Administration of Production / Operations HISTORICAL EVOLUTION Revolution industrial production function Standardization o f components Administration of Production / Operations PRODUCTION

FUNCTION The Transformation Process Inputs Human Resources, Facilities and Processes, Materials, Earth, Energy and Informat ion Outputs Transformation process Goods Services Measure of Performance (Quality, Cost, Productivity, etc.). Administration of Production / Operations Key People in the History of Operations Management Eli Whitney (late 1700s) - Parts Interchangeability of Frederick Winslow Taylor (early 1900s) - Scientific Management Henry Ford (early 1900s) - Mass production of the Alfred P. Sloan, Jr. (1920s) - Centralized Planning and Decentralized Co ntrol Administration of Production / Operations ENGINEERING / ADMINISTRATION OF PRODUC TION ENGINEERING / MANAGEMENT INDUSTRIAL ENGINEERING / OPERATIONS MANAGEMENT MASS PRODUCTION Lean Production Administration of Production / Operations ENGINEERING / INDUSTRIAL ADMINISTRATIO N At ENGINEERING / INDUSTRIAL ADM were introduced new concepts: assembly line, wor kstation, intermediate stocks, monotony of work, layout, line balancing, product s and processes, motivation, unions, preventive maintenance, statistical quality control and flowchart processes Administration of Production / Operations MASS PRODUCTION: It is characterized by extremely large volumes of standardized products, ie very low variation in the types of end products. These concepts wer e prevalent until the mid 1960s. Administration of Production / Operations Lean Production: Introduced in mid 1960, with the emergence of new production te chniques such as JIT (Just in Time), Simultaneous Engineering, Technology Group, Consortium modular production cells, quality function deployment, comakership s ystems flexible manufacturing, computer integrated manufacturing and benchmarkin g. Administration of Production / Operations NEW CONCEPTS Just-in-time simultaneous to the Engineering Technology Group Consortium cells m odulate the production of quality function deployment (QFD) to the Comakership S ystems Flexible Manufacturing manufactures computer-integrated production tailor ed to the Benchmarking Administration of Production / Operations

NEW CONCEPTS Just-in-time It's the production management using minimal raw material possible. Requires tig ht control of supply. Examples of Japan (plant oil products). Administration of Production / Operations NEW CONCEPTS oEngenharia simultaneous Involves the participation of all functional areas of business development in pr oduct design. Customers and suppliers are also involved with goals of reducing t ime, cost and problems of manufacturing and marketing; Administration of Production / Operations NEW CONCEPTS oTecnologia Group It is an engineering and manufacturing philosophy that identifies the physical s imilarities of the components - with scripts like manufacturing - grouping them into common processes; Administration of Production / Operations NEW CONCEPTS oConsórcio modular The first factory in the world to adopt such a concept was the Volkswagen Divisi on of trucks and buses in Resende, Rio de Janeiro. Several partners are working together within the VW plant in their respective modules for the assembly of veh icles. Administration of Production / Operations NEW CONCEPTS oCélulas production Manufacturing units are small and / or services with transport mechanisms and in termediate stocks among them. They are arranged in "U" with the goal of having m ore production. Requires that the employee is versatile. It also aims to achieve a better quality control since the defect is often detected in the station itse lf. Administration of Production / Operations NEW CONCEPTS The Quality function deployment (QFD) (Quality Function Deployment-QFD): As the name suggests, the quality is deployed in office procedures that strive for goals at every stage of product developmen t cycle, from research to its sale Administration of Production / Operations NEW CONCEPTS oComakership

The term actively lity, as ents the

can be translated as "Co-production" because the provider participates engaging with the various project phases such as planning, cost and qua it has guaranteed contracts of long-term supply. The COMAKERSHIP repres highest level of relationship between customer and supplier

Administration of Production / Operations NEW CONCEPTS oSistemas flexible manufacturing Numerical control machines are interconnected by a central control system and an automatic conveyor system Administration of Production / Operations NEW CONCEPTS the computer integrated Manufacturing Full integration of manufacturing operations through computer systems MIC = Administration of Production / Operations NEW CONCEPTS Benchmarking Are comparisons of the operations in a production unit with the indicators prese nted by leaders in their segments Administration of Production / Operations Versus MANUFACTURING SERVICES ADMINISTRATION OF PRODUCTION MANAGEMENT PRODUCTION / OPERATIONS FLOW OF MATERIAL S, SERVICES AND CAPITAL Administration of Production / Operations Versus MANUFACTURING SERVICES ADMINISTRATION OF PRODUCTION Until 1950, the manufacturing industry was that sto od out in the political and economic world. The chimneys of the factories were s ymbols of power, for employing a large number of people and were responsible for 90% of gross domestic product of industrialized countries. The manuals on acade mic production referred to the factory floor (the term used to describe workers or processes related to the production stage itself) and addressed issues relati ng to the manufacture of tangible goods: layout, manufacturing processes, planni ng and control production, quality control, maintenance of plant, handling and s torage of materials. Managing all of those elements was called Administration of Production. Administration of Production / Operations Versus MANUFACTURING SERVICES ADMINISTRATION OF PRODUCTION / OPERATIONS The service sector now employs more people than any other and is responsible for the largest share of GDP of the largest countries in the world. Thus, all the t echniques used in traditional Industrial Administration were transferred to the administration of services. There was a further extension of the production, whi ch came to include services. Today the term operations is considered large, the set consists of all business activities related to production of goods or servic es. In Brazil the authors address this set of techniques such ADMINISTRATION PRO

DUCTION AND OPERATIONS Administration of Production / Operations Versus MANUFACTURING SERVICES FLOW OF MATERIALS, SERVICES AND CAPITAL Global companies increasingly need distribution schemes swift and effective. The logistics business, part of ADM's operations is a set of techniques for distrib ution and transportation of products. Examples: cars worldwide, which are identi cal and are produced in different countries. FLOW OF SERVICES = volume tends to be larger than those of materials due to the improvement of the media. FLOW OF C APITAL = cash flows, as a "cloud", roam about the world, looking for places wher e they can "get down" and get the most revenue possible. Administration of Production / Operations OBJECTIVES OF THE ADMINISTRATION OF PRODUCTION / OPERATIONS PURPOSE OF ADM PRODUCTION AND OPERATIONS The activities developed by a company s eek to transform inputs (manpower and raw material) into finished products or se rvices, consume resources that do not always add value to the final product. It is the goal of ADM Production / Operations effective management of these activit ies. Administration of Production / Operations OBJECTIVES OF THE ADMINISTRATION OF PRODUCTION / OPERATIONS The factory of the future organization of the production design of products and processes visual communication Layout workstation Commitment to the environment Knowledge Management Administration of Production / Operations OBJECTIVES OF THE ADMINISTRATION OF PRODUCTION / OPERATIONS The factory of the future There is an environment full of robots and computers commanding all operations. She, and is characterized by a high level of automation, will be duly organized around technology (CAD, CAM, CIM, MRP, ERP, etc) and knowledge. Another feature = high productivity Administration of Production / Operations OBJECTIVES OF THE ADMINISTRATION OF PRODUCTION / OPERATIONS The factory of the future Organisation of production Scrap and rework near zero. High productivity. Housekeeping (U.S. examples). Pro cess management through performance indicators Administration of Production / Operations OBJECTIVES OF THE ADMINISTRATION OF PRODUCTION / OPERATIONS The factory of the future Designing products and processes Application of concurrent engineering in large scale. Using the features of qual ity in all stages of production. Failure analysis. Products with fewer component s

Administration of Production / Operations OBJECTIVES OF THE ADMINISTRATION OF PRODUCTION / OPERATIONS The factory of the future Layout Appropriate use (optimization) of production space. Administration of Production / Operations OBJECTIVES OF THE ADMINISTRATION OF PRODUCTION / OPERATIONS The factory of the future Job It uses the concept of ergonomics to ensure the comfort, welfare and safety of w orkers. (Quoting the case of SEMCO on page 8) Administration of Production / Operations OBJECTIVES OF THE ADMINISTRATION OF PRODUCTION / OPERATIONS The factory of the future commitment to the environment The factory of the future must be environmentally friendly (not to be confused w ith politically correct - see quote from Max Gueringer), that is not polluting. Must be certified under ISO 14000. Spirituality in business Administration of Production / Operations OBJECTIVES OF THE ADMINISTRATION OF PRODUCTION / OPERATIONS The factory of the future Knowledge Management The factory of the future will have an administration in which the knowledge is not centered on the figure of the head, but shared with all employees. Administration of Production / Operations Types of Operations Description Long-lasting, Volum Unit, Custom Products Short term, low volume, cu stomized Product Examples Manufacturing Project Construction, Shipyard, Factory Services Examples Consulting, Software Development Project Job Shop Tailoring, Visual communication Restaurant, Car repair workshop Administration of Production / Operations Concept of Productivity INPUT OUTPUT OUTPUT INPUT PRODUCTIVITY = Administration of Production / Operations EVALUATION OF PRODUCTIVITY SOME FACTORS DETERMINANTS OF PRODUCTIVITY RELATIONSHIP the X WORKING CAPITAL RES

OURCES The paucity of the WORKFORCE INNOVATION to the LEGAL RESTRICTIONS AND TEC HNOLOGY MANAGEMENT FACTORS to the QUALITY OF LIFE Administration of Production / Operations EVALUATION OF PRODUCTIVITY SOME FACTORS DETERMINANTS OF PRODUCTIVITY oRELAÃ Ã O X WORKING CAPITAL Indicates the level of investment in machinery, equipment and facilities in rela tion to the diligent work force applied. To the extent that an industrial age, y ou lose productivity. Replacements of equipment are made always aiming for the g ain in productivity Administration of Production / Operations EVALUATION OF PRODUCTIVITY SOME FACTORS DETERMINANTS OF PRODUCTIVITY oESCASSEZ RESOURCES It has raised productivity issues, such as electricity, for example, in 2001 and 2002 created many problems in the domestic industry. Administration of Production / Operations EVALUATION OF PRODUCTIVITY SOME FACTORS Oman DETERMINANTS OF PRODUCTIVITY OF WORK No point in having cheap labor, which is not productive. Example of the metallur gical industry in Chicago in 1985, compared with Brazil Administration of Production / Operations EVALUATION OF PRODUCTIVITY SOME FACTORS oINOVAÃ Ã O DETERMINANTS OF PRODUCTIVITY AND TECHNOLOGY Are largely responsible for the increase in productivity in recent years Administration of Production / Operations EVALUATION OF PRODUCTIVITY SOME FACTORS oRESTRIÃ Ã ES LEGAL DETERMINANTS OF PRODUCTIVITY If the requirements of local laws that require costly adjustments in Administration of Production / Operations EVALUATION OF PRODUCTIVITY SOME FACTORS oFATORES DETERMINANTS OF PRODUCTIVITY MANAGEMENT It's about the ability of managers to engage in programs to improve productivity Administration of Production / Operations EVALUATION OF PRODUCTIVITY SOME DETERMINANTS OF PRODUCTIVITY oQUALIDADE FACTORS OF LIFE Reflects the culture of the environment in which the company operates. Many orga nizations are concerned with improving the quality of life of its employees in t he certainty that the return in terms of productivity is immediate Administration of Production / Operations

Economic impact of improving productivity and quality Improved product quality Increase in "output" per unit of input " ACTION MANAGEMENT Improvements in manufacturing processes Increase in "output" and reduced "input" Reduction in input per unit of output Higher perceived value Higher prices Improved productivity Increased market share Increase in revenue Low cost of manufacturing and service Higher profits Administration of Production / Operations PRODUCTION SYSTEMS Firm A m b i e n t e Labor Capital Energy Other inputs I n p u t Transformation functions The u t p u t Products Services A m b i e n t e Figure 1.2 Boundary System Administration of Production / Operations Cycle of Productivity Measure Productivity Productivity Improvement Evaluation of Productivity Figure 1.3 Planning Productivity Administration of Production / Operations

Areas of Measure Productivity National GNP per capita income the Company the Total Productivity Partial Produc tivity Administration of Production / Operations Ways to improve productivity â ¢ Produce more output using the same level of inputs. â ¢ Producing the same amoun t of output using the lowest level of inputs. â ¢ Produce more output using the lo west level of inputs. Administration of Production / Operations Recent Trends in the Administration of Production ooooooo Production Just-in-Time Total Quality Management Technologies computer-d ependent competition based on the time of business process reengineering Factory Services Value Stream Mapping Administration of Production / Operations Productivity - Examples 1 - What is the efficiency of an electrical transformer that the process of redu cing the voltage from 11,000 volts to 110 volts of power 850KWh receives and sen ds 830KWh? 2 - What is the economic efficiency of a company that incurred costs of $ 150,000.00 to generate a revenue of $ 176,000.00? 3 - Determine the partial productivity of the workforce of a company that earned $ 70 million in one fisc al year in which 350 employees worked on average 170 hours per month. 4 - The co mpany's third year produced 1.4 million tonnes of product it sells. What is the partial productivity of labor? 5 - In January, the company produced 1250 units o f the ABC product Alpha, using 800 homens.hora. In February, due to the number o f working days, it produced 1,100 units, using 700 homens.hora determine the tot al productivity in the months January, February and its variation Administration of Production / Operations Productivity - Examples 6 - The industry of corrugated cardboard produced in 1997, two million tonnes wi th the use of 15 466 employees. In 2002, production was 2.6 million tonnes, with the participation of 13 354 workers. Determine the yields in 1997 and 2002 and its variation.