culture that shade the soil. • Planting in contour lines, ie, following the slope of the hill. This can be done with an ea sy tool to build what is called chicken's foot. • Use the green manure and it wi ll try to follow. Combat erosion is investing in the health of the earth, producing a rational and balanced. FIGURE A - how not to plant. FIGURE B - planted wrong downhill FIGURE C - correct planting in contour Source: caring for the earth - IDAC - 1994 Last updated on 12.06.2002 10:26:10