MODEL INITIATION 1 .- How to get the ship modeling?.

Perhaps the new model live in a sea port and is more or less familiar with the sea, their problems, their b oats, or perhaps you have a relative or friend in the merchant navy or in the Na vy, possibly also attended a demonstration ship navigated by radio control and t his colorful world has been subjugated and decided to dedicate al. The first pro blem is posed to future models is that type of boat you choose to start and how to make his first model, techniques and methods used, what tools are needed. Cro wd in his mind a series of questions that, so far, no response and subconscious urges his fans and press p and o to take a resolution to start on what he consid ers his vocation and started in modeling but reason tells you not to rush, to ta ke it easy, to meditate, to consult and to weigh their strengths. Three possibil ities are opened in the varied world of model boats: plastic model ships, semi-b uilt ships, called mounting kits and implementation of a model based on building planes. We can say that this would be the logical way, starting from lowest to highest difficulty. We can make a comparison table representing each of these ki nds of conducting naval models. CONCEPTS MODELS OF PLASTIC KIT ASSEMBLY UNDER CO NSTRUCTION ROUTE Variety Difficulty models Price-Cost Space needed to use Time F inishing Tools Hazard NAv Low Noise Motors Dirt Cheap Basic Little Little Little Painted usually not normally not Null Null Low Abundant Sox Quite Expensive Pai nting Media Mayor or not normally do not normally painted Soon Media Media Limit ed Grande Economic According to the plan depends on professional skills or paint ed Coating Sometimes Sometimes Enough At times something Take precautions But there are other possibilities within the varied world of modeling, we refer to the paper boats, a modality that is becoming of greater height and has many f ans, the models presented in this have a constructive mode of presentation, amateur requiring great patience to cu t and glue the pieces. The Internet is web pages which offers a wide range of th ese models. (LIST THE ADDRESSES OF THOSE WEB PAGES) Another possibility is likew ise build our model in a bottle, bottle, glass jar, etc. This specialty requires very technical large doses of patience and an ability for even the tools are ma de by the model itself since there are no tools on the market that can be adapte d to a job that has to be developed in very little space and with a difficult to handle. Within that range of choice we are called static modeling or waterway. The static modeling refers to boats fixed as the name suggests and are highly de corative vessels, usually the models represent historical ships, vessels in real life and at one point in the history of their countries have had a glorious act ivity or heroic or have participated in great events of history. By contrast, th e models are navigable to boats docked them a small electric motor, gasoline or steam and are directed by radio control systems. These models for the modeller a great satisfaction to see them sail gracefully in a small lake. These boats par ticipate in tournaments of skill and proficiency in the maneuvers, ciabogas, ber thing, etc. There are also championships speed speedboats. These models in addit ion to the general knowledge needed to build their models must have extensive kn owledge of electronics and radio control. The model begins to define from the ou tset that type of modeling is intended to spend, then gluing the hull and other parts of a static model is not the same as that of a model that will be navigabl e. While in the first whitetail just use the second will be necessary to use cel lulose as glue white glue is soluble in water and if we launched into a lake tes t a model built and glued using white glue will soon open their strakes and sink . Any of these types of models require, at times, any effort to provide document ation and research. It may be interesting to know the ship design data in questi on: it was built yard, materials used in its construction, the year it b otadura , measurements, characteristics, armament, rigging,€voyages made or missions und ertaken by the ship captains biographies, facts on which he has participated, an d so on. this will require access files as the Archivo de Indias in Seville, the National Historical Archives of Simancas (Valladolid), the Historical Archives of the Navy (Cartagena), National Historical Archive in Madrid, Archivo-Museo Do n Alvaro de Bazan in Viso del Marques (Ciudad Real), Archivo General de la Armad

a (SHOW THE LOCATION), the Archives of the Naval Museum (Madrid) 2 .- TOOLS NEEDED The next problem is presented to future models is that they ne ed tools. This problem is very common in Internet forums devoted to the naval mo del where future new models ask: "What tools should I buy, what need?" Trying to answer that question we have prepared a ranking of possible tools to use approp riate to a different experience in the fascinating world of model boats. CLASSIF ICATION OF THE TOOLS IN ORDER TO YOUR NEED FOR THE CREATION OF A SHIP MODEL AVER AGE BASIC TOOLS PROFESSIONAL EXPERIENCE WITH ANY BEGINNER "Cutter Pliers Pliers half points Notepad candle dumper Miter Box Gauge X Ref.12 triangles centering F aber Nailer wooden brush drawing Compass Compass Compass points interior Cut-wir e saw blade X-Acto Knives XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX xXxXxXxXxXxXxXxXxXx Eyedropper Dial Indicators flexible shaft needle threader wire Weeding brackets metal spatu la Rasps Steel wool gloves goggles Chisels Gouges protection Syringe No. 2 Penci l black mouse tail Lupa Files mandrels and chocolate ice cream Mango Mangos bits X-Acto half mask dust Mallet Hammer Metro flexible small wood clamps Level Hair Clips 0-1-2-3-4 0-1-2-3 Hair metal gun welding gun glue gun for stripping XXXXX XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX XXXXXXX Doubtful Doubtful Doubtful XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX XXXXXXX Curves Template Punch Fold-strips Raedera Rule 20 cm. Hairdryer Sergeants Marker Sierra Sierra manual circular arc electric arc Sierra Sierra rib electric welde r electric welder gas helmet Support 60 W 400 W Power drill manual drill Tas (an vil) to shroud Loom Clamp plate Scissors Scissors Vise electrician Torno XXXXXXX X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X This is a relationship merely illustrative of various tools that we believe shou ld be included in the workshop of naval modeler and will probably not be all pos sible and that the opinion of others on any of the cited here. We must also mean that the allocation of certain tools at different levels of technical training is an arbitrary allocation meant that not necessarily have to be what we say, th en surely a classification made by somebody else will be different, but least se rves to guide the novice modeler it starts. However, there are certain rules tha t we consider gold: 1st. Buy tools as you need them, do not upload and useful tools that you might n ot ever used. 2nd. When you see a tool that will help you in your work buy it at the time, do not expect to need it, this rule is not inconsistent with the fore going, therefore, the first is not to buy all the tools at once and the second r ule refers to anticipate the purchase of a tool that you will surely need furthe r and that, possibly after is not. 3rd. If the tool makes it easy to buy it even if it's working face. 4th. If you have to choose between two seemingly identica

l tools do not buy the cheapest, cheap often be expensive and may jeopardize you r safety. 3 .- THE WORKSHOP When it comes to tools we necessarily talk about the workshop, the place where the model developed their work and spend many hours, sometimes working on the boat model and other, perhaps, reading books modeling , magazines. The ideal workshop is one in which the modeler can have a room for t he single, but this case does not happen often, is a "rara avis." Sometimes one has to adapt to use the d the kitchen table, a few meters in a closet or in an e loft. But we are going to describe what we consider the ideal situation, a room used exclusively to workshop€only have access to the modeler and where you can leave half parts and perform operations knowing that nobody will touch them come to take her tools or untimely visit of some children. Have a surface like a tab le, 1.5 to 2 m. long by 70 cm. wide, located about 80 cm. high ground, beneath t his surface is located some boxes with drawers or drawers. In the center of this area, where the modeler will work normally placed a plywood board about 30 x 20 x 0.5 cm. shred to prevent the panel surface, thus increasing the table very po or job this may change with new one. Have a seat and a bar stool, he must have a backrest and footrest. The ideal is natural light available, which will be virt ually impossible. The ambient lighting is fluorescent ceiling with normal white light tubes combined with yellow tone to avoid the effect of oscillation and vib ration of light waves. You must have good lighting on the local workspace and a blue light bulb extendable hose 100 W. Have a strip of five outlets, although it is very difficult to take the five in use at once, for: drill, soldering iron, hairdryer, radio and glue gun, it should have installed a current drive for the drill . On either side of the desk or board have shelves or racks. In the middle of the room and workshop placed a table with a height of about 70 cms., One of the legs should have a 3 or 4 strips, plugs, the table will have a bottom shelf where yo u will place the machine tools: Saw keyhole saw, hacksaw, electric sander, etc.. (Assuming you have this machine) is very desirable to have a pool of 1.5 m. con nected to the hot water system of the house. The tools are placed in front of hi m in line, placed at the ends and use those less well against those other more f requent use, such as blades, hammer, pliers, saws rib files mouse tails, and box cores bits. As in modeling working with tiny parts and accessories are very use ful too small empty boxes of business cards. Must have a dustpan and broom to sw eep the room occasionally to clean the waste wood, sawdust. To work used an apro n or better yet avoided a blue gown spots of glue, paint, dust, etc. You must ha ve a clothes brush. On one wall a corkboard located where the plane set the mode l performs. You must have a readily accessible place the elements of protection and security for home use case: glasses and even better shield, dust mask and pr otective gloves welding. CLASSIFICATION OF MATERIALS AVAILABLE ON THE WORKSHOP s upports Level TOOL TO USE AND PREPARATION modeling technique. Water Acetone Agua plast MATERIALS ½ Aguaras use, thinner needles copper wire brass wire Alcohol 90 . No Pins short XXXXXXXX XXXXXXXXXXX OPTIONAL REQUIRED CONVENIENT B. MATERIALS Judea black cotton swabs cotton Cabos B & W cigarette ash Eyebolts Cardboard copper plate brass plate Stadler Masking Tape curves brass tacks conta ct Cola Cola quick white tin solder Staples of shellac. Letraset open Lija Lija wood and metal water putty wood round toothpicks wooden toothpicks Pasta Pasta t riangular welding Peg. cyanoacrylate adhesive synthetic talc powder Putty Tamiya SttucoX XXXXXXXXXX OPTIONAL SUITABLE XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX XXXX NECESSARY Sawdust var. thick

MATERIALS Caps Jars Glass jars X X OPTIONAL APT X X X X NECESSARY There are a number of materials that can not give guidance because of its size r ange, sizes, colors and qualities, such as classes and types of woods: sheet, st rips, rounds, squares, ropes, brushes, paints and varnishes; blocks, deadeyes, v iolins, rods and pulley, which will be the needs of the moment, the taste of the modeler and the requirements of the planes that out or you are building the mod el which determine the material need to purchase or develop a same. 4.- CONSTRUC TION OF A MODEL NAVAL parties of plans must ship modeling enthusiasts who have s tarted in this activity with plastic models and models made by the ships of thei r preferences and to consider how to build and do not fully satisfy sta have tak en a step more advanced and have entered the world of mounting kits, a system th at has great advantages: the pieces are precut, are all types and kinds of wood needed for the realization of the model chosen, and even all accessories metal o r wood to adorn and dress the model and, more importantly, the sequence and orde r of assembly and construction of the model also shows the colors to be painted the model, of course all this is paid and Mounting kits can not say precisely wh ich are cheap. The model for the construction of the model is relaxed and pleasa ntly busy, doing something you like, at the end and model presents a beautiful b oat that he is praised by the whole family and even get to put in a glass case, resulting in an attractive embellishment. But this constructive form created in the modeler addition, it is like a drug. Given the successful outcome of the mod eler insists his work in this mode and start a new model and the cycle repeats. Only now buy books, magazines, documents, go online and see pages of other model ers and learns that there is another way of construction, even speak to him leav ing the building models by means of mounting kits and to start with construction plans to be reluctant to enter what the new system is unknown. He's done well w ith mounting kits and suddenly have to ideárselo and thought everything new, fro m how to build, in what order and sequence, with what kinds of wood, etc. what i s called "horror planus." And that's really no such satisfaction as the model ov er and over, self-made, through their own efforts compensates for any bad times and disappointments past. To make a model based on a constructive level must hav e a good background. This is a truism for his evidence. The more complete the pl ane easier and easier it is to build the model saving us time and effort in thei r interpretation. Obviously the more complete the plan, few details be constructive, with views and cuts, annotations, indications of timber classes to use, thicknesses, colors, etc.. also be more expensive. A good plan must hav e at least three views of the model to be built: • • • The first known map of wh ere you see all forms of false keel and the individual frames or frames box full and water lines both horizontal and vertical , indicating the water line. Anoth er second contemplate the view or side elevation of the entire vessel elements s howing their profile. In a third view will display the deck or decks with views of its elements and accessories attached. If the plane refers to a sailing vessel shall be assessed in the sails and riggi ng and maneuvering and also where he made fast the ropes and halyards. The plans can bring other views and details of decomposition of other building elements. 5 .- TERMINOLOGY Before entering the description of the various methods of const ruction is appropriate to clarify certain terms or concepts of naval terminology to assist in the understanding of what later stated and they are also very freq uent terms of use. Bao: Top of the frame, extending from one side to the other v essel and supports to the deck and reinforcement of the sides of the ship, are l ike the beams in a house. Barraganete: Upper side of the frame that serves to su

pport the deck, which is mounted on the gunwale. Box frames: Part of the plane o f forms containing all the frames that form the structure of the ship. It is div ided into two symmetrical parts, divided by the centreline, appearing on the rig ht of frames ranging from the midship to bow and left the frames ranging from mi dship aft. Rubbing bands: Defence in the form of wood belt surrounding the ship' s sides to protect the hull in the docking and undocking operations. Centerline: The center line of the deck fore and aft direction and which divides the vessel into two symmetrical parts midship: Central feature of the skeleton of the ship and the most outgoing of them all. Snap: A system in which coupled the false ke el and frames each.€Water lines: lines that connect the ribs at the same height Waterline: The one that separates the submerged hull which is not. Scale: The ratio between the actual measurement of an object and measure the sam e object in a drawing. And that can be represented by the formula: Drawing Scale = ---------- Reality Keel: First unit placed to build a ship. Sit on the floor plates keel and timbers of the ship perpendicular to its length coming to be lik e his spine. In the models at the keel is replaced by the authentic and real "fa lse keel, usually compact and thrust piece, which are the joints where the ribs were sticking it contains. Offer: board covering the top of the rail along its l ength Traca: row of tables in the lining or covering of the vessels that serve t o close the hull or deck. Gunwale: A series of wood bench from stem to stern on both bands, which form the first layer of the roof from the side. The gunwale ta kes its name from the deck or superstructure which is located 6 .- CONCEPTS ON SCALES Similarly, before entering the field should have some id eas about minor scales that are drawn the plans. The scales are normally represe nted by two numbers separated by a slash or two points: 1 / 30, 1:50. The first digit indicates the unit of measure used in this plane, the second number indicates the equivalence of the unit of measurement of the plane of reality. For example, a scale 1 / 30 means that a unit measure in the plan represents 30 units in reality. So a piece measuring 12 mm in a plane. at 1 / 40 means that in reality this piece is 12 mm. x 40 = 480 mm. Sometimes we need to move from one level to another, then we may be interested in doing the model ship to a different scale to that contained in the plane, having to increa se or decrease the scale should be noted that by reducing the scale Part size in creases and instead to increase the scale of the piece size decreases. Drawing S cale = ----------- from where we have all the possibilities, Reality Drawing Sca le = x reality Reality Drawing Scale = --------- Suppose you want to move from a scale 1 / 60 on a scale 1 / 35 a `piece measuring 10 mm. We will have to multip ly the measure of the piece by a constant that is given by the relationship betw een the two scale: 60 --- = 1.71, 10 x 1.71 = 17.10 mm. 35 Also suppose we want to increase the scale of a part is 8 mm. scale 1 / 50 on a scale 1 / 75 = 75 8 -- 1.50 --- = 5.33 mm. 1.5 There are 50 specialty shops drawing rules with vario us scales called Dial Indicators The scales of the drawings can be enlarged or reduced by using pantographs or si mply by photocopying the option to expand or shrink. 7 .- SYSTEMS CONSTRUCCTIVOS wood models Thinking there are four major building systems: • • • • With a soli d wood block clinker system system bread and butter, which has two variants: in horizontal and vertical ribs System. Derived from this one can consider the cons truction in "V" others call it Bulkhead A) SYSTEM SOLID BLOCK OF WOOD is part of a block of wood suitably squared length and width measurements for the plane. The height of the block will be the castl e, alcazar bridge or highest point that has the ship. At its upper boundary is m arked the ship's bow and stern, the centerline of the boat and its timbers. METE R DRAWINGS According to the water lines of the plane are separated cardboard tem plates that will help us to calibrate. Rib with a saw cuts will be needed to car ve the forecastle and quarterdeck aft which we will be eliminating surplus hit g

ouge and chisel. With rasp (wood for grinding coarse file), files and sanding th e hull go hewn to shape necessary, that will be checking with pre-drawn template s. B) SYSTEM clinker clinker system is practically obsolete. It is a system of h ull covered by planks, but with the difference that in this the strakes are plac ed at the top, each other, ie each strake rests on top of the bottom strake, whi le the system strake clinker each mounted on the top of the bottom strake, is li ke if you just build a wooden roof. This system was widely used in the Middle Ag es in the Nordic countries, by the Vikings in the construction of their light sh ips longship.€Have been recovered from this period some ships by naval interesti ng underwater archaeological works and their achievements can be seen online at the following address: http://www http://www.naturecoast.com/hobby/am1406.htm . medsca.org http://www.semavenca.com/margarita/embarca.htm where you can appreciate the deta iled construction of such vessels and recount the details and events of the reco very of the Oseberg ship found in 1903 by a farmer in Vestfold Country Slager (N orway). The ship is 21.58 m. length, 5.1 m. wide and displaces 11 tons, availabl e for 15 pairs of oars were managed by two men rowing but also were ready for sa iling. The reality today this system is used only clinker boat building subsidia ry. Both the solid block of wood as clinker are very rarely used and quite possi bly the most difficult to implement, however there is a commercial firm that use s the block system for reproducing an unfortunate scenarios where any similarity is pure coincidence . C) SYSTEM OF BREAD AND BUTTER system is another model hul l construction using water lines and plane forms is what some manuals modeling i s called "bread and butter" and that there are two versions the system in horizo ntal and vertical. The water lines are the lines connecting the different frames at the same height given on the basis of the keel. These water lines were to mo ve to middle cardboard templates because with them we will be gauging the progre ss of work for each side of the boat. If available, they also take out half the frames template sawn "slices" of wood thickness of the distance between two adja cent water lines. In each of these slices will mark the center line, the positio n of each of the frames and the contour of the previous slice and the next. Each slice is inside mountains emptying to lighten its weight up to about 2 cm. edge . Are glued in pairs, which facilitates the adjustment of the various slices, th en, should be aligned with the center line, the names of the ribs and the anteri or and posterior edges of each water line. Jaws are pressed by the bonding is pe rfect. Once everything is dry or the hull carving to go the extra hewn wood, sta rting from the theoretical position of the midship section, to fore and aft, usi ng rasp (wood coarse file), files, chisels, sandpaper and patience. From time to time should be calibrated with water lines templates and frames to get the righ t shape. Got the right hull shape should be emptied within the same weight to li ghten using gouges and chisels. While this system of construction is very little used, the two existing use something more horizontal system, is however in some British planes D) SYSTEM notebook is the system more similar to that used in shipyards and is j ammed the frames in predetermined locations of a false keel to form the skeleton of the ship, whose sides are lined with planks to support then in the ribs and attached. It is a very widespread and the construction of a vessel by means of t his system is relatively easy. Models are used for both static and waterways, wi th the only difference being the type of glue that we use in each case. Derived from the previous system can be considered the building called "V". It's the sam e all over the former system and also use frames to create the skeleton of the s hip but with the particularity that their frames are usually round and bulging, but more sharp, more like a "V", hence its name. It has another peculiarity is t hat while in the classical system of timbers lining the sides of the model is do ne through longitudinal strakes in this subsystem the sides are lined with panel s made, because they can grab the frames as well show straight sections and curv es. This system is used in the construction of models of torpedo boats, Civil Gu ard patrol boats, speedboats, yachts, harbor pilots, etc. 8 .- MODEL CONSTRUCTIO

N OF PART OF A PLAN BY THE SYSTEM Binder A) FALSE KEEL The first thing we will d o is keep a notebook the start and completion of our work devoted to this model, ie a kind of open mind that ship in relation to working time, so that we know t ime has taken its construction. Similarly,€we will open a monetary account of th e economic cost of this model and so we will know at the end of construction tha t has cost us. Write down all purchases made in panels, round, foot, eye bolts, deadeyes, paintings etc., And what has been their cost. Maybe we are surplus to be the first entries of a possible new model. Later we will bring two photocopie s of all the plans that we have the model that we achieve. Keep in mind that a p hotocopy of a plane can cause a slight distortion so the measures taken can have a very slight variation. We will keep the original plan and post it on the cork board on the wall one of the planes, where we will take action and make the nece ssary annotations. Carefully study the plan making us the idea of component part s and the order of construction set, if indicated (which would normally not indi cated) or in any case it will set us. We begin by taking a template from the false keel. Decals of the plane, with p A pel coal, the false keel cardboard. You can hold the plane, carbon paper and car dboard with clips from office to avoid that we move the whole. The layer will do it with a pencil that has the blunt point. We will close attention to the joint s of the frame. Then take us through, and on the cardboard, all traced lines wit h a black pen and we use a rule so that the lines are perfectly straight. Tracin g the same operation can be done directly on the plywood board that we will use here will be necessary to hold the plane and the carbon paper to the board with tweezers. The old system has the advantage that if in the future we want to repe at this model boat and we made templates. Will cut, with care, cardboard false k eel and identify each of the joints of frames with the number or letter for each frame, also will mark the waterline. We spend the staff of the false keel plywo od board that can hold two cello paper faces, to prevent us from moving. The pos itioned so that a lower waste wood, even we can benefit from one side of the boa rd settled there the false keel for the next line is the same side of the board. We turn around its circumference with a black pen, we will rectify the lines wi th the help of the rule. With the hacksaw or electric saw out the false keel ply wood board. We will take special care at the entrances of the joints. We will re view all the false keel with fine sand and lime mouse tail flat, especially the joints as it passes through both sides of the insert the pen in the workforce an d its clearance will be reduced. We will mark the width of the plywood that form s the false keel on the centerline full length. We will protect the bar for cell o paper keel bumps and nicks to spare as this piece will keep it until the end o f the model building. B) RIBS Except in a few planes in publishing houses that a re individual frames that would normally come in flat frames forming the call bo x frames, which appear on the right of frames ranging from the teacher to the bo w and left the frames ranging from the teacher to the stern, separated by the ce nter line. Care must be marked to insert frames, then this will surely referring to thick plywood board that is recommended in the plan and maybe we do not want to use this board thickness, for example, by having excess thick than the reali zation of a previous model, which would have to correct the fit to greater or less than the templates out the ribs . Previously we have to identify each frame and proceed as in the case of the fa lse keel, modeled on the card only half frame, raising its contour by the barrag anete to position the gunwale, marking the center line and the position of rubbi ng bands. We will review the layer with black pen and mark the center line perfe ctly. With the tip of a scissors rayaremos on the center line and this will doub le lined cardboard. By cutting the outline of the frame will get a full bulkhead , with its two sides. The same applies to the frame. Move the template of the fr ame, which we previously labeled with their identification, the plywood board, s coring all the way around with a black pen, transferring marks also rubbing band s and the center line that will also in the bathroom.€The frame and close them a s in the false keel reviewed it with sand and lime especially engages. Proceed e

qually with the rest of the frame. C) THE SKELETON This operation is delicate an d we put on it very carefully because of how the skeleton of the boat we depend heavily on the final result. To do this we paste the frames in their respective sockets. Begin with the master frame, white-tailed gluing both the frame of the false keel like the frame to grip better. Control the perfect square between the two parts. There are in the market, hardware stores, metal brackets of various sizes, which serve us wonderfully for this purpose. Then glue the bulkhead next to the bow and followed the next bulkhead aft. This way we can get the perfect s quad checking each frame and to avoid possible tensions of the resulting frames to turn the false keel. To ensure the perfect square of each c uaderna can paste at the junction of each frame with the false keel on the inside, a piece of squ are bar, we hit two or four. Crosscheck the perfect square of all the ribs and l et it dry until the next day. Once thoroughly dry all means go over all the fram es edges with medium sandpaper or flat file. From the midship to the bow of the songs means right and from the midship aft edges of the media i Izquierdo. Z This measure ai ms to facilitate, then laying the planks to the ribs without pushing too hard. D ) BOW From the last existing bulkhead to the bow using glue, white glue, balsa w ood plates of 1 cm. thick, slightly exceeding the contour of the frame and false keel both on the side of the beam as the stem. Once dry we will be hewn with fl at file and sand the remaining wood from the frame starting at the stem of the f alse keel and from top to bottom must frequently calibrate the tables on the wat er lines. Likewise rasará the bathroom of the frame and the top of the false kee l. This will facilitate placement and gripping of the planks of the lining in th e area where the planks may have greater and lesser curvature site of subjection . The balsa wood is a tropical wood, very light and compact that is glued and wo rks perfectly and is found at any hobby shop, model aircraft is used a lot in th eir little weight. E) THE POPA Here you can give three possible cases. - Popa sq uare - round Popa - Popa round of a tug E1). SQUARE STERN historic ships coming in to be normal and general. The skeleton of the vessel ends at the last call tr ansom bulkhead or "comb" on the ships and the S. CHECK XVII. In these cases the longitudinal strips of the van support planks in the mirror and you do not set a ny internal support system for the strakes. E2) ROUND POPA presents a greater pr oblem for meet a stern round since the false keel ends in a given time and that no frames are placed diagonally to hold the strakes. Proceed as in the case of t he bow. From the last existing aft bulkhead glued with white glue, balsa wood pl ates of 1 cm. thick, slightly exceeding the outline of the frame and false keel both on the side of the beam and the stern. Once dry CH ECK hewn go with flat file and sand the remaining wood starting from the frame t oward the stern PROVE the false keel and from top to bottom must frequently cali brate the tables on the water lines into the shape appropriate to the plane roun d . Likewise rasará the bathroom of the frame and the top of the false keel and the sheer will of the roof. This will facilitate placement and gripping of the p lanks of the lining in the area where the planks may be more difficult to overco me the rigidity and have more curvature and less subject site. What is really di fficult for a round stern, but its curvature is the curvature of the rail at tha t point will be explained later when discussing the side. E3) ROUND OF A TUG AFT will continue building the same procedure as that of a round stern, except that here the issue is complicated by the construction of the rail, then it is known that the side of the stern of a tugboat is back inwards and which, likewise, ex plained later in speaking of the side. F) The lining of CASCO Here we might incl ude a question in many other disciplines are made, does the modeler born or made ?.€We sincerely believe that the model is made, you have to learn a variety of s ystems, techniques, history and naval history, procedures, etc., But it arises i n the sense that you must have a natural predisposition or manual skill is not a cquired with the study. You will need to know how to work wood, paints, varnishe s, metals, welding, gluing, nailing, etc. operator becomes a multifaceted master all trades and this is not learned by reading books or magazines.