Gardening Basics Cristiane Fernanda Simões1 Paiva2 Patrícia Duarte de Oliveira Guilherme Oliveira José Renato Neri3 Paiva4

1 INTRODUCTION Horticulture is the part of agriculture devoted to science (or art) to cultivate hortus, Latin for garden. The formation of Horticulture word reflects its origi n. The garden - or garden - it was the space enclosed grounds near the residence for the cultivation of fruits, vegetables, spices, medicinal herbs and flowers too. Thus, before reaching its function, the first garden was a practical use. W ith the advancement of knowledge and interest in increasing the productivity of crops, the old orchard was divided into three specific areas, emerging the orcha rd, the garden and the garden itself. Thus, in this garden every plant has an ae sthetic value to be highlighted. The character may be ornamental flowers, as in roses, available in mathematics from the leaves, as in the stem echeveria sculpt ural ______________________ 1. Agronomist, Master of Floriculture and Landscaping, Ph .D. in Plant Science DAG / UFLA. 2. Associate Professor, Floriculture and Landsc aping, Department of Agriculture / UFLA. 3. Agronomist, M.Sc. in Plant Science 4 . Adjunct Professor, Plant Physiology, Department Biology / UFLA. 6 umbu or even the pleasant scent of the flowers of capimlimão fields of pasture. The most important characteristic for a plant to fulfill its function is its orn amental look healthy, attesting to be well nourished and hydrated, without any d iseases or pests. This news comes, then fill the need for basic information abou t gardening homemade or professional, to achieve a healthy garden and well maint ained. SOLO 2 It is the superficial part of the earth's crust and has its origin in the decomp osition of rocks and minerals. In relation to plants, has as its primary supply nutrients and provide support to the roots. 2.1 Texture Concerns the distribution of the particles that form a soil (sand, silt and clay ). According to the percentages of each, we have: • sandy soil: less than 15% clay, • Soil texture average: 15-35% clay, clay • So il texture: more than 35% clay. 7 How to determine soil texture - clay soil is smooth and sticky. The clay soil is made up of tiny particles that absorb moisture, making it heavy and sticky. Alt hough difficult to be worked out, are usually very fertile. - Sandy Soil: dry an d loose. The sandy soil dries quickly and does not retain nutrients well. Need m ore maintenance than clay, but initially it is easier to be worked. 2.2 Nutrients Are the elements that plants need in their life processes. They are divided into macronutrients and micronutrients. 2.2.1 Macronutrients Are those required in large quantities: C-carbon Hhidrogênio, O-oxygen, N-nitrog en, P-phosphorus-potassium K, Ca-calcium, magnesium and Mg-S-sulfur. 2.2.2 Micronutrients

Are those required in small quantities: Cl-chloro, Fe-iron-copper Cu, Zn-zinc-ma nganese Mn, boron B-, Mo-Mo-Co and cobalt. 8 2.3 Soil pH Is related to the acidity index, varying according to the following scale: 0 ------------------------------ 7 --- ------------------------------- 14 acidic pH neutral alkaline pH Each plant species has a range of soil pH at which its development is great. In general, one can say that most plants prefer soils with pH level of 4.0 to 7.5. 2.4 Lime It is a practice of soil fertility management which involves the application of lime, in order to eliminate or minimize the harmful effects of acidity and suppl y calcium and magnesium for plants. Limestone types: - calcite: are calcium, mag nesium -: have magnesium - dolomitic have calcium and magnesium. Season setting: The setting must be made 60-90 days before planting. This period is necessary s o that soil acidity is corrected, leaving the soil suitable for plant growth. 9 The dosage to be applied depends on soil type and chemical analysis of the same, made in the laboratory. Lime application: Depending on the area, you can make t he application of lime manual or mechanical. The manual distribution is made to haul and must try to spread as evenly as possible. The distribution is done by m echanical tensile mechanical centrifugal distributor. Incorporation of lime: the limestone should be incorporated to a depth of 15-20 cm. The merger must be uni form for optimum efficiency of limestone. The incorporation may be done by diski ng or manually using hoes. 2.5 Fertilization Consists of the incorporation of nutrients to the soil in order to improve its q uality. There are different types of fertilizer nutrients providers: a) fertiliz ers or mineral fertilizers simple: they can be classified as follows: Nitrogen: contain nitrogen (N), which acts on plant growth. Eg ammonium sulfate, urea, nit rate and nitrates of Chile in general. Phosphatic contain phosphorus (P), which operates in root growth, plant growth, flowering and fruiting. Eg superphosphate and triple superphosphate. Potassium: contain potassium (K), which operates in the production of flowers as well as plant resistance to the onset of disease. E g potassium chloride, potassium sulfate. 10 b) fertilizers or mixed fertilizers: those resulting from combining two or more fertilizer (nitrogen, phosphate and potassium). Are represented by the letter sy mbol of each element, the most common being the NPK (nitrogen, phosphorus and po tassium), percentage in the formulations: 4-14-8, 10-10-10 and 20-5-20. Note: Th ere are some fertilizer on the market sold in liquid form. c) Fertilizers or org anic fertilizers: they can be of plant or animal containing one or more nutrient s. Eg bone meal, blood meal, vegetable pies (soybean, cotton, rapeseed, sunflowe r or peanut), cattle manure, chicken manure and earthworm. d) organic compound: formed by the decomposition of plant material like weeds, straw, leaves, garden debris, lawn debris, kitchen scraps, manure and even several gray. • Preparation of organic compound 1. Plant material pile up in stacks of trapezoidal section, inserting a layer of plant debris with a thin layer of material inoculant (manure), taking care to w et each layer. The battery should provide about 3.0 m wide at the base less than

1.5 m high and variable length according to material availability. 2. Always ke ep the material moist, watering it at least once a week. 3. Every 15-20 days, ch op and stir the material forming a new pile. 11th 4. Ninety days or so, the material will be tanned and turned into organic matter . The final product should be dark, be rich in humus, moldable when pressed betw een your hands, smell of earth and low temperature inside the mound. SOIL PREPARATION 3 3.1 Cleaning Conduct weeding, taking care to remove radically invasive species, particularly purple nutsedge, taking care not to cut only, but also eliminate the roots. Remo ve construction debris, rubble, rocks, etc.. 3.2 Ants Check for nests in the area to be landscaped. If found, should be abolished. The use of chemicals must be performed by a specialist. 3.3 Scarification Is to dig the soil over its entire surface to a depth of 20-30 cm, with care tak en to undo the clods and the soil well and let loose. 12 3.4 Leveling The surface level of the land must be set and adjusted according to levels of bu ildings and roads existing or projected. Consider the need for disposal of rainw ater, thus preventing the formation of puddles or flooding of some areas of the site. 3.5 Beds / Caves In preparing the soil for planting, you can make pits, beds or ridges, depending on species and purpose. For the planting of trees and palms, it is recommended opening holes of dimensions 60x60x60 cm, while for the planting of shrubs, bushe s and creepers, the pits should have dimensions 40x40x40 cm. For the planting of riveted and herbaceous species, usually is the preparation of flower beds, and these are then small open pits with the help of garden hoe or shovel. For the fo rmation of hedges, we recommend the opening of furrows, as the planting space is greatly reduced. Ground removal of graves should be mixing the lime, manure and fertilizer (superphosphate). This mixture should be replaced in the pit or groo ve and leave for 10-15 days. Only then do the planting. 13 4.1 Recommendation 4 FERTILIZATION fertilizer to planting holes and beds a) Ornamental tree and shrub a.1) Covas in the dimensions of 60x60x60 cm - Limes tone: according to soil analysis. - Organic matter: compost or manure: 20 liters / den; chicken manure: 5 liters / tree - phosphate fertilizers: 1500 g / tree o f rock phosphate or bone meal. - Mineral fertilizers: after fixation of the seed lings, apply 200 g / pit mix NPK (4-14-8 + Zn). a.2) Covas in the dimensions of 40x40x40 cm - Limestone: according to soil analysis. - Organic matter: compost o r manure: 12 liters / den;€poultry manure: 3 liters / tree - Phosphate Fertilize r: 900 g / tree of rock phosphate or bone meal. - Mineral fertilizers: after fix ation of the seedlings, apply 120 g / pit mix NPK (4-14-8 + Zn). b) ornamental f lowerbeds - Limestone: according to soil analysis. - Organic matter: compost or manure 200 g/m2, 60 g/m2 chicken manure. 14

- Phosphate Fertilizer: superphosphate: 50 g/m2 - Mineral fertilizers: NPK mixtu re (4-14-8 + Zn): 50 g/m2 During the rainy season, apply 10 g urea dissolved in 20 liters of water per m2 the plot. 4.2 Fertilization replacement (maintenance) Recommendations: Trees and shrubs well developed: 300 g / plant a mixture of NPK (10:10:10, 4; 14:8, etc.). In the rainy season. Apply the fertilizer in the who le area of crown projection, if possible, incorporated and irrigating. Grassland s: 50 g/m2 of the same mixture before (NPK), twice during the spring / summer. F lowerbed: 50 g/m2 one of the formulations, twice during the spring / summer. App ly broadcast, incorporate and irrigate. 5 PLANTING 01.05 Trees, bushes and palm trees To plant trees, shrubs and palms, and even some ornamental plants of larger size , proceed as follows: • In the grave already prepared, cut a hole the size of changes; 15 • • • Remove the sapling of packaging (tin, basket, plastic bag), trimming the roots i f necessary; Put the changes with the lump in the pit; Arrive earth around the r oot ball, punching it to make changes is firm and that there is a contact higher in the land of turf and earth from the grave; • The boundary between the roots and trunk of the seedling (neck) should be noted, never burying others, not letting the roots appear. Do not tighten the lap of c hanges; • Watering the seedlings and newly planted; Note: sowing, forming a sort of bowl a round the seedlings to facilitate irrigation. • Place a tutor (wood or bamboo) next to the changes and ensure that the amarrio w ith rubber strips in the eight-bed; • • If possible, place straw or dry grass on the surface of the pit, around the seed lings to retain moisture; When you do the planting in dry times, wet the bottom of the hole before putting the changes. 5.2 Planting in beds • After proper preparation of the beds, distribute the seed lings on their surfaces, following the proper spacing for each species; • Open pits small (proportional to the cubes); 16

• Remove the packaging of seedlings and plant them in open pits, complete with earth around and making the necessary pressure for change is firm; • Take care to leave the stem of each plant at ground level, conveniently • Spri nkle the freshly planted flower bed. 5.3 Planting in pots • In bib, pots, cement or ceramic, place a thin layer of gravel at the bottom to facilitate drainage. The pipe or drainage hole must always be clear; • There must be a proportionality between the size of species to be used and ornamental vase or planter. • Substrate for filling pots, should also be of good quality. Always use a mixture with a good proportion of organic matte r; • For gardeners, the plants should be planted to obey the proper spacing. In the case of vessels, opening a hole in the middle of the substrate and introduce the changes there. Gramado 05/04 A lawn uniform, well-formed and beautiful plantation depends on a proper and fre quent maintenance. The formation of a lawn can be by irregular plates, carpets, individual seedlings, plugs or seed. 17 The formation of a lawn by boards or mats is the fastest in the use of seedlings and seeds. Soil preparation is crucial, and must appear in large areas, plowing , harrowing, lump breaking, raking and leveling. In small areas, a soil scarific ation may be sufficient. The planting of boards or mats is performed by the juxt aposition of these units one by one, then you should punch them and do resurfaci ng with a mixture of sand / soil or just sand. Irrigation should be plentiful af ter planting and in subsequent months, until the complete formation of the lawn. GROUP OF 6 PLANTS From the standpoint of landscape / ornamental plants can be divided into the fol lowing groups: 6.1 Tree Constitutes all woody plant species of adult size, taller than 4-5 meters. Gener ally do not have forks that start at the stem base. Main functions: • Protect from strong winds 18 • Protect the privacy noises • Give particular place • Provide shade • Contribut ing to the aesthetic aspects of the landscape. Trees can be divided into small, medium and large.€Examples of small trees Commo n name Flamboyant Ipe-Mite-Mite Grevilha dwarf Manacá-spectacled Manacá smell-of -Scientific name Grevillea banksii Caesalpinia pulcherrima Tecoma stans Tibouchi na mutabilis Brunfelsia uniflora Examples of trees Common name Aroeira medium carrot, willow-Mexican Bauhinia tre es, Nail-the-cow hat sunset, seven-tops Weeping bottle-brush Examples of large t rees Common name Araucaria, Pinheiro-do Chestnut-the-Parana-Para Scientific name Eucalyptus sibipiruna Tipuana Bertholletia excelsa Araucaria angustifolia Eucal yptus spp. Caesalpinia peltophoroides Tipuana tipu Scientific name Schinus molle

Bauhinia variegata Terminalia catappa Callistemon viminalis Salix babylonica 19 6.2 Palmeiras Represents species whose trunk is a trunk (single or multiple), surmounted by a capital of leaves. Examples of palm common name of Coco-Palm-Bay manageable Impe rial Royal Palm Cariota Examples palm shadow Common name Dypsis lutescens Areca triandra-Palm-rápis False palm Scientific Name Dypsis lutescens Areca triandra R hapis humilis Phoenix canariensis Scientific Name Cocos nucifera romanzoffiana S yagrus oleracea Roystonea regia Roystonea Caryota mitis 6.3 Shrubs It's all woody plant species branched from the base, with an average height of u p to 4 m high. As for brightness, there are bushes in full sun, half shade and s hadow. 20 Examples of Common name Acalifa Azalea bushes Bico-de-parrot Buxinho Croton Scie ntific Name Rhododendron indicum Acalypha wilkesiana Euphorbia pulcherrima Buxus sempervirens Codiaeum variegatum 6.4 Bindweed It's all plant species of herbaceous or semi-hardwood stems that need support to develop. As their growth can be driven, vines are often used to form hedges, en vironmental separation, coating walls or walls, formation of pergolas, arches an d trusses. They can be: - Fickle: when you scroll to the bottom in the holder, h aving no other type of setting, so can not climb walls or wall by itself, requir ing a suitable - Canes: When have means of attachment, as tendril, curved spines , adventitious roots, etc.. Can get into almost any kind of support - Vines: Do not have any type of body mounting and neither are fickle. They have rigid stalk s, which can rise several meters without support, until they bend by its own wei ght on some support. - Trailing: The plants are more shrubs than in open areas, shrub form. When planted near a support, its branches and apóiamse that reach se veral feet high. 21 Examples of creeping common name Love-agarradinho Bougainvillea, spring jacks-of -Earring Princess Liana-grape-cat's claw, herinha, fake ivy-Scientific name Anti gonon leptopus Bougainvillea spp. Fuchsia hybrida Cissus rhombifolia Ficus pumil a 6.5 Linings Plant species are used to promote soil cover. The carpetings are also herbaceous plants, used to coat the ground, with the difference that do not support the tr ampling, such as lawns. Example carpetings Common name Peanut-crawling Bluey, da isy, cineraria evólvulos Cactus Grass-black-tail cat, creeping acalifa-Maria-sha meless kiss-Turkish Scientific name Arachis repens Evolvulus glomeratus Lamprant hus productus Senecio douglasii Ophiopogon japonicus Acalypha reptans Impatiens wallerian 6.6 Grasslands Lawns, in particular, are almost always 60-80% of the gardens. The species of gr ass, in general, require full sun or half-light to develop well. 22 Examples of grass-lawns Common name Batatais Korean Grass Emerald Grass-Grass-sa

int-augustine grass-is-carlos Scientific name Paspalum notatum Zoysia japonica Z oysia tenuifolia Stenotaphrum secundatum Axonopus compressus 6.7 floriferous Are plants whose dominant feature is the emission of showy flowers, coloring the basic environment created by vegetation. May be annual, biannual, or in some ca ses, perennials. Examples of Common Name flowering Pansy kalanchoe Belladonna Li ly Margaret Hemerocalis, lily-of-are-josé Scientific name Viola tricolor Kalanch oe blossfeldiana Amaryllis belladonna Chrysanthemum leucanthemum Hemerocallis fl ava 6.8 Leaves Species are herbaceous, sometimes subshrubs or shrubs, forming at specific garde ns. The dominant feature in this case are the leaves, with their shapes, colors and textures. 23 Examples of Leaves Common name Calata silver philodendron Incense, candle plant Maranta-Rattlesnake Boa Calathea aegyraea Philodendron Scientific Name renauxii Plectranthus Coleoidea Scindapsus aureus Calathea insignis 6.9 Plants entoucerantes Are species that€because of its vigorous growth, form clumps that can then in a propagation phase, be split and form new clumps. Examples of plants entoucerante s Common Name Bamboo-of-garden bambuzinho Estrelítzia, flower, bird of paradise Heliconia bicolor parrot Moreia-Papyrus-of-egypt Scientific Name Bambusa gracili s Strelitzia reginae Heliconia psittacorum Dietes bicolor Cyperus papyrus 6:10 Aquatic plants Examples of aquatic plants Common name Water hyacinth, Papudo Lotus, lotus-clove s-blue water lily, lily Victoria amazonica Taboa Scientific Name Eichhornia cras sipes Nelumbo nucifera Nymphaea caerulea Victoria amazonica Typha domingensis 24 6:11 Poisonous plants Examples of poisonous plants common name Alamanda Potato-the-hell-of-Beak parrot Buxinho Me-nobody-can crown-of-christ Croton oleander Sharp-tailed Ibis Scienti fic Name Allamanda cathartica Jathrofa podagrica Buxus sempervirens Euphorbia pu lcherrima Euphorbia milli Dieffenbachia amoena Codieaeum Nerium oleander variega tum Brugmansia Part toxic arborea Flower and leaf Every plant leaf and stem Late x Sheet Latex Plant Seed All Seed PLANT PROPAGATION 7 7.1 Multiplication by seeds The use of seeds is the main method of propagation of annuals and biennials. The seeds are placed in the substrate itself, buried at a depth of twice your size and then irrigated using light jet through fine sieve. Germination occurs best a t temperatures between 20-24 0C. Some examples of plants propagated by seeds: Co mmon name Boca dandelion Ardisia Booties daisy-de-venus Scientific name Antirrhi num majus Ardisia crenata Bellis perennis Calceolaria herbeohybrida 25 Cockscomb Cuféia, Erica Cyclamen Celosia cristata Cuphea gracilis cyclam persicum 7.2 Multiplication by cuttings (cuttings) The propagation by cuttings, is that which uses a portion of the branch with one

or more sheets, or directly through a sheet. This is one of the systems used to spread more because the plants obtained by this method are identical to the par ent plant. As the plant part used, can differentiate into woody cuttings, softwo od, leaf and herbs. Examples of some species propagated by cuttings: Common name Anthurium Spring Pingo jacks-of-Ivy Gold African Violet Azalea Calancoê cinerar ia Scientific name Anthurium andraeanum Bougainvillea spectabilis Duranta repens var. aurea Hedera helix Kalanchoe blassfeldiana Rhododendro x simsii Saintpauli a ionantha Senecio douglasii 7.3 Multiplication by layering Layering is a process of multiplication of plants by inducing a business to send roots while still attached to the plant. For this, layers are made, where they are placed on substrates conditioned to induce root formation in this area. At t he site of layering is to be 26 removed the shell, so that it is a ring around the branch. For root, it uses the very moist sphagnum, which is applied around the ring. Examples of plants that are propagated by layering: Common Name Conga Dracena-Malaysian North-Star-of La ttice-jade-star Jasmine Scientific Name Congea tomentosa Pleomele reflex Randia formosa Strongylodon macrobotrys Trachelospermum jasminoides 7.4 Multiplication by layering The layer is a variation of layering. Curves to the branch to the substrate wher e it should entrench. Examples of some species propagated by layering: Common na me-agarradinho Love Sponge Scientific Name Camellia Madagascar Antiogonon leptop us Calliandra brevipes Camelia japonica Quisqualis indicates 7.5 Multiplication by grafting This is a method of multiplication that uses two different copies of changes to training, the first, calling horse or rootstock, forms the root, the second is t hat Knight or graft itself, result in part air. 27 Some examples of plants propagated by grafting: Common Name Rose Rose-vine Frees ia Scientific Name Rosa Rosa x grandiflora x wichuraiana Freesia x hybrida 7.6 Division of clumps The multiplication by division of clumps is made breaking up a single individual to obtain other characteristics, removing the cuttings. Some examples of plants propagated by division of clumps: Common Name Bamboo-of-garden-Moreia bicolor B all-of-snow-Mexican Blue Grass Scientific name Heliconia gracilis Bambusa Dietes bicolor Festuca glauca Echeveria elegans Heliconia angusta copies of the same 7.7 Multiplication by bulbs The plants with bulbs multiply through this material and bulbs that are formed l ateral to the parent bulb. These bulblets are removed and planted again, becomin g normal bulbs,€intended for permanent planting. 28 Examples of some plants multiplied by bulbs: Common name, belladonna lily, amary llis Caládio Gladiolus Glass-nursing scientific name Amaryllis belladonna Caladi um Gladiolus x grandiflorus hortulanum Zantedeschia aethiopica 7.8 Multiplication by rhizomes Rhizomes are underground stems, endowed with reserves, with us, buds and scales. Are more or less cylindrical and grow laterally forming clump. Plants rhizomato

us perennial or may be going through a period of rest. Are multiplied tearing up the clump and separating it by parts. The rest are torn and divided that stage. Examples of plants propagated by rhizomes: Common Name Scientific Name Glorious Glorious Lotus Iris Iris germanica rothschildiana Nelumbo nucifera 7.9 Multiplication by spores It is made in species such as ferns, fern and income-Portuguese, in their leafle ts showing rust-colored structures called serum, which contain spores. In the ri ght conditions, these structures germinate, allowing the reproduction of these p lants. 29 7:10 buds) Multiply by lateral shoots (pups, Some species emit buds, which allows propagate them only by the separation of th e shoots. Examples of plants propagated by buds: Common Name Margaret Anthurium Bromélia Agave Scientific Name Crysanthemum leucanthemum Anthurium andraeanum Ne oregelia carolinae American Agave 8 TOOLS AND EQUIPMENT To be able to keep your garden looking good, some care is necessary, both during deployment and in the maintenance phase. These precautions include the use of e quipment / tools for each specific activity to be performed. 8.1 Equipment needed: - Hoe - mattock - Man-of-garden - Moulton 30 - Sickle - Pitchfork - Shovel-right - scarifier - Rake - Watering - Pruning - Kn ife - Barrow - Spoon transplant, etc. 8.2 Maintenance of equipment • After use, wash the equipment and tools only water, drying well not rust; • Apply engine oil to the instruments that require lubrication; • Store the material in a suitable place (dry, protected from rain and sun); • Tools should be stored in a smaller box. 31 9 GARDEN MAINTENANCE Maintenance consists of all the precautions that should be released to the plant s and the garden as a whole, after the performance. 9.1 Staking In general, new plants should receive a little support, which can be replaced by larger ones, as they grow older. There are several ways to sustain the plants i n a garden, from a simple bamboo stick to sophisticated knits made with wood fra mes or anchors made with various materials. The choice depends on creativity and material availability. 09.02 sprouting

Consists of removing the sprouts "thieves" that arise from lateral buds in seedl ings of existing trees and shrubs and even in adult species, when pruned. It is intended to lead to greater vitality to the main stem. 32 9.3 Prunings Pruning has several late the production rol. Pruning can be type, can stimulate functions. You can use them for aesthetic purposes, to stimu of branches, flowers, fruit and also as a means of pest cont divided into: cleaning, training and driving. Regardless of the production of branches, flowers and fruits.

• Pruning of cleaning: is the removal of old branches, broken and / or patients. • Pruning of training: aims to give the plant, or a set of plants, a basic form. • Pruning driving: a guide aimed at a certain plant sense and on a pedestal. Examples: Roses: must be drastically pruned in winter, leaving only the trunk with the branches of the previous year, each with one or two buds. In the spring / summer, it is important to cut the flowers / clusters which have already withered because they wear the plant. Azaleas: pruning commit ted to next year's bloom, because they only bloom in apical branches, born in th e year. If pruning is required, you should do it after flowering, before the new shoots to develop. 33 Climbers: pruning can be made to conduct classes in the desired direction, turn some shrub species (eg roses), induce flowering, and even reduce the size / volu me. 9.4 Fields / Fighting weeds Aims to remove invasive species of the flower beds or lawn. Can be done manually or with tools like "hoe" or Firmino (INCO). Weed is one little plant that grows where you do not normally want to have it. Are they ever compete for light, wat er and all nutrients found in soil,€besides being very conducive to the emergenc e of diseases and pests. Methods to control one. In groups of plants grown in cl ose proximity, the better control of weeds is to start them manually. 2. Annual weeds should be removed with the aid of a spade, removing them. 3. In large area s, weeds can be eliminated through the use of animal traction planters. 4. Anoth er method of controlling weeds is the use of herbicides, but these should always be used with the aid of an expert. 34 9.5 Soil Scarification Is to break down and dig the soil, releasing it, in order to facilitate aeration and drainage. It can be done with the hoe, or even with small garden tools in t he case of small areas. 9.6 Planting and replanting Is the introduction of new species in the garden, in the replacement of some who , perchance, have died, and the replanting of those who entouceram much, comprom ising form and flowering. 9.7 Irrigation The best criterion for irrigation is observation. There is a need for water for each type / group of plants for each season. The water should be supplied whenev

er the soil starts to dry. 10 FIGHTING PESTS AND DISEASES One should periodically inspect the garden, intended to detect the presence of p ests and / or diseases. It must be noted that when it comes to pests, are you re ferring to the enemy of plant origin (aphids, caterpillars, 35 scale insects, etc.)., and diseases of plants when the enemy is from another sou rce (fungi, viruses and bacteria). 1.10 Pests The pest control can be both preventive as direct action, by the application of pesticides. Another possibility is the use of alternative pesticides, house-made , almost nothing toxic and have been quite effective in pest control. a) Ants: s pecies considered pests in gardens and orchards are made by cutting ants: ants a nd quenquéns. There is also an effective way of controlling ants naturally. The toxic baits (insecticides) are the most efficient on the market, easy to apply, slightly toxic to humans and affordable. Its use must be carefully followed the instructions on the label. It should also respect the indication of bait for ama teur gardening and agriculture. The latter can not be used in urban areas. b) Sl ugs and Snails: usually attack at night, sticking and devouring leaves, stems an d buds, but also can reach the roots underground. Tips: beetles and birds are th eir natural predators. A good way to eliminate them is to use traps made with "b eer bait" to attract them. How to do: take the lid off a can of oil and bury it 36 leaving the opening at ground level. Put in a little beer mixed with salt. Slugs and snails can fall in attracted by the beer and die by the dehydrated salt. c) Mites: like little red spiders, being of microscopic size. The sign that the pl ant is under attack is the appearance of tiny silvery webs on the underside of l eaves. All of them can kill your plants, but leave the leaves stained and warped . d) Aphids: can be black, brown, gray and even green. Alojamse the more tender leaves, buds and stems, sucking the sap and let the leaves yellow and wrinkled. In large quantities can weaken the plant and others to transmit dangerous diseas es. Aphids usually attack mainly plants stems and tender leaves. Need to be cont rolled when they appear, since multiply with great rapidity. Tips: The ladybirds are their natural predators. A cotton swab dipped in a mixture of water and alc ohol in equal parts to help remove the aphids from the leaves. This can be done weekly. It is also recommended the application of mixture of smoke or macerate o f nettle. e) scale insects: they are tiny insects, usually brown or yellow, acco mmodating mainly on lower leaves and in crevices. Besides sucking the sap from t he plant, scale insects release a sticky substance that facilitates the attack o f fungi, in particular, the fungus sooty. 37 Tips: The ladybirds are also their natural predators, and certain types of wasps . The tail of smoke and oil emulsions are very effective natural methods to comb at them. One should avoid the use of chemical control, but when necessary, in ex treme cases, are commonly used mineral oil and organophosphate insecticide. f) F lies-white: these are insects and white. It is not difficult to notice her prese nce: to bump into a plant infested with whiteflies, there is a small flock of ti ny white insects.€Hint: It's hard to eliminate them, so it is often necessary to apply specific insects. When the attack is small, the use of repellent plants as tagetes or marigold (Tagetes sp.), Mint (Mentha sp.), Marigold (Calendula of ficinalis), rue (Ruta graveolens) usually give good results. g) Caterpillars: ea sy to be recognized, the larvae tend to curl up in young leaves and literally ea

t buds, stems and new leaves forming a kind of "web" to protect themselves. Tips : If not submitting a massive attack (when the application is given a biological lagarticida, easily found on the market), the control of caterpillars should be manual, ie they must be removed and destroyed one by one. The mimosa syrup help s to remove the caterpillars and does not harm the plant. The use of repellent p lants such as rue, can help keep them away. Birds and small wasps are their "ene my" natural. h) Bugs: they are better known as "smelly-marias" because exude an unpleasant odor when threatened. His attack 38 often cause the downfall of flowers, leaves and fruits, damaging the new shoots. Tips: wasps are natural predators. Must be removed manually, one by one. If man ual control is not efficient, the tail of smoke can act as a natural repellent. i) tanked: very common in gardens with excessive moisture, are also known as "ar madillo-ball" because they wind up as a ball when touched. Live in hiding and fe ed on leaves, stems and tender shoots, and transmit diseases to plants. Tips: Av oid excessive moisture in pots and planters and must be removed manually and dis carded one by one. j) Nematodes: they are "relatives" of the worms and attack pl ants by the roots. The affected plants have thick roots and full of cracks. In a n intense attack, causing the death of the root system and consequently the plan t. Some plants show signs in their shoots showing symptoms of nematode: dahlias, for example, may have dead spots, pale brown, in older leaves. Tips: the best n atural repellent is planting tagetes (the popular marigold) in the infested area . If the control becomes difficult, you should remove the plant infested garden, to prevent proliferation. 39 2.10 Disease a) Anthracnose: causes the appearance of several white spots with dark red rings over time. The spots become brown. Stains, holes are formed and the leaves fall . Chemical control is done with a sulfur-based sprays. During the growing season , spray weekly with Maneb or zineb. b) Cancer: the fungi penetrate the pruning c uts, node graft or joint injuries tools. Big brown spots appear to move the stem s, reaching the leaves. The control is done with a sulfur-based sprays. c) Tomba mento: they appear when you have high humidity and low temperature. Cause rottin g of the stem near the ground. The control must be preventative with disinfectin g the soil. d) Rust: form powdery spots on the bottoms of the leaves which then wither and fall, and stems. Stains can be orange, yellow or reddish-brown. The c ontrol is done with sprays of sulfur, Maneb or Zineb. e) powdery mildew: the att ack is done in new parts of the plant, forming brown spots covered by a white or gray. The leaves curl and dry. The chemical control should be, based on sulfur. 40 f) Gray mold: the plan featured on the stems, leaves, shoots and buds a brownish gray mold. Chemical control is done by spraying Zineb. g) Powdery mildew: the p lant has bright spots, whitish, powdery appearance (talc), more or less rounded on both sides of leaves, shoots and buds. The spots become red and yellow leaves eventually dry up. Control with a sulfur-based products. h) Pt-black: the plant has the leaves all painted with rounded black spots with yellow border, causing leaf fall. It usually occurs in wet weather and is typical of roses. Chemical c ontrol is done by spraying with Dithane and Fermat. i) gall: a plant has a round ed and rough tumor that appears on the stem near the soil level. The attack is d one when the plant suffers injuries. The plant loses vigor and die. Chemical con trol is done with applications of streptomycin powder every two weeks. j) Viruse s: There are several types. Attacked plants usually have yellow stripes on the l eaves, deformations envassouramentos, reductions in growth and production.

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