Reproduction in mares Anabel Martínez Vallejo Deyanira 7 "A" Puberty 14 months duration of the estrous cycle 21 days (average) Right

14 days (luteal phase) Estro 7 days. Hemorrhagica Ovulatory follicle The diameter of the preovulatory follicle has a range of 30-70 mm, the most comm on size is around 40-45 mm.

Ovulatory follicle Role of melatonin

Regulates the estrous cycle by photoperiod. It is secreted by the pineal gland. The gland converts the information neural eyes related to the duration of daylig ht in a production of melatonin, its production is elevated during darkness and is secreted into the bloodstream and cerebrospinal fluid. Under natural conditio ns of 15 to 16 hours of daylight in the system acts hipolámico-pituitariogonadal pineal to suppress production Artificial insemination Some technical problems have been solved and have achieved good rates of fertili zation when used diluted or undiluted semen, but with as little delay as possibl e after collection. There are very encouraged by the results of artificial ins emination with diluted semen and Dose inseminante Initially 1000-2000 were used millions of sperm in a volume of 10-15 ml. The dose has be en declining steadily and was reduced to a minimum of 100 million motile sperm f rom the semen The cooled semen dose is 250-500 million. The number of sperm required for an acce ptable fertility with thawed semen is 100 -200 000 000 motile sperm. Insemination technique Palpation of the ovaries is necessary to determine the time of ovulation. Insemi nation should be performed only in mares that are in heat. After you apply a t ail bandage and clean the perineal area, a hand is inserted into the vagina and cervix is located. The index finger is The

same sanitary precautions should be taken into account before inserting the pipe tte or rubber tube into the uterus to inject the semen. Must be cleaned and sani tized all equipment before reuse. Pregnancy diagnosis

Rectal palpation: 40 days after conception. Bioassay PMSG dependent: after 35 da ys of gestation. Ultrasonography (transrectal): early diagnosis from 13 to 15. U ltrasonography (transabdominal): after 100 days Embryonic vesicle (16 days) Twin Pregnancy The twin pregnancy is rare in mares is an undesirable event in the mare, due to the high rate of abortion and poor postnatal development trend of the few surviv ing twin foals to term.

Early Intervention Between days 14-16 of ovulation, twins bicornuales (an embryo in the right uteri ne horn and one on the left) can be handled manually squeezing one of the twins transrectally guided by ultrasound. It removes the smallest of them. Late Intervention 32 days

25-35 days for most unicornuales twins naturally are reduced to a single embryo (8085% of cases), or experience visible signs of reduction. If both embryos have heartbeat and are similar in size and separated horns, the choice of treatment is limited to induce abortion with PGF, continuous monitoring and no interventio n, or alantocentesis (allantoic fluid aspiration of the embryo to remove) If no visible signs of reduction of the embryo to day 33 on to abortion with PGF ca n be done before the endometrial cups are functional, and the mare may be pregna nt in the next cycle.

For pregnancies of more than 60 days to 140 days, you can use the cardiac punctu re potassium hydrochloride guided by transabdominal ultrasound has been reported as successful in some mares. The best time for this technique is between 115-13 0 days of gestation, 49% of mares The last alternative for the management of twin fetuses is using exogenous progester one and excellent nutritional support with the hope that the mare keep both fetu

ses to term. However, the mare may give birth to one foal to term and a mummifie d fetus. Caslick Operation

This procedure removes a strip of skin at the mucocutaneous junction of the uppe r half of the vulvar slit which includes the dorsal commissure, under local anes thesia and areas denuded and placed in position by using sutures. By healing the pudendal cleft has been reduced to 50% or more and the source of contamination to the urogenital tract has been canceled.€The mare is held in a holder or rack is fastened behind the door of the stables, the tail is flexed dorsally band and carefully washing the hindquarters.

Then, when the labial margin has been placed under traction with forceps to the tissue and the striated border of the skin has been cut with scissors, a narrow band of living surface circumscribes the dorsal vulva. The sharp edges are place d in apposition careful surgete through a simple continuous or dotted vertical c ontinuous polypropylene monofilament mattress employee No. 00 or nylon, or its e quivalent. If the skin edges are in close apposition The result is a satisfactory closure to the desired length in the vulvar opening. Th is length of the closure shall be determined individually, but a guideline to fo llow is to close the cleft to a level of half inch below Episiotomy When the immaturity or lack of relaxation produces dystocia, or difficult labor torn labia, making a surgical incision oblique angle away from the dorsal positi on clockwise at ten or both prevents tear that affects the rectum. When the inci sion is carefully made no difficulty in re-sutured after Bibliography

Animal Reproduction, diagnostic and therapeutic techniques, R. Zemjanis, Editori al Limusa, 1975. Equine Reproduction, Angus O. Mc Kinnon, James L. Vos. Ed Lea & Febiger, Philadelphia London, 1999. Reproduction Veterinary Obstetrics, Geoffre y H. Arthur, David E. Noakes, Harold Pearson, Timothy J. Parkinson, sEvent Editi on, Saunders, 1996. Broodmare Reproduction for the equine practitioner, William B. Law, Ed Teton New Media, 2204 urogenital surgery of the bovine and equine, d. F. Walker, J. T. Vaughan, Editorial Cecsa, Mexico 1980 Text of surgery of large animals