A GRAMMAR Jorge Miranda index The adverb The past participle passive voice and active semantic relationship

be tween words Articulators / connectors speech Transposition of direct speech to i ndirect speech and lexical semantic field acronym, abbreviation and amalgam para texts deictic lexemes morpheme and word Anaphora, Catáfora and Co The subject-re ference pages Speech Acts 3:04 page 5 and 6 page 7 page 8:09 page 10 page 11 pag e 12 page 13 p 14 p agin agin agin p 15 16 17 page 18 page ina agin p 19 2 06 - Adverb • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • Jorge Miranda Adverb - a word invariable in gender and number, with morphological, syntactic a nd semantic quite variable. exs.: (i) Joana makes this race easily. - Invariable adverb. (Ii) The breeze that makes Joan proof. - Adverb subject to variation in degree. 2.1 adverbial phrase - after two or more words that invariably show the distribution and behavior of an adverb. They typically have the following struc ture: a) Preposition + Name = sure, no doubt. b) = Preposition + Adjective again soon. c) Adverb Preposition + = up, close by. Subclass of Adverb - adverb of ne gation - subclass of adverbs that can function as a modifier of the verbal group (i) or a constituent of the verbal group (ii). Grammatical tradition considers "no" as the only negative adverb. exs.: (i) John has not been to the movies. (Ii ) John bought the Anne books but no flowers. - Deputy adverb - subclass of adver bs which can be verbal core group with the syntactical function of adverbial com plements (i) or adverbial modifiers (ii). Adverbs deputies may be affected by pr ocesses of interrogation (iii) and denial (iv), unlike the disjoint connectives. exs.: (i) the school of your children [there is]. (Ii) your children [sleep the re]. (Iii) It is there that the school your children? / / This is where the boys sleep? (Iv) the school of your children is not there. / / The boys do not sleep there. adverbial adjunct of time - a subclass of adverbs Assistant introducing a temporal information. exs.: (i) the birthday party of Joe [is tomorrow]. (Ii) The mother [[going to buy this] [tomorrow]]. tomorrow, even now, before, shortly , soon after, then, today, already, ever, ever, just yesterday, once, always lat e ... Deputy adverb of place - Assistant subclass of adverbs which introduces an idea concerning the place . exs.: (i) Rita [live there]. (Ii) Rita [[spoke to P eter] [there]. below, above, below, here, there, beyond, behind, here, behind, t hrough, here, in front, inside, behind, outside, together, there, where, far and near ... adverbial adjunct of manner - a subclass of adverbs as adjuncts introd uces information on the mode. exs.: (i) John [well-behaved] [tonight]. (Ii) John [[sleep] [good] [tonight]]. (Iii) John [[told] [of course]]. so, well, vain, qu ick, slow, bad, better, worse ... and many adverbs ending in-mind, lovingly, slo wly ... 3 06 - Adverb • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • Jorge Miranda disjunct adverb - subclass of adverbs that function as modifiers of the sentence . exs.: (i) Of course this was the best show of the season. (Ii) Frankly Ana has to win court. certainly, actually, really, of course, possibly, probably, fortu nately, unfortunately, quite frankly, obviously ... connective adverb - subclass

of adverbs which has the primary function of the connection between phrasal ele ments. exs.: (i) Some students in this class, including the Peter and Anne, are to be congratulated. (Ii) first took the books, then pulled away the shelves, fi nally applied the varnish. therefore contrary, therefore, then specifically, ult imately, better, in particular, first, first, second, second ... EXERCISE OF APP LICATION Rate adverbs underlined: Of course, Joan came to the meeting. Joana cou rse held at the meeting. Not always worked well there. The investigation ended y esterday. Students in the class, contrary to the expected, reacted well. The apo stolic nuncio reacted Christian. Effectively, employees cleaned the room quickly . We stopped at lights, thus voluntarily transgressed. ANSWERS 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. • Work produced according to the Linguistic Terminology for Basic and Secondary Ed ucation. 4 10 - The past participle • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • Jorge Miranda It is used: in the compound tenses, the passive voice. There are verbs with two forms: regular or poor, strong or irregular. Weakly or regular is used in compound tenses (active voice), with auxiliary and TER HAVER. EXAMPLES She has spent a fortune. The mother has expressed its concer n in its comments. He had lit a cigarette. Two days later, nobody had given the order. They have delivered the orders. The vet has killed some dogs with rabies. Police have arrested students. Speed has killed many families. The bracarenses had elected heritage as the first concern. The actress has had enough of sightse eing. Parents have joined a little money. The judge had worried the defendant. W hen he arrived, had cleaned the car. Strong or irregular form is used in the pas sive voice and the verb TO BE. EXAMPLES Much money was spent by the princess. Th e inheritance money is spent! In its comments, is expressed the concern of the m other. When the explosion took place a cigarette was lit. The order was delivere d late. The dog was killed by the vet. Many students have been arrested by polic e. Many families have been killed by speed. The property was first elected as a concern by Braga. The actress is sick of walking. Little money has been with the parents. The defendant was restless. The car had just been cleaned when she arr ived. 5 10 - The past participle Jorge Miranda Table of pg. 223 Grammar practice Portuguese, M. Olga Anderson and others, Calif ornia Press, 2006 6 11 - Active and Passive Voice Jorge Miranda 1. The tourists visited the city in February. The city was visited by tourists a

s you already know the phrases 1. and 2. are type-declarative, but the first and the second is an active, passive way. In the first sentence. the action is carr ied by the subject Tourists, in sentence 2. it corresponds to the passive agent - the name usually preceded by the preposition for. Note the layout: The tourist s visited the city. - Active sentence The city was visited by tourists. - Passiv e sentence therefore concluded that the first sentence. for the sentence and 2. transformations have taken place: • the direct addition of the first sentence of the second subject, • the subject of the first moves to complement the passive agent of the second; • visited the verb in active voice, passes into the passive voice - passive transformation. The passive auxiliary verb is the verb be, the main verb of the passive voice is a past participle, which agrees in gender and number with the subject. Only transitive verbs can undergo direct transformation passive. Beyond this process, it is still possible to form a passive sentence t hrough the use of this case is passive, the passive agent is not expressed. Adapted from the practice of the Portuguese Grammar, M. Olga Anderson and others , California Press, 2006 7 14 - Value semantics between the words Jorge Miranda 8 14 - Value semantics between the words (conclusion) Jorge Miranda Meron / Holon (Merónimo is the word whose meaning is part of the overall meaning of another word, calling itself this holónimo.) Example: finger is merónimo han d, hand is merónimo Arm, arm is then holónimo hand and finger. The meronímia is a semantic relation not symmetric between the meanings of two words within the s ame semantic field. 9 15 - Articulators / connectors speech Jorge Miranda • Addition and therefore also • • • and yet not only ... • but also the one hand ...€Sure the other is certainly clear that • • • certainly for sure • course • Completion of course so soon • • • In conclusion finally concluding • • • • fina lly in short Doubt might therefore is likely • • • You can probably possibly • • perhaps Clarification (not) this means that this mean • • • do not think that t his (not) want to end • for • in order to • • to • so that in order to cause as • • • because since because of • as • as • as • because • as • Follows through a ll this so much ... that • • • so that therefore call attention should be noted that • watch in • repair itself • see • Emphasis actually finds itself in effect • • • in fact as we sometimes Example • • before or in this case eg • • ie • • as you can see is • the case is what is happening with Hypothesis / Condition if • unless • unless • if • • the assumption that unless Connection • Save space n ext to the left on • • • • there in the middle • where connection time after bef ore • after • • then • • • until then when opinion in my view I believe that • • • In our view it seems to me that the Opposition / restriction but despite • • • but nevertheless however • • • but on the other hand Reaffirmation / Summary o r in other words better • • ie • in brief • Similarity in short similarly • as • as • as • for the same reason. 10

16-Transposition of direct speech to indirect speech Jorge Miranda 11 17 - Field lexical and semantic Jorge Miranda We call the whole lexicon of words in a language. No speaker has complete master y of the lexicon of the language they speak, because, apart from very broad, it is an open set, ie, every day brings new words to it and words that embody it di sappear. LEXICAL FIELD - Within this set can be observed lexical fields, which a re subsets of words formed from any one area of knowledge or interest. The set o f words "wallet", "chalk," "teacher", "tests", "disciplines", "exam" is part of the lexical field of "school". Note also the example of the lexical field of "ri ght" means "laws", "constitution", "fees", "trial", "witness" ... You can practice playing in http://www.eb23-cmdt-conceicao-silva.rcts.pt/sev/lp/ 2.4.campo_lex2.htm Semantic field - set of meanings a word can have in different contexts in which it stands. The semantic field is, therefore, the whole area of meaning of a word or group of words. The semantic field of "mother" "mother-Watercolors," "single mother", "mother-in-family", "motherland", etc.. 12 19 - Acronym and amalgam Jorge Miranda Designate morphological processes of formation of new lexical units (words). Acr onym - formed from the reduction of lexical units with letters to be easier to r emember, resulting in a word pronounced normally. EX: UFO = unidentified flying object. Fenprof = National Federation of Teachers; Ami = International Medical A ssistance. Amalgam - training from two truncated lexical units: EX: IT = informa tion + system; cybernaut = + astronaut cybernetics, bionics = bio + electronics. Not to be confused with the acronym - which is the simplification / reduction o f one or more words to their initial letters: EXS: BE = Left Bloc; = SLB Sport L isboa e Benfica; APP = Association of Teachers of Portuguese; ADMA = Sickness In surance for the Military Navy; CCB = Fundação Centro Cultural de Belem The symbo ls can be composed with letters and numbers: EXS: GRDEPE1 º CEB = Office of Recr uitment Teacher Education Pre-School and 1st cycle of basic education; AMF2005 = World Year Physics in 2005. 13 20 - paratexts • • • Jorge Miranda Designates all kinds of statements that fit the text. Paratexts are the title, s ubtitle, index, foreword, afterword, bibliography, footnotes. Some paratexts (pr eface, afterword, footnotes) can not be the responsibility of the author of the text. 14 21 - are deictic words that act as pointers in the discourse (thereby replacing the gestures of orality), denouncing the role of the participants (staff), time (temporal) and space (space) of the enunciation of the actors. It is usually sec

ured by personal pronouns, possessive pronouns and determinants, statements, art icles, adverbs of place and time, the tenses and even some lexemes ("go" / "come ", "get" / "from" ...).€There is talk of reference deíctica when construction of the discourse of an expression depends on the knowledge of the stakeholders of the coordinates of utterance. PERSONAL LEAVE defines the roles of actors in the communicative act, through the grammatical person (personal pronouns, possessive and verbal inflection). Perceive themselves to better understanding, the first person betrays the speaker, while the second refers to the person / s interlocut or / es. • Ex: (1) Do not turn around. - The speaker (you) can only be identifie d by the sender. LEAVE TIME Assured through verb tenses and temporal adverbial p hrases, determines the time of the utterance, scoring worth prior (1), concurren cy (2) or seed (3). • Ex: (1) arrived yesterday. (2) Now write. (3) put the musi c John. LEAVE SPACE defines the spatial location of objects or individuals, from a reference point. Assured by adverbs and adverbial phrases of place (for ex. H ere, here, here, here, there) and statements. Ex: Turns me that television. - Th is indicates an object that is close to the interlocutor. 15 22 - lexeme, morpheme and Lexeme WORD - is the invariant in all possible combina tions of the word, indivisible unit (not in terms of phonological). Exs: The PAR T-lexeme can update itself in the form of the following lexical units: - FROM = inf; v. leave. - = 1st DELIVERY. Person singular present tense of the verb go. CHILDBIRTH = singular masculine name. - Part = plural masculine name. - Parturi ent = feminine noun singular. Morpheme LEXICAL - are the minimal units of meanin g carriers that bind to grammatical morphemes. Exs: finally - the lexical morphe me bold. Unfortunately - lexical morpheme in bold. Morpheme Grammar - is the par ty that denounces the grammatical relations (variation in degree, number, time . ..) with the lexical unit to which it binds. Exs:-aria,-amos-plowed ... cannot, cannot-aria, song-s,-es peace, alt-superlative - grammatical morphemes in bold. WORD - is the linguistic element that uses the level of discourse consists of a (o, a) or more phonemes (a, sea, lady), belonging to a grammatical category (nam e, adjective, adverb, ...). 16 23 - Anaphora, catáfora and co-reference Anaphora - when the interpretation of a word or phrase - anaphoric term, depends on a previous one - the antecedent. • Exs: washed. (1) Anthony has missed classes. I met him at the movies last nigh t. (2) I bought lettuce for lunch. The plant must be well (3) The car is not estimated. The seats are all torn. Note - While in example (1 ) and (2) anaphoric terms describe the same entity - with co-reference (in (a) t he term anaphoric it takes over the reference value of the nominal group anteced ent - The Anthony; in (2) the term anaphoric The plant incorporates the referenc e value of the nominal group antecedent - lettuce [1]), in example (3) says to b e a case of anaphora without co-reference anaphoric term since banks do not poin t to the same entity, although remains the relationship with the anaphoric noun phrase that functions as an antecedent (the car) [2]. CATÁFORA - particular type of anaphora in which the term comes before the anapho ric antecedent, you depend on to be interpreted. • Ex: (1) Maria Isabel looked at him and announced: - Father, I will marry! [1] Establishing a relationship of hyponymy / hyperonymy: lettuce / vegetable (s ee page 8). [2] Establishing a relationship meronímia / holonímia: banks / car ( see page 9).

17 27 - The subject Part of the sentence which controls the verbal agreement, may consist of a nomin al group (1) or a phrase (2). exs.: (1) John ate the cake. (2) It is important t o obey the highway code. SUBJECT SIMPLE / COMPOUND SUBJECT The subject is made s imple by a nominal group (a) or a phrase (2), the subject compound is formed by several groups, nominal (3) or phrases (4), linked by coordination. exs.: (3) an d Joao Manuel went to the movies. (4) Who knows manage its resources and has int elligence is successful. NULL SUBJECT Without achieving lexical (5), (6) and (7) . exs.: (5) Chew the food a lot. (6) They feel frustrated. (7) To sell tobacco e verywhere. (8) It is said that not resign. (9) night came too late. (10) one hun dred years ago today that Michael was born Torga. SUBJECT understood NULL Null s ubject which can be determined by the context: (5) [You] ... and Chew (6) [They / them] Sit down. ... SUBJECT INDETERMINATE NULL Null subject that can be replac ed by Some people ... or Some ... (7) and (8). SUBJECT null null expletive subje ct of impersonal verbs (9) and (10). 18 28 - Speech Acts • • • Act of speech - action taken when words are uttered.(Simon Blackburn) acti ons carried out by a speaker through a statement. (JL Austin) Act parlor - the a ct of pronouncing a given utterance, what we say (as a syntactic structure). Ill ocutionary act - an act of speech pronounced by a speaker in a specific context, what is done by saying - ask, answer, inform, ordain, declare sorry, name, proclaim, pronounce ... Types of illocutionary acts: assertive - explanations, descriptions, findings, e g.: One hundred years ago today that the regicide occurred. executives - suggest ions, orders, requests, invitations, ... ex.: Eat the soup, John! commitments promises, promises, threats ... ex.: Let me call you once you know something. im pressive - congratulations, thanks, condolences, apologies ... ex.: Thank you fo r everything! Well there is! declarative - are at the same time, assertions and statements; create a new state of affairs (baptisms, marriages, appointments, re signations, convictions ...); ex.: Consider joined the company! Perlocutionary a ct - effect on the listener of a certain illocutionary force (persuade, cajole, deride, to convince, frighten, intimidate, ...); contrast with the previous ones , which are conducted independently of the utterance to have their desired effec t, or any other result . ex.: He convinced me to take the car! I wanted a ride! • 19