PERSONALITY Concepts and Theories Study Personality - Concepts Etymological •, "Persona" - mask, "character" represented by actors theater Rela

tes to the popular sense with regard to appearance, the impression that each one causes the other. 2 Concepts of Personality - principles • Overall - Personality is everything we are (embedded systems). • Individuality - peculiar and unique dimension of personality (each of us is unique in the wor ld 3 • Social - develop and manifest themselves in social situations (social interact ions). • Dynamic - various elements interact, combining and producing new and or iginal effects (personality is always able to receive new influences, adapting t o new circumstances. 4 Personality - Concepts • "dynamic organization within the individual. Those psychophysical systems that determine his characteristic behavior and thought, t heir adaptation to the typical social environment. "(G. Allport) •" The continui ty of functional forms and forces, which manifest themselves through organized p rocesses and sequences of behavior manifest from birth until death. "(Murray) 5 "Set the total characteristics of the individual integrated set the way he usual ly reacts to the environment." (Braghirolli) "Construct summary, including thoughts, motives, emotions, interests, attitudes, skills and others. Relatively consistent and enduring patterns of perceiving, t hinking, feeling and behavior that give people distinct identity. " (Davidoff) 6 Formation of Personality • Genetic factors: organizational structure and process of maturation • Environm ental factors: the physical milieu 7 Heredity - Environment • Physical: influences of nutrition, temperature, altitude, use of chemicals etc .. Ex: Prenatal - "Abuse and addiction to drugs (heroin) may cause withdrawal sy mptoms after birth. The baby is shaky, irritable, crying in a tone of voice stri dent and shrill. " (Finnegan, 1982) 8 • Social: influences of interpersonal relationships Example: parent-children ind ifference, rejection, disqualifications (ridicule, mockery, mockery) expressed b y parents in their relationship with their children affects the formation of per sonality. 9 Personality - Theories Freud (1856 - 1939) • human personality stems from a conflict between our biolog

ical impulses, seeking pleasure, and social restrictions to them. • Instincts ar e the basic elements of personality, the motivating forces that drive behavior. 10 Freud - structure and dynamics of personality • ID - There is no logical organization. - Operates in accordance with the principle of pleasure. - To reduce the strain uses the primary process of thinking (mental activity that can not distinguish between images and reality) - In dreams the d esires of the ID are disguised and distorted. 11 • EGO - houses the capacity for rational thought, planning and memory. - Use sec ondary process thinking (search strategies for problem solving) - Focuses on the reality, aware of the circumstances of their actions. 12 • superego - Springing the ego as the child will incorporate the rules set by pa rents and society visor. - Influence the ego to meet the goals and moral force t he ID to inhibit their impulses animals. - Generate guilt. 13 Psychosexual Development • Freud - the personality is shaped by early experiences, when children go throu gh a set sequence of psychosexual stages. • The term psychosexual derives from t he idea that the libido, which is clearly a sexual energy, is located on differe nt body parts, as the psychological development progresses. 14 Freud - erogenous zones • mouth, anus and genitalia - respond strongly to the stimulation of pleasure. • At each stage of development, an area is particularly influential. • Establishm ent - refers to leave a permanent part of the libido invested in a specific deve lopmental level. 15 Stages of psychosexual development • Oral (0-18months) - mouth, sinus • Anal (18-3 years) - feces, urine • Phallic (3-5years) - Parents, genitals • Latency (5-after 12 years) - Facts and things r emoved from the social environment • Genital (from 12 years) - emotional and soc ial relationships, sexual partners. 16 • Stage Oral - (0-18months) - Libido is focused on oral pleasures: sucking, biting, putting objects in the m outh ... - Weaning is the main conflict of the oral. • Phase Anal - (18-3 years) - The pleasure is derived primarily from the anal area. - As they begin toilet t raining,€the central conflict of the anal phase develops (pleasures blocked by r estriction rules of society). 17 • Phallic Stage - (3-5years) - Children learn that the genitals provide pleasure. - Complex Electra (girls) Oedipus Complex (boys)

• Latency Period - (5-after 12 years) - Freud believed that about five years personality is essentially formed. - Sexu al needs are dormant. 18 • Genital Stage - (from age 12 years) - Places sexual awakened at puberty. - Guidance is given to others and form sati sfactory sexual relationships. - Interest by human adult's assume its role in th e social world. 19 Defense mechanisms • According to Freud, strategies used by the ego to deal with the anxiety that a rises from conflict between the Id and the Superego. • Anxiety - concept-emotion characterized by feelings of anticipation of danger, tension and pain and by stimulating the sympathetic nervous system. • "Freud saw the dangers real and imagined as major sources of anxiety." 20 Defense mechanisms studied - Punishment: the impulses of conscience exclude disruptive Id - Sublimation: re direction aggressive or sexual impulses in a socially acceptable direction. Ex: a person who becomes aggressive professional boxer. 21 - Displacement: redirecting the anxiety-producing behaviors to a more acceptable target. Ex: men marry women who resemble her mother - Projection: assignment of our thoughts and feelings to others. Shift the critical voice to another. Ex: Y ou may think that a person does not respond to his calls is due to a failure to a specific act performed by you. Actually, he thought nothing of it. 22 • Fantasy: using the imagination to satisfy desires that are in fact highly unli kely. • Regression: resort to childish behavior as a method of avoiding anxiety and / or responsibility. • Identification: the effort to become like another per son (the child incorporates characteristics of the parent). 23 • intellectualization: repression of the emotional component of an event that ca uses anxiety. The event is handled purely analytical. • supercompensation: attem pt to hide perceived deficiencies in one area for superior performance in other (Students who have poor school performance, but becomes a great athlete) 24 Jung's theory (1875-1961) • Refusal to consider the libido as exclusively sexual. • Phase 3-5 years - unde rstood as pre-sexual - the libidinal energy serves the functions of nutrition an d growth and has none of the sexual overtones. • He rejected the Oedipus complex - believed that attachment to mother was a function of dependence. 25 Psyche - Mind • Aware - (center of the ego mind) - conception of ourselves. Includes perceptio ns and memories. It is the way of contact with reality that allows us to adapt t o the environment. • Unconscious people - belonging to the individual - desires, perceptions, experiences of one's life that were suppressed or forgotten. • Col lective Unconscious - the deepest level of the psyche - is universal in evolutio nary experiments (not remembered) and forms the basis of personality. 26

• believed that people are the product of two forces: the individual stories and experiences shared with the whole human race throughout its existence. • Contri bution to development of the collective unconscious of the psyche - Archetypes: inherited tendencies contained in the collective unconscious. Ex: the maternal archetype includes positive and negative aspects (mother-threat ening old witch in the Middle Ages) 27 Main archetypes - considered as distinct systems of character. - Persona: the ou ter aspect of personality, the hidden 'I' true. May not match the true personali ty of the individual (social role). - Ego: the center of consciousness - Anima a nd Animus: • Anima - feminine characteristics present in humans. • Animus - these male char acteristics in women. 28 Shadow: 'I' darker. Primitive part of personality. Contains all the desires and immoral and unacceptable activity. Compels us to do things they normally do not permitiríamos. Positive side: source of spontaneity, creativity, perception and deep emotion, all necessary for human development. 29 - Self: most important archetype of the system. Gives unity and stability of per sonality. Representation of the whole person. The conscious and unconscious comp lement each other to form a whole. Both are not necessarily opposed to each othe r. Impulse toward self-actualization.€Self-actualization - the harmony and compl eteness of personality development more fully in all aspects of the self. 30 • g • Attitudes Types of reaction to different situations. Part of the conscious mind, definin them in terms of the direction of libidinal energy. Introversion - The libido is headed for its own internal (inward and resistant to outside influences, less confident in their dealings with others and the wor ld). • Extraversion - Addresses the libido out of the 'I'. For events and people in the outer world (heavily influenced by forces of the environment, sociable a nd confident in a wide range of situations). 31 • The personality differences also manifest themselves through four functions. W ays in which we orient ourselves both on the objective world outside and before our inner subjective world. - Thought and feeling: how rational reaction. - Sensation and intuition: the wor ld depend on the specific stimuli. 32 Psychological functions • Thinking - relates to the truth, the judgments derived from impersonal criteri a, logical and objective. • Feeling - take decisions according to their own judg ments, guided by the emotional aspect of the experience. • Feeling - refers to a focus on direct experience, perception of details of fact. • Intuition - a way of processing information in terms of past experience, future goals and unconsci ous processes. 33 Psychosocial development • Erikson (1902-1994) - Tariff on the studies of Freud's psychosexual stages. - Attention to the impac

t on society, history and culture on personality. - Believes that each stage of development is marked by a crisis to be resolved by the individual. 34 Erikson - stages of development • Oral-sensory (birth to 12 / 18 months): the basic conflict involves trust and distrust. The major event is the food. • Anal-muscular (1-3 years): the child begins to develop autonomy versus shame and guilt. Event: urinary and bowel incontinence. • Genital-locomotor (3-6 years old): the conflict between initiative and guilt. Independence is the big event that stage. 35 • Latency (6-12 years or until puberty): the conflict revolves around productivity versus inferiority. Event - the school. • Teens (12-18 years or puberty to adulthood): the conflict involves identity and identity confusion. Event - th e relationship with peers. • Young adult (19-40 years): resolve the conflict between intimacy and relationships. isolation. Event 36 • Middle-aged (40-65 years) involves the generativity versus stagnation. The defining event is the care with the next generation. is between ego integrity and despair. The ma jor event is a reflection on the acceptance of life itself. • Maturity (65 years to death): the conflict 37