1 A PHYSICAL ACTIVITY IN PROMOTING QUALITY OF LIFE IN INDIVIDUALS OF THE THIRD AGE Case study in the nucleus of the Health

, Fire and Society, which operates the Ce nter for Search and Rescue Fire Brigade of the State of Ceará. Holdayne Pereira do Nascimento Specialization Course in Public Administration and Management Against Claims Sup ervisor: Magda Lima FAMETRO teacher and doctoral candidate in Political Science ABSTRACT This article describes the service provided by the Fire Brigade of the State of Ceará (CBMCE) to a specific group of society, the elderly individuals, as well a s the benefits obtained from such an initiative. In recent years, in Brazil, lif e expectancy has increased significantly due to several factors. Among them we c an mention the popularization of physical activities as a treatment for various diseases that are related to aging. The CBMCE in its policy to prevent accidents and provide services to society, developed the Health, Fire and Society with a social face to meet the seniors. This project uses physical activity as a way to value the aged and insert it in the social context. This research project aimed to select a group of people over 40 years of age, who engage in regular physica l activity promoted by CBMCE and submit them to the exploratory interviews and w ill then be made a critical analysis of the work done by the instructors and the perceived benefits by participants. Keywords: elderly, physical activity, the F ire Department. 1. INTRODUCTION With a growing population with more than fifty years, the government and society have been developing alternative forms of preventive diseases related to aging, such as: osteoporose1, myocardial infarction, 1 Osteoporosis - decreased bone mineral content which causes increased bone porosi ty. 2 sistêmica2 hypertension, angina pectoris, among others. At this juncture, phys ical activity is getting a prominent place as a preventive, nonpharmacological a nd inexpensive to prevent and control these diseases. Opening up, so many possib ilities for the existence of a progressively greater number of elderly with heal th and increasing life expectancy of the population. The Fire Brigade of Ceará (CBMCE), faced with this situation, develop a social p roject targeted for seniors, with the objective of promoting quality of life for seniors. This project is named: the Health, Fire and Society. Part of the proje ct firefighters that teach recreation for people of the community living near th e barracks, located in Fortaleza and in some towns of the state of Ceara. Classe s are held twice a week with about an hour. The places where firefighters teach these classes of recreation are named core. The Health Project, Fire and Society is a voluntary service and no charge to the Fire Department and great social pr ojection for the corporation. The Health Project, Fire Company and has been growing in recent months and the n umber of participants. This situation leads to some questions such as: the numbe r of classes per week is ideal for promoting physiological effects on participan ts? Participants perceived some kind of improvement after practicing physical ac tivities of the project? The time of each session is within recommended to the p ublic on the project? The instructors are meeting the expectations of the practi

tioners of the Health, Fire and Society? To answer these questions the core that operates at the Center for Search and Rescue (NBS) was chosen as a sample. The criterion of choice was the fact that this nucleus has been the first to join th e project. Our goal is to assess elderly individuals who participate in the project for at least one year and observe through field research which were 2 Hypertension - high blood pressure normally. In adults, hypertension is defined generally as a systolic pressure above 140 mmHg or diastolic pressure above 90 m mHg. Three physiological benefits and socio-familiar, these people felt that with reg ular practice of recreation taught by instructors of the project. 2. PROMOTION OF HEALTH OF THE ELDERLY The industrial development has changed the lifestyle of the population, bringing with it benefits and disadvantages. Many of these advances (such as remote cont rol, power windows, power steering, microwave oven, internet, television, washin g machine and so on.) Facilitate daily life of individuals, making them accommod ated and often sedentary people. A sedentary lifestyle predisposes individuals t o obesity, by consequence, increases the risk of developing hypertension and cor onary heart disease. It has been reported that physical activity reduces the problems associated with aging such as blood pressure in hypertensive patients, myocardial infarction, a rthritis, stroke cerebral3, among others, so it is likely that regular physical training and low intensity reduces relevant problems in question (JACOB FILHO, 1 998). Accompanying the increasing elderly population as a cause or consequence, it bec ame imperative that they be taken several additional measures of a preventive na ture, so that this magnificent transformation group was responsible for a propor tional growth of the patient population or the demand for care support to addict s (JACOB FILHO, 1998). We therefore need for preventive measures that promote th e health of the elderly, with the participation of society and government instit utions. 2.1 WHAT MEANS HEALTH IN THE ELDERLY For over 50 years the World Health Organization (WHO) has defined much more comp rehensive this concept, hitherto regarded simply as 3 Stroke - conduct for which the blood supply to part of the brain is compromised, usually because of an infarction or hemorrhage, subsequently, tissue damage. 4 "absence of disease" (JACOB FILHO, 1998). That is, some guy would be unlikely to arrive until the second half of healthy living, since invariably the degenera tive diseases often manifest themselves in this phase. With the expansion of this concept by WHO (1947) that health has become understo od as "a state of physical well-being, mental and social" opened up a much wider range of possibilities for health promotion in the elderly because , it is enti rely possible that this equilibrium can be achieved by an individual with a dise ase properly treated or compensated. Opens, therefore, a wide range of possibili ties for the existence of a progressively greater number of elderly with health

(JACOB FILHO, 1998). Importantly, it is not allowed to defend or use forms of ma intaining quality of life of elderly who have no scientific basis, or have not b een proven benefits. With the demand and development of society is the era of em piricism of the past. Just as an example of the apparent evolution of this knowledge, BURDMAN (1986) s tates that for healthy aging is necessary and sufficient "practice exercise, imp roving diet, reducing alcohol consumption, smoking abolished and control hyperte nsion. 2.2 What is aging? Aging is a process of accumulating experiences and enrich our lives through know ledge and physical skills. This acquired wisdom gives us the potential to make d ecisions regarding reasonable and beneficial to ourselves (WAGORN, TRÉBERGE and Orban, 1991). The degree of independence that we have in life is directly related to a greater or lesser activity of our body, mind and spirit. Despite some decrease in effic iency and capacity as the age increases, it is possible to maintain a relatively high level of physical and mental performance for many years. May We face a choice: the choice to give up our independence and wither or take control and remain vigorously active, fully enjoying the remaining years. Stayin g mentally and physically active reduces the rate of loss of our functions and e nables us to more fully enjoy and enhance the quality of the golden years of our lives (WAGORN, TRÉBERGE and Orban, 1993). 2.3 As your body ages It is not clear exactly how our bodies age, however it is known that the aging p rocess differs from person to person, as well as apparatus or system of human bo dy. The main factors influencing the aging of your body are the time, heredity a nd environment, on which it has little control. However, there are other aspects of your life, such as diet, lifestyle and level of exercise that can beneficial ly affect the aging process and increase their quality of life and well-being (W AGORN, TRÉBERGE and Orban, 1993) . "Some people do not believe that aging is a natural sequence of the other phases , but a consequence. For some, begins at 40 years of age, others consider that a ging begins at conception "(DIAS, 2004, pp. 01). Facing this situation, the truth is that€no matter the onset of aging but rather how people will be prepared to live with it, having some physical independence and sanity. 2.4 AMENDMENTS CARDIOVASCULAR COM The AGING The cardiovascular function changes as we age. One of the most notable changes t hat accompany aging is the decrease in máxima4 heart rate (HR max). While the va

lues of children frequently cross 4 Maximal Heart Rate - the highest attainable heart rate during a maximal effort t o the point of exhaustion. 6200 beats per minute (bpm), the average for individuals 60 years is about 160 b pm (Wilmore and Costill, 2001). It is estimated that the decrease in HR max at a ny age can be estimated by the equation HR max = 220 - age (Karvonen et al, 1957 ). The reduction in HR max with age appears to be similar for both sedentary adu lts and for the highly trained. At 50 years old, for example, men usually have t he same active HR max values of the ancient corridors still active at the same a ge (Wilmore and Costill, 2001). The physiological changes incurred during aging is at least partly responsible f or the decrease of strength and endurance5, but active participation in sports a nd physical activity tends to reduce the impact of aging on performance. And acc ording to Saltin (1986) the amount of muscle mass in older men is well maintaine d with the practice of physical activity, although there loss. This does not mea n that regular physical activity can disrupt biological aging, but a lifestyle c an markedly reduce much loss of physical work capacity (Wilmore and Costill, 200 1). The practice of regular physical activity, especially with aerobic predomina nce tends to reduce the effects of aging, providing its practitioners more indep endence into old age. 2.5 EPIDEMIOLOGICAL EVIDENCE The relationship between physical inactivity and coronary heart disease shows th at lack of regular activity contributes to heart disease process of a cause-effe ct way, as a sedentary person behaving almost twice as likely to go on to develo p heart disease than active individuals (McArdle, Katch and Katch, 1998). Physic al inactivity poses itself as one of the major risk factors for heart disease. B ased on available data, it seems that, if exercise can increase longevity, this extension is related more to the prevention of early death than the improvement in the overall duration of life. May not occur in a wide extending the maximum d uration of life, but active people tend to survive 5 Endurance - ability to withstand fatigue, including muscle strength and cardiore spiratory endurance. 7 to that "old age" (McArdle, Katch and Katch, 1998). Surprisingly, only require s a regular activity of mild to moderate, like walking, gardening, climbing stai rs and housework, to achieve positive health benefits on previously sedentary me n and women (McArdle, Katch and Katch, 1998). This is a theoretical framework th at gives us basis to assert that the physical activities taught by firefighters who work in the nuclei of the Health, Fire and Society, need not be of great int ensity, but mild to moderate. 2.6 PHYSIOLOGICAL RESPONSES IN BODY According Wilm ore and Costill (2001) early studies on aging and physical fitness were conducte d by Sid Robson in the late '30s. He found that the maximum oxygen consumption o f normally active men declined steadily during the period between 25 and 75 year s of age. Transversas6 Research suggests that aerobic capacity declines, on aver age, about 1% per annum (Wilmore and Costill, 2001). There are different studies regarding the reduction of aerobic capacity between active and sedentary people . Anyway, there is an agreement that the rate of decline in maximal oxygen uptak e (VO2 max) in July is approximately 10% per decade or 1% per year in relatively sedentary men (Wilmore and Costill, 2001). It was shown that on average women h ave a lower rate of decline in VO2max with age. However, some studies suggest th at there are differences between men and women regarding the decrease in aerobic

capacity with age (Wilmore and Costill, 2001). That is, the recreational activi ties conducted by instructors of the Health, Fire Company and can be practiced b y both men and women,€because the physiological adaptations and the benefits wil l be similar. 6 Research Transverse - a track transverse of a population is tested at a given ti me, comparing then the data from groups of this population. 7 VO2 max - maximum oxygen consumption by the body during maximum exertion. It is also known as aero bic power, maximum oxygen uptake, maximal oxygen intake and cardiorespiratory en durance capacity. 8 2.7 DEMANDS FOR HEALTH TRAINING tailored to the project, FIREMEN AND SOCIETY M ost well-designed training programs incorporating the principle of progressive o verload, ie, maximize the benefits of training, and the training stimulus must b e progressively increased as the body adapts to the stimulation current. If the amount of stress remains constant, then the individual will adapt to this level of stimulation. And the body does not need to adapt further. The only way to con tinue to improve with training is progressively increasing the stimulus or physi cal stress (Wilmore and Costill, 2001). In the Health, Fire Company and physical activities should be developed using the principle of progressive overload to t he physical improvement is steady and balanced to achieve this, participants mus t first go through physical assessments and from there develop an ongoing progra m of recreational activities and recreational facilities. As for the frequency o f exercise sessions, although some authors suggest seven sessions per week, for others there is additional benefit in more than three sessions per week (URBAN a nd Chakur, 2003). Regarding the duration of physical training session, has been recommended a period of 30 to 60 minutes of aerobic activity (URBAN and Chakur, 2003). Regarding the type of exercise, there is a consensus that the best option in this dynamic exercises such as walking, cycling and running a mild pace, a p redominantly aerobic, according to the benefits that can be obtained at the leve l of fitness: cardiorespiratory, muscular strength and endurance, with lower ove rhead on the heart muscle (MARQUES, 1996). 2.8 PHYSICAL EXERCISE AND LONGEVITY i mportant research provides valuable evidence that only moderate aerobic exercise equivalent to jogging about 5 km per day, promotes good health and can actually prolong life for some years (McArdle, Katch and Katch, 1998). Regular exercise counteracts the deleterious effects of smoking and excessive body weight. Even f or people with high blood pressure, those who exercised regularly reduced to hal f its death rate. Until the genetic trends for an early death were neutralized b y regular exercise. A style 9 life that includes regular exercise can reduce by 25% the risk of death. A 50% reduction in mortality was observed for active men whose parents had managed to live beyond 65 years (McArdle, Katch and Katch, 1998). Exercises walk vigorousl y or even heavy housework for 45 minutes to an hour, 3-4 times per week show a d eath rate 25% lower, compared with more sedentary men: the more active people ar e, the greater his expectations life (McArdle, Katch and Katch, 1998). 2.9 SOCIA L ASPECTS OF AGING With the proximity of old age, elderly people undergo changes in their attitudes, values and behaviors that ultimately affect their physical and social autonomy (SANT'ANNA and Dantas 2002). Although physiological factors and diseases that prevent many elderly people to participate effectively in phys ical activity programs, are the psychological and social factors that lead most of the elderly with a sedentary lifestyle (Dantas 2002). Physical activity when practiced regularly has a very positive social side and can get to maximize the social contact of individuals practicing leading them to greater harmony and the sense of integration, which would sentirse respected, valued, accepted by the g roup to which it belongs, and reducing as psychological problems, coma anxiety, for example, problems that are typical for this age group (and SANT'ANNA DANTAS 2002). Is set out a framework of WHO (1997), which points out the social and cul

tural benefits of regular practice of physical activities for seniors. . March 10. PROJECT HEALTH, FIREMEN AND WITHDRAWN FROM THE INTERNET SOCIETY 3.1 Objectives Providing care for the elderly in the form of physical, occupational activities, promote social and cultural activities and clarification about the health and w ellbeing; integrate people who do their jogging on the seafront promenade,€mostl y elderly people, and firefighters for the practice of physical education. 3.2 COMPANY PURPOSES OF PROGRAM HEALTH, FIREMEN E Bringing the Military Firefighter of social activities with groups of seniors; S hortening ties between the elderly community and the Fire Department's Military Ceará; Undertake a major mobilization to educate the population about the societ y rapidly aging population without prejudice; Seek integration of the elderly to other generations, the elderly raise awareness of the need for knowledge in the areas of enterprise imbued with lectures on domestic accidents and first aid. 3.3 PROGRAM ACTIVITIES 11 - Instructions on domestic accidents and in general, adapting the techniques dev eloped by the Corporation; - Lectures paramedic with the Corporation, relating t o matters of the 3rd age (blood pressure, burns, cardio-pulmonary resuscitation, fainting, accidents Home, diabetes, etc.). - Performing physical activities for seniors - Recreation with dynamic groups. 4. METHODS The universes of the present study are the elderly, may be men and women partici pating in Project Health, Fire and Society. Our research project will study a sp ecific core, located at Avenida Presidente Castelo Branco No. 1000, the headquar ters of the NBS. This core was the first to be formed by the project, with appro ximately two years of operation. Participating in this nucleus an average of 60 persons of both sexes and 70% are elderly and most of that percentage is in the project from the start or at least more than one year of participation. We work with a sample of 31 participants. Our research is qualitative, said the group through interviews s to identify the physiological benefits and social and family felt with the regular practice of physical activity taught by e project also evaluated the improvement in quality of life of degree of participant satisfaction with the instructors. and questionnaire that these people instructors of th the group and the

12 4.1 PRESENTATION AND DISCUSSION OF RESULTS Figure 01 shows the number and age s of people from the Project Fire, Health and Society with more than one year of participation. In the chart 02, in diseases classified as Other, there are people with myocardi al infarction, diabetes, breast cancer and a history of gallbladder surgery, so it is important that all project participants to submit a medical certificate al lowing these people engaged in physical activities. According to field research was found that hypertension is the most common disea se among the practitioners of the project (Figure 2). According to McArdle, Katc h and Katch 13 (1998) and Urban and Chakur (2003), to improve the condition of hyperte nsion is indicated aerobic training, or exercises of long duration and low inten sity physical activity that appears to combat risk factors for cardiovascular di sease in individuals hypertensive. Aerobic exercise reduces blood pressure eleva tion that occurs over time in people who do not use drugs to control it. In Grap h 03 we can see the improvement in interpersonal relationships among the project participants with their families, friends and relatives. The most important fact arising from the analysis of the results is undoubtedly an improvement in the social life of people who attend the project regularly, at least twice a week, for 93% of respondents have significant improvement in thei r lives in relation to relationships with friends, family, willingness to leave home and consequently improvement in self-esteem. Importantly, the opening hours of classes, from 06h: 30min to 07h: 30min acceptance also had more than 95% of respondents. Addressing the improvement of health care, respondents reported tha t they had a positive evolution in their overall clinical picture, as 95% felt t hat their illnesses were more controlled after joining the project. Regarding ho w to teach the classes, 90% of respondents attributed footnote ten (10) for fire fighters. And 100% of respondents would not leave the nucleus of NBS to another core. A point for reflection was that some respondents found the project a bit d isorganized, because he had missed the days when instructors and no class. May 14. CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS With this study we can conclude that the core of Project Health, Fire and Societ y which operates in the NBS is reaching its objectives, especially in the social side, the approach of firefighter with the company as well as the physiological aspect.€The duration of lessons around 30-60 minutes is enough to have positive metabolic effects in the body of the participants (McArdle, Katch and Katch, 19 98; and Chakur URBANA, 2003). The number of practices per week of physical activ ity must be at least three weekly sessions. We believe it is necessary to implem ent periodic physical assessments for practitioners of the project (MATSUDO 2002 ), so instructors can monitor their progress in a more individualized, and manda tory medical examinations every six months, which will allow instructors to carr ying out specific activities for people who have certain types of disease (SILVE IRA JUNIOR 2001). We also believe that strategies should be provided in order to pay special atten tion to people with more than 70 years of age, because of the possibility of fal ls related to diseases related to locomotor and osteoporosis. Statistics have co nsistently shown that 30% of people over 65 years, in most communities, they fal l at least once a year, and this incidence may reach 50% when older ages are con sidered (more than 85 years) (FURTADO and MATISUURA, 2002). From the results we recommend that the questionnaires proposed by the research b e extended to other nuclei so that we can conduct a comprehensive review of the

Health, Fire and Society. It is important for the project organization to make t he firefighters who act as instructors have training courses and race regularly, instructors are evaluated by project participants, as we suggested in our model questionnaire, as this evaluation serves as a thermometer quality of the lesson s being taught. And yet, the creation of a permanent council, which is a control ler of the actions of 15 cores, the instructors and the evolution of the Health, Fire and Society with in the population of Ceará. REFERENCES BURDMAN, 1986 apud Jacob Filho, 1998. DIAS, Deborah. Challenge of hea lthy aging. THE PEOPLE, Fortaleza, July 11, 2004, Science & Health, notebook 2, p. 1. FURTADO, Vernon da Silva; MATISUURA Cristiane. Preventing falls in elderly people. FITNESS & Performace. Rio de Janeiro: v.1, n.3, p. 39-40, May / June 20 02. JACOB FILHO Wilson Health Promotion of the Elderly. 1st ed. São Paulo: Lemos , 1998. Karvonen, M. J., KENTALA, & Mustali, O. The effects of training heart ra te: A longitudinal study. Annales Medicinae Experimentalis et Biologiae Fenniae. (1957). MARQUES, Antonio. The practice of physical activity in the elderly: the pedagogical issues. Horizon. Portugal, v. 08, n. 74, p. 11-17, 1996. MATSUDO, S andra Marcela Mahecha. Evaluation of the Elderly: Physical and functional. 1st e d. Paraná: Midograf, 2002. McArdle, William D. ; Katch, Frank I. ; Katch, L. Vic tor Exercise Physiology Energy, Nutrition and Human Performance. 4. ed. Rio de J aneiro: Guanabara Koogan, 1998. Project, Health, Fire and Society, available at http://www. cb.ce.gov.br. Accessed: January 7, 2002. ROBSON, S. Experimental studies of phys ical fitness in elation to age. Arbeitsphysiologie, 1938. SALTIN B. Sport medici ne for the mature athlete. 1st ed. Indianapolis: Benchmark Press, 1986. SANT'ANN A, Fatima Amorim; DANTAS, Estélio Henry Martin; Autonomy and aerobic endurance in the elderly. FITNESS & Performace. Rio de Jane iro: v.1, n.3, p. 47-58, May / June 2002. SILVEIRA JUNIOR, Antonio Augusto de Ar ruda. Bodybuilding applied to aging. 1st ed. Paraná: Capital Printing, 2001. 16 URBANA, PBM; Chakur BP nãofarmacológico Exercise as treatment of hypertension . Journal of Hypertension. São Paulo, v.1, n.2, p. 134-135, April / June 2003. W AGORN, Yvonne; Theberge, Sonia; ORBAN, William A. R. Manual Gymnastics and welfa re of the elderly. 1. ed. São Paulo: Marco Zero, 1993. WILMORE, Jack. H. ; Costi ll, David. L. Physiology of Sport and Exercise. 2nd ed. São Paulo: Manole, 2001. WHO Division of Mental Health WHOQOL. Portuguese version of the tools for asses sing quality of life (WHOQOL), available at http://www.ufrgs.br/psiq/whoqol.html. Accessed: January 7, 2002. 17 ANNEX I 18 ANNEX II 19 QUESTIONNAIRE 1) Idade_____ Sexo____________ Escolaridade________________________ 2) Work befo re retirement ___________________________________ 3) How many years in this cond ition retired? () A year () () year three years () four years () five years () m ore than five 4) Any disease developed during retirement, which one (s)? 5) How long have participated in the project? () Three months () six months () year ()

a year and a half () two years 6) What is the frequency per week€goes the projec t? () Once () twice () three times 7) After entering the project has changed her social life? () No () very little () Okay () very 8) Do you feel more willing t o visit friends and relatives? () No () yes 9) In the practice of physical activ ity improved their health problems? () No () very little () Okay () much 10) Do you feel willing to attend classes? () No () yes 11) Do you agree with the time to onset of physical activity? () No () yes 12) If you disagree tell me what the best time to conduct the lessons of the Project? ______________________________ _______ 13) Do you think the firefighters are trained to teach the classes? () N o () very little () Okay () very 14) Ways of firefighters teach the classes are enjoyable? () No () very little () Okay () much 15) If you could go for another core, because of the firefighters who teach classes in the project? () No () yes If the answer is yes please explain why? 20 ______________________________________________________________________ ______ ________________________________________________________________ 16) Assign a gr ade 0-10 core that you participate in considering the project's organization and the interests of firefighters. ________________________________________________ ___ 21 ANNEX II 22 Was this document created with Win2PDF available at http://www.win2pdf.com. The unregistered version of Win2PDF is for evaluation or non-commercial use only. Es ta página Will Not Be added after purchasing Win2PDF.