COURSE IN BASIC ELECTRICITY - AULA01 Basics first law deOHM Generator Voltage Exercises 1st Law OHM Electrical

Circui t Resistors Electrical Quantities Color Code Exercise Proposed Submultiple / multiple Basics Notice the two figures seguir.Nelas we can identify some familiar elements, even for pers who do not have knowledge of electricity. The Fig01a shows a battery, a lamp and an interruption. The lamp is off. The Fig01b shows the same battery a nd same lamp, now acesa.Por that LAM is off? Why the lamp is lit? The answers yo u get when some concepts of electricity are placed below. Fig01: Examples of electrical circuit - open circuit Fig01a - Fig01b circuit con nected Basics All substances are made of atoms and molecules. For example the substance will c all whose chemical formula is H2O, is composed of two atoms of hydrogen (H) and one oxygen atom (O) which has the characteristics totally different from the wat er. Atoms in turn are made up of tiny particles: protons, electrons and protons nêutrons.Os are located in the central part of the atom called the nucleus, whil e the electrons in orbits around well-defined, similarly to the planets revolvin g around the sun. In the next two figures have the design of simpler model that represents u atom: The core on which are the protons and neutrons, and around this by turning the electrons. There are various orbits with different numbers of electrons in each giran. The last layer, called the valence layer always has the greatest interest , since the difference between the main materials used in electronics is determi ned by its behavior characteristic of this layer. COURSE IN BASIC ELECTRICITY - AULA02 Power - Energy - Joule Effect Concept of Po wer and Energy Joule effect Joule Watt Dipole Receiver and Generator Concept of Power and Energy Work and energy in physics are synonymous. Whenever a job is done a certain amou nt of it is processed and will be a force acting on a body (whether or not you s ee!). And do not forget "ENERGY can not be destroyed nor BUILT 's energy is being transformada.O human g enius is always keen to build devices that can conve some kind of energy into an other kind of energy that is useful. For example: One who takes bath warm in win ter is only possible because someone long ago discovered how to convert some kin d of ene power, then another discovered how to convert electrical energy into he at. As power and energy (work) are physical quantities, units need to specify th em properly. Work units Joule (J) is the unit officer, but there are others such as calorie (cal) and KW .h. Of course there is a rel between them. 1Cal 1KWh = 4.18 J and J = 3,6.106 Po wer Units Watt (W) is the unit officer, but there are others such as HP, with 1H P = 746W Power is defined as the work done per unit time (energy exchanged per unit d), o r mathematically: P = τ / where τ (Is oé: 1W = 1J / s

 

 

au) is he amoun of energy ha

is being exchanged is equal o he work re

(S ar ) Confused? So le 's have an example: Imagine moving a 5kg bag of sugar a al 1m i n 1s.Sem doub ha : a) You have spen a cer ain amoun of energy, so held a JOB b) This work was done because you have power. Compu e all values of power and en e involved. According o physics is a body of mass M, moves agains he force of gravi y po en ial energy body will undergo a change (increase) o be given by:

ΔE = MgΔH where ΔE is he change in energy = work done (J) and ΔH is he varia i on of am), g is a cons an called he accelera ion of gravi y, and heir value d epends on he i em he cen er of he land, wor h abou 9.8 m/s2 on he surface. Wha was even he job you? How M = 5kg and hen ΔH = ΔE = 5.9,8.1 1m = 49J = τ = work done as he ime o do his work was 1s, hen he power developed by you w ere: P = 49J = 49J/1s / s = 49W! (Early) (A lamp has an average power of 60W) Wha would be he power developed, whe her hey have Series COURSE IN BASIC ELECTRICITY - AULA03 Associa ion Series - Parallel Associa ion Associa ion Join Equivalen Series Resis ance Parallel Associa ion Series Resis ors Resis ors are connec ed in series when he curren passing hrough is he same o ne ha passes by o hers.€The Fig01 shows an example of serial connec ion and h e equivalen resis or (RE). Call o a single resis or equivalen resis or ha c ould replace he combina ion and ye he curren supplied by he genera or will be he same. Fig01: Associa ion of series resis ors - Circui o al and equivalen circui he same work, was 0.5 s?

In an associa ion he equivalen number is: RE = R1 + R2 + R3 In Fig01 no e ha he ins rumen indica es 2mA bo h original and he equivalen circui (RE = 6K) . Ano her charac eris ic of a serial connec ion is ha he sum of he ensions in he resis ors is equal o he o al vol age in he case of Fig01, 12V. The Fi g02 shows he vol age across each resis or. This is a generic charac eris ic of he en ire mesh (closed pa h) enuncia ed by Kirchhoff's 2nd Law as follows: "The sum of he s resses orien ed clockwise is he sum of he s resses orien ed coun er clockwise." No e: a) In case of equal re sis ors in series, he equivalen will be given by: RE = nR, where n is he numb er of resis ors of value R in series b) The equivalen of a combina ion series i s always grea er han he larges of he resis ors he associa ion. Fig02: Associa ion series - Verifica ion of Kirchhoff's 2nd Law In Fig02: U4 = U 1 + U2 + U3 which is he equa ion of he mesh circui . (S ar ) Exercise 1: Wha is he indica ion of he ins rumen s in he following circui ?

A: Firs we calcula ed he equivalen resis ance RE = R1 + R2 + R3 + R4 = 200 + 500 +1000 +1300 = 3000Ω = 3K Then we calcula e he equivalen curren in he res

 

 

 

 

     

 

 

   

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

     

 

 

 

 

 

   

 

 

         

 

 

   

 

 

 

 

   

       

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

     

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

   

   

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

   

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

   

 

 

 

 

 

 

   

 

 

 

 

                 

   

 

 

 

 

     

 

 

 

 

   

 

 

     

 

 

 

 

       

 

 

       

 

 

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

     

 

 

     

 

                 

 

   

is or, which is equal o he curren in he original circui : 12V/3K = I = 4mA. As he curren is equal o he equivalen curren in he resis ors of he associ a ion, hen we can calcula e he vol age in each: U1 = 200Ω.4mA K.4mA = 0.2 = 0. 8 V = 800mV 500Ω.4mA = U2 = 0.5 K. = 4mA U3 = 2V = 4V 1K.4mA K.4mA U4 = 1.3 = 5.2 V no e: U1 + U2 + U3 + U4 = 12V Click o download he file ha con ains he above circui using EWB5: Ex1Aula3CC Exerc icio2: Wha he power dissipa ed in each resis or in a year? Wha is he elec ri c power genera or? A: As we have seen he power dissipa ed in a resis or is: P = R.I2 or P = U2 / R = P or UI hen: P1 = 0.8 3.2 mW V.4mA = P2 = = 2V.4mA 8mW P3 and P4 4V.4mA = 16MW = 5.2 V.4mA = 20.8 mW power ha he genera or is supplyin g o he circui mus equal he sum of powers dissipa ed in each resis or or P = UI = 48mW 12V.4mA = ( s ar ) Parallel combina ion of Resis ors Resis ors are connec ed in parallel when he vol age applied is he same one app lied in o hers. The Fig03 shows an example of parallel connec ion and he equiva len resis or (RE). In he case of an associa ion equivalen parallel resis or i s calcula ed by: 1/RE = 1/R1 +1 / R2 +1 / R3 or in erms of conduc ance (G = 1 / R) GE = G1 + G2 + G3 No e: he ) For wo resis ors in parallel wi h he above e xpression reduces o: RE = (R1.R2) / (R1 + R2) b) In case of equal resis ors in parallel: RE = R / n, where n is he number of resis ors R value in parallel. c) The equivalen of a parallel associa ion will always be smaller han he smalle s of he resis ors of he associa ion Fig03: Associa ion Parallel - equivalen circui and resis or Click he file ha con ains he above circui using EWB5: Ex2Aula3CC o download

In Fig03 no e ha he ins rumen indica es 4mA bo h he original and he equiva len circui (RE = 3K). Ano her charac eris ic of a link parallel is he sum of he curren s in he resis ors is equal o he o al curren en ering he associa ion, which is basically he 1s Law of Kirchhoff ha has he following s a eme n : "The sum of curren s arriving a a node (4mA ) is he sum of curren s leavin g i (1.2 mA +0.8 mA +2 mA). (Beginning) Exercise 3: In Fig03 calcula e he powe r dissipa ed in each resis or of he associa ion and he elec ric power genera o r. A: Again, o calcula e he power of a dipole jus make he produc UI, hen: P1 = 12V.1, 2mA = 14.4 mW Pgerador 12V.4mA = = 48mW Again no e ha he sum of p ower dissipa ed mus equal he power elec ric genera or ( his is called conserva ion of energy). The following prac ical applica ions of parallel circui s: P2 = 12V.0, 8mA = P3 = 9.6 mW 12V.2mA = 24MW

A major applica ion of parallel circui s is a residen ial wiring, which consis s of lamps, socke s wired in parallel. The Fig04 shows wo lamps connec ed in par allel and ac ua ed swi ches. Fig04: Lamps wired in parallel - one lamp on in Fig04 No e ha being connec ed o only one fuse in he lamp curren will be equal o 481mA. Wha happens if he o her lamp is also connec ed? If bo h lamps are equal o double he curren con sump ion! As a sugges ion o moun he proposed exercise circui using he simul a or Fig04 Crocodile Clip

 

BASIC ELECTRICITY C.C - Tes s For each es indica e an al erna ive one. In a me allic conduc or rriers are:

he charge ca

   

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Fig05: Lamps wired in parallel - wo lamp value doubles. The more bulbs (or o her rela ed o higher curren consump ion and roposed exercise circui using he simula

connec ed How can you check he curren device, such as TV, shower, e c.) are higher! As a sugges ion o moun he p or Fig05 Crocodile Clip Tes Jump

 

 

 

 

 

   

 

 

 

 

 

     

 

 

           

     

   

     

 

           

 

 

     

 

 

   

     

 

 

   

   

 

 

 

       

 

     

   

   

   

 

 

 

 

 

 

       

             

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

   

   

 

 

 

 

 

 

       

     

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

                                                                   

 

 

 

 

 

 

             

 

 

 

 

       

 

 

 

 

 

   

 

     

   

   

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

   

 

 

 

           

     

     

       

a) Ion b) Free elec rons c) Pro on d) Neu ron 2. The in ensi y of elec ric curren in a conduc or is 0.5 A, which corresponds o: a) 0.5 elec rons per second b) 0,5.10-19Coulombs per second c) 0,5.1018 elec rons per second d) 0.5 Coulombs per second. 3. Mark false (F) or rue (V) for e ach s a emen conduc ors are subs ances ha allows elec rical charges moving h rough i s in erior If a driver has a resis ance of 10Ω, a vol age of 5V applied will resul in a curren of 2A. The conduc ance of a 10Ω resis or is 0.1 mho A r esis or has he bands: 1s : Black 2nd: Brown 3rd: black logo CCCCFFFF R = 10Ω 4. The ension in a conduc or is 2.4 V and he curren is 0.8 A. We can say he conduc or resis ance is: a) 2.4 Ω b) 3 Ω c) 1.25 Ω d) 0.33 Ω ha

6) In he circui , wi h he key as indica ed, he ins rumen indica es ha he curren is 10mA. If he key change from he curren posi ion: a) claim 5mA Passa Passa o be wor h 2.5 mA b) akes effec 10mA c) I is now wor h 0 d)

     

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

   

 

 

   

     

     

 

   

 

 

 

 

 

   

 

5. A wire f b) ly.

wire has a leng h of 10m and sec ion area of 0.1 mm2. If he leng h of he o pass 20m, we can say ha he resis ance of he wire: a) Decrease in hal double in value c) No changes in resis ivi y are available o answer correc d) no