LUTHERAN UNIVERSITY OF BRAZIL COURSE OF MEDICINE Department of Radiology and Dia gnostic Imaging ULTRASOUND: BASIC FUNDAMENTALS What

is ultrasound? The ultrasound (or sonography) is an imaging method that use s high frequency sound waves, which after passing through the tissues of the org ans studied, return in the form of echoes providing instant images during the pr ocedure. What are the uses of ultrasound? In medicine, ultrasound examination allows us t o evaluate organs and structures within the body such as heart, kidney, liver, g allbladder, ovaries, uterus and others. Sound: mechanical energy that passes through matter as a wave, producing alterna ting rarefaction and compression. It's the same principle as radar. Transducer: A device that transforms one form of energy into another, in the case of ultraso und, converts electrical energy into mechanical energy and vice versa. The ultrasound transducers utilize the principle of piezoelectricity, piezoelect ric materials respond to the action of an electric field changing form - expandi ng and contracting - thus generating mechanical waves that can be transmitted to the body. dependent. -Some exams require preparation of patients: Urinary Tract and Abdome n total - must be patient with a full bladder and fasting for six hours. Upper a bdomen-starvation for 6 hours. FASTING: try to reduce the amount of intestinal gas and waste FULL BLADDER: "win dow" to examine acoustic Transducers Convex: they have a lower frequency between 3-7 Hz in general are used for the s tudy of internal organs or structures in greater depth. Linear: they have a high er frequency, lower penetration of the beam, can reach 20 Hz, used for the study of surface structures. Endocavitary: used for study uterus, ovaries, prostate, rectum The findings of the inspection should be described in terms of: Echogenicity - hypoechogenic (darker), hyperechoic (bright white), isoecogênico (equal to adjacent tissue) Texture - homogeneous, heterogeneous Outline Dimensi ons Shadow Acoustic Reinforcement Sound Ultrasonography of liver and bile ducts can be observed the appearance of parenchyma, the contours, dimensions, distribution of vessels and biliary tract and topography with other organs. It is observed how, distension, content and thickness of walls Sound Reinforcement Ultrasonography of liver and biliary calculus hyperechoic The sound of that surface as the beam reflects back a wave of high intensity whi ch will generate an image hiperecogêniCálculo hyperechoic ca Acoustic shadow The sound stops coming through non-recurring information Acoustic shadow

Ultrasonography of liver and biliary NORMAL HETEROGENEITY parenchyma, increased echogenicity Ultrasound Urinary Tract Normal Normal Kidney stone Ultrasonography of the Urinary Tract NORMAL OBSTRUCTION IRC ilatação renal pelvis and retain Loss of differentiation between the cortex and medulla Ultrasound of superficial structures THYROID Lobo Lobo left right Trachea Ultrasound of superficial structures SHOULDER Deltoid transdisciplinarity. linear Since the above esp Humerus Ultrasound of superficial structures TESTES Ultrasound in invasive procedures Needle Assist with collections or abscesses drainages, biopsies and aspiration biopsies ULTRASOUND Main points:-Does not use ionizing radiation-images are evaluated for texture (h omogeneity / heterogeneity), echogenicity (hyperechoic / hypoechoic / ISOEC Ogen ), shape, dimensions, producing acoustic shadowing and / or strengthening and ac cessible acoustic-Method Low-cost factors that hinder the formation of the image : gas, fat, bone surfaces