The word The word philosophy is Greek philosophy. It is composed of two others: philo and sophia.

Philo derives from philia, which means friendship, brotherly l ove, respect among peers. Sophia means wisdom, and it has the word sophos, wise, wisdom means friendship, love and respect for knowledge. Philosopher who loves wisdom, friendship has the know, want to know. Attributed to the Greek philosoph er Pythagoras of Samos the invention of the word philosophy. Pythagoras would ha ve claimed that the full and complete wisdom belongs to the gods, but men may wa nt it or love it, becoming philosophers. Thus, Pythagoras wanted to tell the tru th belongs to no one, it is what we seek and that is before us to contemplate an d view, if we have eyes to see it. Philosophy is Greek Philosophy, understood as the aspiration to rational knowledge, logical and systematic nature of reality and human, origin and causes of the world and its transformations, the origin an d causes of human actions and thought itself, is a fact typically Greek. Philoso phy is a way of thinking and express thoughts that arose specifically with the G reeks and that, for historical and political reasons, became then the mode of th inking and expressing dominant Western European culture of the call which, due P ortuguese colonization of Brazil, we also participate. Through philosophy, the G reeks introduced to the West European bases and principles of what we call reaso n, rationality, science, ethics, politics, art, art. Indeed, just observe that w ords such as logic, technical, ethical, political, monarchy, anarchy, democracy, physics, dialogue, biology, chronology and genesis, genealogy, surgery, orthope dics, teaching, pharmacy, among many others, are Greek words for realize the dec isive influence of Greek philosophy and predominantly on the formation of though t and institutions of Western European societies. The legacy of Greek philosophy to Western Europe because of European colonization of the Americas, we are also a part of Western Europe and so we are heirs to the legacy he left the Greek ph ilosophy to Western European thought. This legacy, we can highlight the main con tributions as follows: The idea that Nature operates in obedience to laws and principles and universal, that is the same everywhere and at all times. The id ea that the laws necessary and universal in nature can be fully understood by ou r thinking. The idea that our thoughts also operates obeying laws, rules and u niversal and necessary, according to which we can distinguish true from false. The idea that human practices, that is, moral action, politics, art and the art s depend on free will, deliberation and discussion, we choose rational or emotio nal, our preferences, according to certain values and standards, which were esta blished by human beings themselves and not by charges mysterious and incomprehensible, that would have been made by secret for ces, invisible, whether divine or natural, and impossible to be known. The ide a that natural events and human resources are needed, but obey the laws of natur e or human nature, but also may be contingent or accidental, when depend on the choices and decisions of men, under certain conditions. The idea that humans, by nature, aspiring to true knowledge, happiness, justice, namely that human bei ngs do not live and act blindly, but create the values which give meaning to the ir lives and their actions . Philosophy emerges, then, when some Greeks admired and amazed by the fact, dissatisfied with the explanation that the tradition had given them, began to ask questions and seek answers to them, demonstrating that the world and human beings, events and Things of Nature, events and human actio ns may be known by human reason and that reason itself is able to know herself. In short, the philosophy arises when we discovered the truth of the world and hu mans was not something secret and mysterious, that needed to be revealed by a fe w chosen deities, but instead could be known by all, through reason, which is th e same in all, when it was discovered that such knowledge depends on the correct use of reason or thought and that, but the truth can be known by all, could the same reason, be taught or communicated to all. What to ask the first philosophe rs Why beings are born and die? Why are different also seem to appear different: on the night seems to be born,€Winter seems to bring up the spring, a dark obje ct brightens with the passing of time, a light object darkens over time? Why doe s everything change? The child becomes an adult, mature, age and disappears. Why the disease invades the bodies, steal their color, strength? Why is the food th

at I liked before, now I'm sick, I cause disgust? Why is the music that lulled m e before, now I'm sick, it seems unbearable noise? Questions such as these, plus many others who made the first philosophers and they sought answers. Undoubtedl y, religion, traditions and myths explained all these things, but their explanat ions have not satisfied those who wondered about the causes of change, permanenc e, repetition, and the disappearance of a resurgence of all beings. Had lost the ir explanatory power, not convinced nor satisfied the one who wanted to know the truth about the world. The Birth of Philosophy Philosophy Historians say she ha s a time and place of birth: the late seventh and early sixth century BC, the Gr eek colonies of forming a region called Ionia, the city of Miletus. And the firs t philosopher was Thales of Miletus. Besides having a time and place of birth an d own their first author, philosophy also has a precise content at birth: it is a cosmology. For a long time, it was felt that philosophy was born transformations that the G reeks operated in Eastern wisdom. The Greeks, they said, merchant and seafaring people, they discovered, through travel, the mensuration of Egyptian agriculture , astrology of the Chaldeans and Babylonians (used to predict major wars, rise a nd fall of kings, disasters such as plague, famine, hurricanes ), the genealogie s of the Persians (used to continue the lineages and dynasties of rulers), the m ysteries of Eastern religious rituals concerning purification of the soul (to ri d it of continuous reincarnation and assure him eternal rest, etc.). Philosophy was born by the transformations that the Greeks imposed thereto. Thus, surveying the Greeks gave birth to two sciences: arithmetic and geometry, astrology, also have raised two sciences: astronomy and meteorology; of genealogies, have creat ed yet another science: the history, the mysteries of religious purification the soul, have raised philosophical theories about the nature and destiny of the hu man soul. All this knowledge would have allowed for the emergence of philosophy, ie, cosmology, so that philosophy could only have born thanks to know oriental. However, not everyone accepted the thesis called "orientalist" and many, partic ularly in the nineteenth century of our era, began to speak in philosophy as the "Greek miracle". With the word "miracle" meant several things: that philosoph y came unexpectedly and astonishingly in Greece, with nothing prior to prepare; that Greek philosophy was a spontaneous event, unique and unparalleled, as is proper for a miracle ; that the Greeks were a people of exception, no other li ke them, either before or after them, so they could have only been able to creat e the philosophy, they were the only ones to create science and the arts an elev ation that no other people did, either before or after them. Neither east nor mi racle since the late nineteenth century of our era and during the twentieth cent ury, historical, archaeological, linguistic, literary and artistic corrected the excesses of the two papers, ie, both the reduction of philosophy to its Eastern origin, as the "Greek miracle". Thus, recent studies have shown that myths, rel igious services, musical instruments, dance, music, poetry, household and work, housing forms, forms of kinship and tribal forms of organization of the Greeks w ere the result of deep contacts with cultures more advanced in the East and the legacy left by cultures that preceded the Greek, in regions where it is deployed . These same studies showed, however, that if we walk away from exaggeration of the idea of a "Greek miracle" we can see what was true in this thesis. In fact, the Greek printed quality changes as profound as received from the East and the previous crop, which would seem to have created their own culture from themselve s. These changes, we can mention four that will give us an idea of the original Greek: 1. Regarding the myths: a comparison between Eastern myths, Cretans, Myce naeans, Minoans and those who appear to poets Homer and Hesiod, we see that they removed the terrifying and monstrous aspects of the gods and the beginning of t he world; humanized the gods,€deified men, gave the rationale narratives about t he origins of things, men, human institutions such as labor, laws and morals; 2. With respect to knowledge: the Greeks turned to science what were the element s of a practical wisdom for direct use in life. 3. With respect to social and po litical organization: the Greeks not only invented the science or philosophy, bu

t also invented politics. All societies before they knew and practiced the autho rity and government. 4. With regard to thinking: facing the inheritance from the Greeks invented the Western idea of reason as a systematic thought that follows rules and regulations and laws of universal value. Historical conditions for th e emergence of the philosophy that made possible the emergence of philosophy in Greece in the late seventh century and early sixth century before Christ? What a re the material conditions, ie economic, social, political and historical that a llowed the emergence of philosophy? We can point to as major historical conditio ns for the emergence of philosophy in Greece sea journeys, the invention of the calendar, the invention of currency, the emergence of urban life, the invention of alphabetic writing, and the invention of politics, which introduces three new aspects and decisive for the birth of philosophy: 1. The idea of law as an expr ession of the will of a human community that decides for itself what is best for you and how it will define its internal relations. The appearance legislated an d regulated in the city - the polis will serve as a model for philosophy to prop ose the aspect legislated, regulated and orderly world as a rational world. 2. T he emergence of a public space, which brings up a new type of word or speech, ot her than that which was delivered by myth. In this, a poet-seer, who received th e goddesses connected to memory a mysterious lighting or a supernatural revelati on, told men what were the decisions of the gods that they should obey. 3. The p olicy encourages a thought and discourse that does not seek to be made by secret sects of the initiated into the sacred mysteries, but seek, instead, be public, taught, transmitted, reported and discussed. The idea of thinking that everyone can understand and discuss, everyone can communicate and transmit, is fundament al to philosophy. Main features of the nascent Philosophy Philosophical thought in its birth had as main features the tendency to rationality, a tendency to off er conclusive answers to problems, requiring that the thought presents its opera ting rules, refusal to explain and pre-established tendency to generalize. Perio ds of Greek Philosophy The history of Greece is usually divided by historians in to four main phases or periods: Homeric Greece, Ancient Greece, Classical Greece and the Hellenistic period. Periods of philosophy does not correspond exactly t o those times, since it does not exist in Homeric Greece and only appears in the middle of archaic Greece. However, the heyday of Philosophy happens during the heyday of Greek culture and society, so in classical Greece. The four major periods of Greek philosophy, in which your content changes and en riches itself, are: pre-Socratic Period or cosmological or anthropological Socra tic Period, and Period Hellenistic Period systematic or Greco-Roman. Greek philo sophy can be seen that the first two periods of Greek philosophy have in the phi losopher Socrates of Athens, where the division in philosophy pre-Socratic and S ocratic. Pre-Socratic or cosmological The main pre-Socratic philosophers were: School Ionian philosophers: Thales of Miletus, Anaximenes of Miletus, Anaximand er of Miletus and Heraclitus of Ephesus; School Italic philosophers: Pythagora s of Samos and Crotona Philolaus Archytas of Tarentum; Eleatic school of philo sophers: Parmenides and Zeno of Elea; philosophers of the School of Plurality: Empedocles of Agrigento, Clazômena Anaxagoras, and Leucippus of Abdera Democrit us of Abdera. The main features of cosmology are: It is a rational and systema tic explanation of the origin, order and transformation of nature, which humans belong, so that, in explaining the nature, philosophy also explains the origin a nd changes human beings. States that there is no creation. It states that al though the physis (the primary element eternal) is imperishable, it gives rise t o all beings infinitely varied and different world, beings who, unlike the gener ative principle, are perishable or death. It states that all beings, besides b eing generated and being mortal,€beings are in continuous transformation, shifti ng and changing quality and quantity. So the world is changing continually, with out losing its shape, order and stability. Socratic period or anthropological Wi th the development of cities, trade, crafts and arts military, Athens became the center of social life, politics and culture of Greece, living its period of spl endor, known as the Age of Pericles. At this time the Greek democracy had, among others, two features of great importance for the future of philosophy: affirmed

the equality of all adult men before the law and the right of everyone to parti cipate directly in the city government, the polis, and Secondly, as a consequenc e, democracy, and not by direct election of representatives, all to guarantee pa rticipation in government, and those who participated had the right to express, discuss and defend their opinions in public about the decisions that the city sh ould take. It appeared, therefore, the political figure of the citizen. Now, to get your opinion to be accepted in the assemblies, citizens need to speak and be able to persuade. Thus, a profound change will occur in the Greek education. This change occurs when, to give them such further education, replacing the form er education of poets emerged in Greece, the Sophists, who are the first philoso phers of the Socratic period. They said that the teachings of philosophers, cosm ologists were full of errors and contradictions and that they had no use for the life of the polis. Presented themselves as masters of oratory or rhetoric, clai ming to be possible to teach youngsters the art of persuasion for them to be goo d citizens. The Sophists taught techniques of persuasion to young people who lea rned to defend the position or opinion, upon the position or opinion to the cont rary, non-A, so that in a meeting, they knew to have strong arguments for or aga inst an opinion and win discussion. The philosopher Socrates, considered the pat ron of Philosophy, rebelled against the sophists, saying they were not philosoph ers, because they had no love for wisdom or respect for truth, defending any ide a if this was advantageous. Corrupted the minds of the young, as did the mistake and falsehood be worth as much as the truth. Disagreeing with the ancient poets , ancient philosophers and the sophists, which proposed to Socrates? He proposed that before and want to know the nature before you want to persuade others, eac h one should, first and foremost, getting to know yourself. The phrase "Know thy self" became the motto of Socrates. The picture that has the history of philosop hy of Socrates was traced by his most important student and disciple, the Atheni an philosopher Plato. Socrates asked questions about ideas, about the values on which the Greeks believed that thought and knowledge. Your questions left interl ocutors embarrassed, angry, curious, because when trying to answer the famous "w hat is it?" Discovered with surprise, who could not respond and had never though t about their beliefs, values and ideas. He asked: What are the reasons you have accurate to say what he says and think what you think? What is the rationale of what you say and think? Socrates never wrote. What we know of your thoughts is in the works of his many disciples, and Plato was the most important one. If you meet what this philosopher wrote about the sophists and on Socrates, and the ex posure of their own ideas, we present how general features of the Socratic perio d: The Philosophy turns to human affairs in terms of action, attitudes, ideas , beliefs, values and, therefore, is concerned with moral issues and policies. The starting point of philosophy is trust in thought or in man as a rational be ing, capable of knowing oneself and therefore capable of reflection. How it co mes to meeting the knowledge capacity of man, the concern is to establish proced ures that ensure that we find the truth. Philosophy is focused on defining the moral virtues and political virtues, with the central object of his investigati ons morality and politics. It is the philosophy, therefore, find the definitio n, the concept or the essence of these virtues, in addition to the variety of op inions, in addition to the multiplicity of different and opposing opinions. Ques tions philosophical concern, so the values such as justice, courage, friendship, compa ssion, love, beauty, temperance, prudence, etc.., which represent the ideals of the sage and the true citizen. It is done for the first time,€a radical separa tion between opinion and ideas. The reflection of the thought and work are tak en as an intellectual purification, which allows the human spirit to know the tr uth invisible, immutable, universal and necessary. Beliefs, perceptions and se nsory images are considered false, misleading, changeable, inconsistent, contrad ictory and should be abandoned for that thought follow its own path to true know ledge. The difference between the sophists, on the one hand, and Socrates and Plato on the other, is given by the fact that the sophists accept the validity o

f opinions and sensory perceptions and work with them to produce persuasive argu ments, as Socrates and Plato consider the opinions and perceptions, or images of things, as a source of error, lies and falsehood, imperfect forms of knowledge that never reach the full truth of reality. This period has a systematic period as the main name the philosopher Aristotle, pupil of Plato. Aristotle says that prior knowledge of an object and its form his own field, their own procedures fo r acquisition and exhibition, demonstration and proof, must first know the gener al laws that govern thought, regardless of content that might Tues The study of general forms of thought, without concern for its content, it's called logic, an d Aristotle was the creator of logic as an instrument of knowledge in any field of knowledge. Let us look at the Aristotelian classification: productive scien ce: science that studies the production practices or techniques. They are: archi tecture, economics, medicine, painting, sculpture, poetry, theater, oratory, art of war, hunting, boating, etc.. In short, all human activities and artistic tec hniques that result in a product or a construction site. Practical Sciences: s ciences that study human practices as actions that have in themselves their own end. These are: ethics and politics. theoretical science, contemplative or the oretical: are those who study things that exist independently of men and their a ctions and that has not been done by men, can only be addressed by them, such as : physics, biology, meteorology, psychology, mathematics, astronomy, metaphysics and theology. From the Aristotelian classification, it was decided, over the ce nturies, the large field of philosophical inquiry, a field it would only be undo ne in the nineteenth century of our era, when the special sciences if they were separated from the trunk's general philosophy. So we can say that the fields of philosophical inquiry are three: 1. The knowledge of the ultimate reality of all beings, or the essence of all reality. (Which, in the language of Aristotle, wa s formed with metaphysics and theology). 2. The knowledge of human actions or values and purposes of human action: the ac tions that have in themselves their purpose, ethics and politics and the actions that have their purpose in a product or a work: the art and the arts and their values (utility, beauty, etc.).. 3. The knowledge of the human capacity to know, that is, knowledge of own thinking on exercise. Here are distinguished: the log ic, theory of knowledge and scientific knowledge. Hellenistic Period This is the last period of ancient philosophy, when the Greek polis as a political center h as disappeared and is no longer the main reference of the philosophers, since Gr eece is under the power of the Roman Empire. Philosophers say now that the world is your city and who are citizens of world.This period is called the Philosophy cosmopolitan. Philosophy in History Like all other creations and human institut ions, is at the Philosophy and History has a story. And by being in history and have a history, philosophy is usually presented in great periods that follow, so metimes more closely, sometimes more distant, periods in which historians divide the history of western society. The main periods of Philosophy Philosophy (sixt h century BC to sixth century AD) comprises the four major periods of Greco-Roma n philosophy, going from the Presocratics to the major systems of the Hellenisti c period, mentioned in the previous chapter. Philosophy (first century to the se venth century) begins with the Epistles of St. Paul and the Gospel of St. John a nd ends in the eighth century, when it began to Medieval Philosophy. Philosophy (eighth century to the fourteenth century) covers European thinkers, Arabs and J ews. The Medieval philosophy had major influences as Plato and Aristotle. Philos ophy (fourteenth century to the sixteenth century) is marked by the discovery of unknown works of Plato in the Middle Ages€new works of Aristotle and the recove ry of the works of great authors and artists Greeks and Romans. Philosophy (seve nteenth century to the mid-eighteenth century) period marked by three major inte llectual changes: the modern renaissance medieval ancient patristic 1. That known as the "emergence of the subject of knowledge", which has as its s tarting point the subject of knowledge as reflective self-awareness, ie, as cons ciousness that knows his ability to know. 2. The second major intellectual shift from modern concerns the object of knowledge. For the modern, outward things (n

ature, social life and politics) can be known if they are considered representat ions, ie ideas or concepts expressed by the subject of knowledge. 3. The third m ajor change was the modern intellectual concept of reality from that of Galileo, is conceived as a rational system of physical mechanisms, whose deep structure is invisible and mathematics. Philosophy of the Enlightenment or Enlightenment (Mid-eighteenth century to the early nineteenth century) This period also believ es in the powers of reason, called Lights (hence, the name of Enlightenment). Th e Enlightenment says: the reason, man can achieve freedom and happiness and so cial policy; reason is capable of evolution and progress, and man is a being w ho can free themselves from religious prejudices, social and moral, thanks knowl edge, science, art and morality; improving the reason is held by the progress of civilization, ranging from the wildest of Western Europe; no difference bet ween nature and civilization, that is, Nature is the realm the necessary relatio ns of cause and effect of natural laws or universal and unchanging, while civili zation is the realm of freedom and purpose proposed by the free will of men them selves, in their moral improvement, technical and political. Contemporary philos ophy encompasses the philosophical thought that runs from mid-nineteenth century and reaches the present day. This period, for being the closest to us, seems to be the most complex and difficult to define, because the differences between th e various philosophies or philosophical views seem very big because we are seein g emerge before us. The nineteenth century is, in philosophy, the great century of discovery of history or historicity of man, society, sciences and arts. It cr eated the idea of progress, that human beings, societies, sciences, arts and tec hniques improve over time, accumulate knowledge and practices, improving itself increasingly, so this is better and superior as compared to the past and the fut ure will be better and higher, compared to the present. The science and techniqu es in the nineteenth century, excited about the sciences and technologies, as we ll as with the Second Industrial Revolution, Philosophy affirmed the full and to tal confidence in scientific knowledge and technology to dominate and control na ture, society and individuals. It was believed that sociology, for example, we o ffer a safe and definitive knowledge on how to run companies and that humans cou ld rationally organize the society, avoiding revolutions, upheavals and inequali ties. It was believed also that it is definitely teach psychology and how the human ps yche, what are the causes of behaviors and ways of controlling them, what causes the emotions and the means to control them, so that could get rid of anxieties, fear, madness, so how could a pedagogy based on scientific knowledge and that w ould not only adapt perfectly to the needs of children but also educate them acc ording to their vocations and psychological capabilities. A German school of phi losophy, the Frankfurt School, has developed a concept known as Critical Theory, which distinguishes two forms of reason: instrumental reason that makes science a means of intimidation, fear, terror and despair, and the critical reason that analyzes and interprets the limits and dangers of instrumental thought and argu es that the social, political and cultural only be held if they truly intended f or the emancipation of mankind and not the ideas of control and mastery over the technical-scientific nature, the society and culture. The revolutionary utopias In the nineteenth century, due to the optimism brought by the ideas of progress , technic development, manpower to build a just and happy life, philosophy bet o n revolutionary utopias - anarchism, socialism, communism - that would create, t hanks to the conscious policy of the exploited and oppressed, a new society, jus t and happy.€However, in the twentieth century with the emergence of so-called t otalitarian societies - fascism, Nazism, Stalinism - and the growing power of au thoritarian or dictatorial societies, philosophy also became suspicious of utopi as and revolutionary optimism and wonder if the beings humans, the exploited and will be able to create and maintain a new society, just and happy. The growth o f so-called red tape - that dominate the state organizations, business, party po litical, school, hospital - led philosophy to investigate how humans could toppl e the immense power that governs them secretly, that they are unaware that deter

mines their daily lives, from birth to death. The culture in the nineteenth cent ury, philosophy discovers the culture as the proper and specific way of existenc e of human beings. Culture is the collective creation of ideas, symbols and valu es by which a society defines for itself the good and bad, right and wrong, true and false. Culture manifests itself as social life, such as the creation of wor ks of thought and art, as religious life and political life. For the Philosophy of the nineteenth century, in line with his idea of a universal history of civil izations, there would be one big culture in development, which the different cul tures would phases or stages. However, in the twentieth century, Philosophy, say s there is no culture, but different cultures, and that the plurality of culture s and the differences between them are not due to the nation. Every culture inve nts its own way of relating to time, creating their language, to develop their m yths and beliefs of organizing work and social relationships, to create works of art and thought. Each one, due to historical, geographical and political in tha t way, has its own way of organizing power and authority, to produce their value s. The end of philosophy in the nineteenth century, the optimism positivist or scie ntistic philosophy led to believe that in future there would be a science, and t hat all knowledge and all explanations would be given by them. Thus, the philoso phy itself could disappear, having no reason to exist. However, in the twentieth century, philosophy has to show that science principles have not totally sure, safe and accurate for the investigations, the findings may be unreliable and ins ecure and, often, one knows how far science can go and when entering the researc h field of another. The age of reason in the nineteenth century, the philosophic al optimism led philosophy to argue that, ultimately, humans had reached the age of rational, and that reason is fully developed so that the complete knowledge of reality and of human actions was reached. However, Marx in the late nineteent h century, and Freud in early twentieth century called into question the rationa list optimism. Marx and Freud, each in his field of research and each faces diff erent aspects of human action - Marx, focusing on economics and politics; Freud, turned to the disruption and mental suffering - discoveries that have so far co ntinue to impose philosophical questions. Who discovered them? Marx discovered t hat we have the illusion that we are thinking and acting with our own head and b y our own will, freely and rationally, according to our understanding and our fr eedom, because an unknown invisible power that forces us to think how we think a nd act how we act . In this power - that is social - he gave the name of ideolog y. Freud, in turn, showed that humans have the illusion that everything they thi nk, do, feel and want, what they say or say nothing would be under the control o f our consciousness because we ignore the existence of an invisible force, a pow er - who is psychic and social - that acts on our conscience without her knowing . In this power that dominates and controls our lives unseen and deeply consciou s, he called the unconscious. Themes, disciplines and philosophical fields Gradu ally, the various particular sciences were defining their goals, their methods a nd their results themselves. Every science, he took the practical knowledge of y our field or applied research and in the twentieth century, philosophy has under gone a major limitation on the scope of their knowledge. Philosophy reduced to t he theory of knowledge, ethics and epistemology. As a consequence of the reducti on, philosophers have been given an overriding interest by knowledge of structur es and forms of our consciousness and also by its mode of expression, that is, l anguage. Since the Second World War, with the phenomenon of totalitarianism - fa scism, Nazism, Stalinism -€wars of national liberation against the colonial empi res and revolutions in several countries, since the '60s, with the struggles aga inst dictatorships and rights-movements (blacks, Indians, women, elderly, gay, c razy, children, economically and politically excluded), and since the 70s, with the struggle for democracy in countries under authoritarian regimes, a great int erest in philosophy policy arose, and with it, criticism of ideologies and a further discussion on t he relationship between ethics and politics, beyond the discussions around the p

hilosophy of history. Currently, a philosophical movement known as deconstructio nism or postmodernism, is gaining prominence. His main target is the criticism o f all the concepts and values that, until today, supported the said western phil osophy and thought, reason, namely subject, object, history, space, time, freedo m, necessity, chance, nature, man, etc. . The fields in which it develops its ow n philosophical thinking in the twenty-five centuries are: Metaphysics: Knowledg e of principles and ultimate foundations of all reality, of all beings; Logic: k nowledge of general forms and general rules of right thinking and true, regardle ss of content designed; rules for the real scientific evidence, rules for non-sc ientific thinking; rules on how to expose the knowledge, rules for checking the truth or falsity of a thought, etc..; Epistemology: a critical analysis of scien ce, both the hard sciences or mathematics, as the natural and human, evaluation methods and results of science; compatibilities and incompatibilities among the sciences; relationships among science, etc..; Theory of knowledge or study of th e different forms of knowledge human: the knowledge or sensory sensation and per ception, memory and imagination, intellectual knowledge, the idea of truth and f alsehood, the idea of illusion and reality, ways of meeting space and time, ways of knowing relationships; naive knowledge and knowledge scientific; difference between scientific and philosophical, etc..; Ethics: the study of moral values, the relationship between desire and passion, will and reason; aims and values of moral action, ideas of freedom, responsibility, duty, obligation, etc..; Politi cal philosophy: a study on the nature of power and authority; idea of law, law, justice, domination, violence, forms of political regimes and their foundations; birth and state forms; authoritarian ideas, conservative, libertarian and revol utionary; theories revolution and reform, analysis and critique of ideologies, p hilosophy of history: a study on the temporal dimension of human existence as ex istence sociopolitical and cultural theories of progress, evolution and theories of historical discontinuity; significance of cultural and historical difference s, their reasons and consequences; Aesthetics: the study of art forms, artistic work; idea of a work of art and creation, the relationship between matter and fo rm in the arts, the relationship between art and society, art and politics, art and ethics, philosophy of language: language as a manifestation of man's humanit y, signs, meanings, communication, transition from oral language to written lang uage of everyday philosophy, literary, the scientific and different modalities o f language as different forms of expression and communication; History Philosoph y: the study of different periods of Philosophy; group of philosophers according to the themes and issues that deal, the relationship between philosophical thou ght and the economic, political, social and cultural society, changes or transformations of philosophical concept s in different seasons, changes in the design of that philosophy and its role or purpose.