San Martin de Porres UNIVERSITY RESEARCHERS WORKSHOP FOR TEACHERS Academic oratory Prepared by Dr.

Winston Orrillo FUNDAMENTALS OF A GOOD ORATORY 1 - Want to communicate something of the heart. "If you want to open the hearts of others, you first open your heart" (ancient p roverb) The key lies in the speech to say things we really want to say. And what we real ly mean is always linked to our feelings, values and convictions. 2 - Know the item can not be a good speaker, if you do not know the subject by l ecturing. The well-spoken words, gestures methodically studied, very calculated gesture, intonation, pauses and diction cause rhythmically balanced better impre ssion than the words spouted the ungainly poses, and a voice without rhythm and without grace. Speaker's attitude He, by simply delivering a speech in which he develops a theme, is putting the n oble profession of instructing. The social function is to instruct all education al communities educational speeches. The real speaker addresses a heterogeneous audience, not just one group of people who belong to the same level, but is able to talk to a complex group of different kinds of people: men, women, youth, stu dents, workers, employees, professionals, rich, poor, politicians, citizens, bur eaucrats and aristocrats.

TECHNICAL Oratory "The bottom line is our style, which fits our personalities. The technique is su bject to our personal seal and inner freedom. "

No doubt. Do not say "I believe ...". Worse still "in my humble opinion ...". No tice how emphatic is the discourse of political or commercial advertising. Nor s hould we exaggerate, as this may give one the impression of pedantry.

The management speaking requires a height of language. When does the audience, p ersuaded by the speaker, to assimilate the message, we say that in front of a wo rd artist management, which involves a response to the ideas and emotions propos al for discussion. The speech requires constant practice, unification of physica l and mental activity.

Respect for the rules in the correct use of language should not be lost sight of in the course of the utterance. Among the major speakers referred to the histor y we must remember, first, to Demosthenes, the father of oratory. Also, Peruvian s notables as: Antenor Orrego, Víctor Raúl Haya de la Torre, Jorge Basadre, Raul Porras, among many others.

Focus towards the audience. Sympathize with people. Think about the needs of the people. It is not appropriate to say things that are not interested, although I like to me. Educate your voice. Be slow and serious, with funeral, fast, sharp and lively, in the epic.

Not verbal pyrotechnics or arms that make a fuss. Public speaking is linguistic work, "a matter of words", as stressed by Luis Jaime Cisneros. The gestures that we use natural arising of our temperament.

"Relying on notes? Depends. In a toast should not be friendly. But to speak at a lecture. Do not make speeches from memory. The recitation sound produces the se nsation of something starchy, stiff. The report looks back to the past. Instead, the speech must look forward, receive the propulsion of a living thing, which f lows without looking back.

PRONUNCIATION Correct pronunciation Implies that of words. It involves 1) articulate with the appropriate sounds 2) Deliver more intensely the corresponding syllable.

Why is it important? The correct pronunciation gives dignity to the message you speak and makes the l istener focus attention on this, not the errors of diction. WAYS TO IMPROVE Many people do not realize pronunciation is somewhat deficient. of that its

First, when preparing to deliver a presentation to an audience, look closely at

how they are written the words. If you are not sure which is the stressed syllab le of a word, see the rules of accentuation. Read aloud several times in the ter ms offered difficulties. In some languages it is useful to look in the dictionar y pronunciation of unfamiliar words.

Second, read to someone who say clearly and ask to be corrected. A third way to improve the pronunciation is to listen carefully to those who have good diction. Over time, eliminating the pronunciations will be incorrect, which will signifi cantly improve your speaking.

FLUENCY Involves reading and talking about so that words and ideas sprout easily and nat urally.€The person who stutters is not fluent nor pronounce words with a painful ly slow. Nor stumbles or hesitates in pronunciation, as if not knowing what to s ay. WHY IT IS IMPORTANT? If it is not spoken fluently, the audience tends to get distracted. In addition, the risk of transmitting misconceptions and that the message is not convincing. When speeches, does it often happens that you do not find the right words? In t his case, you may have problems of fluency. For your speech is smooth, the words and thoughts should break out easily, which does not mean, however, need to tal k incessantly, too fast, without thinking. His way of expression has to be pleas ant and harmonious.

The lack of fluidity The lack of fluency may be due to several factors. Do you need to devote attenti on to one of the following? The lack of words, which causes hesitation.

The profusion of short pauses that intersect the language. The lack of preparati on. Exposure messy ideas. A limited vocabulary, which causes hesitation in tryin g to find the precise term. Emphasize too many words. Ignorance of the rules of grammar.

FACTORS TO BE TAKEN INTO ACCOUNT The rules governing the pronunciation vary from one language to another. Many la nguages are represented graphically by means of letters of an alphabet. However, the words borrowed from foreign languages often maintain a similar pronunciatio n to the original. Hence some letters or letter combinations are pronounced more than one way and sometimes not even pronounce.

Moreover, in some languages the meaning of the word varies according to the tone , if not taken into account this factor, it can pass a misconception. If the wri tten form of words of a language is divisible into syllables, it is important to pronounce with greater intensity accordingly. In many of these languages, the p osition of the stressed syllable, ie the syllable with the strongest voice, is r elatively fixed, and sometimes exceptions are indicated with an accent.

HOW TO START AN ADDRESS NO Telling jokes. Some try to "break the ice by telling a joke that provokes laughter and sympathy of the people. But in truth, is a source of risk. There is no bigger fool to te ll a joke and nobody laughs. not give excuses. Sometimes we look at some people to speak with this sentence: "I want you to apo logize for errors in what I say because, etc., Etc.." Feo. Very ugly. Produce di sappointment having to listen to someone who anticipates weaknesses. It is also a lack of respect has not been well prepared. No long introductions. Some speakers are so long a preface that the time remaining for the body of the speech is short. The final sensation is of a disproportionate use of time. HOW TO START A SPEECH Narrating an anecdote or case People like listening to narratives, stories, tales, gossip. It is not appropria te to start with a generalization. It must proceed in reverse.

A famous quote. Karl Marx said in his time "religion is the opium of the people." Well, I want t o say that in this century, which dominates the drug, opium threatens to become the people's religion " NO END HOW A SPEECH "Well, that's all I wanted to tell." It is redundant, ugly. There need be said, if just going to end.

Abruptly. He feels cut off by the lack of a final touch of style. It's like going abruptly from a conversation without even saying goodbye.

Destructively. A speech that ends with a hopeful tone tends to leave a bitter taste in people. It is appropriate to leave a message constructive, that is the subject black. HOW TO ADDRESS AN END With humor al Dating With poetry literary, philosophical, political or biblic

BAD HABITS There are those who speak and read by many regressions, ie start a sentence, t he interrupt and repeat at least part of what has been said or read. Others ar e expressed relative ease, but before concluding an idea, go to the next. Althou gh the words out of his mouth without effort, prevent abrupt changes of thought that his style is fluid.

... Avoid the habit of inserting words or phrases such as "eh ..."," this ...", "or" "for" or "good" at the beginning or middle of sentences. Others often end w ith "right?" And "not." You may not realize how often they used such Crutch. To test this, ask someone who will listen as he speaks,€and repeat every cliché you use. It may be a surprise. HOW TO IMPROVE Ways to improve: When you find unfamiliar words in magazines and books, tag them, find out its meaning and start using them. Practice reading aloud at least five to ten minu tes daily. If you know what you mean, the words should sprout naturally. In ge neral, it is necessary to choose first. In fact, it is best to get used to havin g the clear idea and think about the terms on the fly. If you do this and focuses on concepts rather than words, they will come to mi nd more or less automatic, and express thoughts naturally. But if you start thin king in words rather than ideas, you may start to falter. In everyday conversa tion, learn to think first and then express ideas in complete sentences. SOFTWARE DEVELOPMENT OF INFORMATION

It involves organizing the information so as to understand how ideas relate to e ach other and with the conclusions reached or the goal you achieved. WHY IT IS IMPORTANT? When information is presented in a logical way, the audience understands, accept s and remembers more easily.

To organize the content of his speech in a logical manner, you must first set a goal. - Do you want to only report on a particular topic, such as attitude, behavior or lifestyle? Do you intend to prove or disprove a pa rticular idea? - Is your purpose instill appreciation for something or lead to action? To do th is effectively, it is necessary to consider what they already know their listene rs on the topic and their attitude. Then, organize the information so that you can achieve your goal. HOW TO ORGANIZE THE EXHIBITION

The information can be organized in logical ways, combined in a single intervent ion. Here are some possibilities:

Thematic organization. Structure your content into sections, so that they all contribute to the achieve ment of its objective. These can be major points that are important to understan d the issue, or perhaps different arguments that prove or refute certain ideas. Some items may be added or removed, although connected with the subject, dependi ng on the audience or the objective of the exhibition. OTHER FORMS OF ORGANIZATION

Cause and effect This is another method that allows us to display information in a logical manner . It may be useful when talking to an audience or a person to better understand the result of what you are doing or will do.

Problem and solution. Sometimes it is better to start the speech referring to a situation (the effect) and then present the factors that have contributed to it (the cause). This exhi bition typically has the structure of problem and solution.

Chronological order. There are issues that lend themselves to chronological. Recounting past events i n chronological order might help the audience understand how they developed cert ain circumstances. This method is not always required to start at the beginning. In some cases it may be more effective to begin the narrative in a highlight of the story. RELEVANT INFORMATION Regardless of how you organize the content, be sure to use only those data that are relevant. The theme of the speech should influence the choice you make. Cons ider also who make up the audience. A given point may be crucial for public and superfluous to the next. All this information should help you reach your goal. O therwise, although exposure may be attractive, will not have the desired effecti veness. You can reach the goal by limiting their exposure to use and provides re levant information in a logical order. ASK

What is my purpose? clearly the Is each main point related to that goal? Did I have in mind when selecting audience needs information? Have I made the content so that helps listeners to move from one idea to anoth er without difficulty?

Conversational tone Involves talking as is characteristic of everyday conversation, but adjusted to the needs of listeners. Conversational STYLE AND ITS IMPORTANCE The appropriate conversational style makes the audience feel comfortable and con tribute to its receptivity. THE PEOPLE, in general, are uncomfortable talking wi th their friends, and so their comments are spontaneous. Some people are animate d, others more reserved. In any case, the naturalness of the conversational tone is always attractive.

A determining factor for the conversational tone is the change in pace. The very rigid and formal speech is often characterized by a spacing of words too unifor m and monotonous rhythm constant. In normal conversation there is a change of pa ce and frequent pauses of varying duration. As employing a conversational tone

Start cultivating the proper attitude toward his audience. See them as friends, but not too informal. Treat them with respect. Talk naturally. Do not express th e ideas just as in the printed information (which, moreover, is impossible) but with their own words. Use short sentences and change of pace.

INTRODUCTIONS TO AWAKEN INTEREST

Involves appealing to the audience's attention with relevant initial phrases tha t contribute directly to the objective pursued. True political pacifist began a speech with exceptional sentence: "We must kill the hungry, not the man .." Is n ot that striking?

WHY IT IS IMPORTANT TO THE HOME? From the introduction may depend on some people will listen or not, and the degr ee of attention you dispensed. INTRODUCTION constitutes a crucial phase in all d iscourse. If you can arouse the interest of the audience, it will be more willin g to continue listening.

In preparing the initial phrases, please note the following objectives: 1) Captu ring the audience's attention, 2) To underline the theme 3) Show the audience ho w they are concerned. In some cases, all three can be achieved almost simultaneo usly, while others may be achieved separately and in different order.

The questions are effective in attracting attention, but should be appropriate. If you show that you are going to just say something the audience already knows, the interest will soon fade. No embarrassing or offensive to raise issues, but rather, try to invite reflection. After delivery, pause briefly to allow time to think about the answer. At the time that listeners have the feeling that they h ave entered into a mental dialogue with you, then be caught their attention.

Another effective method is to have a real life experience. However, if your goa l squander embarrass any of the listeners, and not get anything if you remember the story, but not teaching it contains. Experience used in the introduction sho uld pave the way to treat some important aspect of the body of the speech. While it may be necessary details that bring life to the story, avoid unnecessarily l engthen.

There are speakers that start with a recent news item, a quote from a local news paper or a statement of some recognized authority. These introductions are also effective, provided they fit the theme and suitable for the audience. SUBMIT THE FORM OF INTRODUCTION What is said at this stage is paramount, but how you say it can also arouse inte rest. Therefore, do not think only in content but also in the way of putting it. The choice of words is important to achieve their goal, so we should thoroughly prepare the first two or three sentences.

In general, it is better to be simple and brief. You may want to write in his no tes, or could memorize them in order to print the entire load to be carried. An effective introduction and calm serenity infuse it necessary to pronounce the re st of the speech.

HOW TO WAKE UP WITH THE INTRODUCTION INTEREST 2. Note to those who make their audience, their circumstances, their concerns, thei r attitude and knowledge of the subject. Determine which aspects of the issue wi ll be particularly interesting and of value to their listeners. 4. CLARITY IN THE EXHIBITION

Involved expressed so that others easily grasp the meaning of what is said. WHY IT IS IMPORTANT?

The more clearly outlining the information, the more benefit to the listeners. I nstead of simply presenting data, make sure that those who hear it understand wh at is said. It will thus be an effective communicator. A simple style. It will h elp better understand the information, even if it is deep. How is the simplicity ? Do not overwhelm the audience with unnecessary details. Instead, organize idea s so high that complement the main points.

Explain the unknown and will be aware, rare terms. Sometimes that clarifies the meaning of terms for the audience. Do n ot assume that but do not underestimate their intelligence.

Give explanations are necessary. To clarify an issue,€may not suffice to state t he exact definition of a term. Take time to explain it. EFFECTIVE USE OF VISUAL MEDIA PRESIDENT EXECUTIVE DIRECTOR GENERAL MANAGER REGIONAL COORDIANDOR It involves using drawings or photographs, maps, tables and other objects to rep resent graphically the main points. WHY IT IS IMPORTANT? The visual media often create a mental impression clearer and more durable than the spoken word. The objective of using visual aids when speaking and teaching i s not entertaining the listeners. When used with the decorum demanded by the occ asion, reinforce the ideas are worthy of a special way.

Also serve a useful purpose when clarifying the spoken message by making it more understandable and provide convincing evidence of its validity. An appropriate visual medium and used well it can leave an impression so deep that the audience will remember for many years both the resource used as the idea that was taught .

EFFECTIVE CONCLUSIONS

It implies that something in the final phrases that encourages listeners to act in accordance with what they have heard. WHY IT IS IMPORTANT? The concluding words are often the most frequently recorded in the memory, so th at influence the effectiveness of the exhibition. After carefully researched and structured information from the body of his prepared speech and an introduction that captivates the interest, you still need something more: an effective concl usion. Do not underestimate this aspect, because the last thing you say is often also the introduction, the most on record. If the conclusion is poor, even what has been stated will lose much of its effectiveness. Points to remember

His final words should be directly related to the topic of discourse. They expre ss the logical conclusion to be drawn from the main ideas and exposed. To you to decide whether restating the entire title, but you may want to use one or more keywords taken from him. Your conclusion should motivate them. To achieve this, it is necessary to provide reasons, perhaps mentioning the benefits they bring s uch action. A thoughtful final sentence stated reinforce the effect of the whole speech.

The last sentences have to adopt a tone of conclusion, as well as transmitting c onviction. Please note that the exhibition draws to a close, and his words have to reveal it. Also, the rate is appropriate. Do not speak quickly, until the end , then stop suddenly, on the other hand, do not let your voice fades to almost v anish. Talk to enough volume, but without excess. Do not forget: the conclusion affects the effectiveness of any exposure. It's like a flight that has been grea t, but where the landing is a mess: what sense is what is, finally?