BASIC COURSE OF METROLOGY Prepared by Charles E. Natali Name: ................................................ ......................... ......................... ......... BASIC COURSE OF METROLOGY Concepts / Terminology.

Metrology is the science of measurement. It deals with basic concepts, methods, mistakes and their spread, the units and standards involved in the measurement of physical quantities, and the characterization of static and dynamic behavior of measurement systems. Measurem ent: Indicates in general terms, a sequence of actions that let you perform the measurement itself. It applies to testing, testing, analysis or process equivale nt. The result of measurement, usually numeric, it is an observed, measured, rea d, record, etc.. Measure: It is the result numerically in general, obtained in m easurement, will be manipulated to be a final or certifiable. Accuracy: This ind icates the dispersion of results around a reference value, a measure of the vari ability of measurement process of any magnitude. It is generally associated with standard deviation. Read or Resolution: The minimum amount that the instrument can offer us in fractions of unity, ie, the smallest subdivision of a magnitude that an instrument can read, without interpolations. In measurement systems digi tal display, the resolution is to increase digital. Uncertainty: generally indic ates the presence of errors in the results. This means that the result, actual o r correct, it should be within the range defined by uncertainty. Calibration: me trological procedure is to establish the correlation between values indicated by an instrument or measuring system and the true or correct values corresponding to the measured quantity. Fit: metrological procedure that is to eliminate the e rror of indication of an instrument or measurement system using appropriate stan dards for this purpose. Traceability: The concept which expresses the idea of ha rmonization and compatibility in relation to a reference value. A measurement, o r rather, its accuracy within a string that can be tracked or monitored over the various levels until the original. Metrological Reliability: Indicates the degr ee of confidence that can be associated with the result of a metrological proces s. Instrumentation: The set of techniques and instruments used to observe, measu re, record, monitor and act on physical phenomena. The instrumentation is concer ned with the study, development, implementation and operation of instruments. Major Errors of Measurement Temperature Variation: The standard reference temper ature is 20 ° C for all industrialized countries. If the temperature changes, the play expands or contracts, affecting the measure ment result. When you can not work with the temperature controlled at 20 ° C can be compensated by the error of calculations, just by knowing the coefficient of expansion of the material in question. The formula is: δL = L x x γ δt Where: δ L = chan e of len th L = Len th Ori inal Part γ = δt = Coefficient of Variation of Temperature Examples of some expansion coefficients: Steel - 11.5 x 10 -6 Alu minum - 23.8 x 10-6 Invar - Nickel 1.5 x 10-6 - 13.0 x 10-6 Iron - Ceramic 12.2 x 10-6 - 3.0 x 10-6 Force Measurement : The measurement process requires a conta ct between the workpiece an the tool, the force that causes this contact must b e such as to cause eformations in the play or the instrument. In this process t here is an instrument that have evices to control bloo pressure measurement, such as the ratchet of the m icrometers, but those without these evices epen on the skill of the operator. Form of Request: Imperfections in the surface, strai htness, roun ness an flat ness require a correct positionin of the measurin instrument, otherwise you ca n relate a measurement error. Contact Form: To obtain a correct measurement shou l always seek a contact between the workpiece an the tool that enerates a lin e or point. Parallax: When the traits of a major scale an secon ary are in iff erent planes, epen in on the irection of observation, one can obtain ifferen

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t values of rea in , which imply error. So as a eneral rule, any rea in of ins trument shoul always be ma e to better position perpen icular si ht Conservatio n Status of the Instrument: An instrument calibrate poorly preserve an can ca use an error at the time of measurement. Ability Operator: The lack of practice or lack of the measurement system can be an important source of errors. by li ht in vacuum, the time interval of 1:

TYPES OF MEASURING INSTRUMENTS Caliper The Surveyor Pierre Vernier (1580 - 1637) Bur un y minters County publishe in 1 630 un er the title "Qua rant of nouveau Mathematique" his invention to sub ivi e into smaller units a particular ivision a ainst a ifferent ivision. This pr inciple is calle or Vernier Vernier, an is use to ay in many types of instrum ents an machines. The name "Vernier" comes from the Portu uese Pe ro Nunes (149 2 - 1577) usin a ruler that assist mobile - the vernier - unable to rea fracti ons of ivisions on a main rule sets. Accuracy of ivisions: It is obtaine by s pecial metho s of work in view of the scales were recor e in har ene steel har ness of 56 Rc. The an ular error for this recor in is a function of the follow in formula: f = ± (5 + L) 50 0.0001 f is measure in mm L is measure in millim eters of thickness Traits: It is iven accor in to the human eye. It is known t hat the minimum an le of istinct vision is of the or er of 1 '. Thus the 200 mm limit of istinct vision was 0.06 mm. The i eal thickness of the lines varies b etween 0.08 an 0.12 for rea in calipers with 0.02 mm. General Characteristics: The present calipers, 150 mm to 2000 mm in len th, about the vernier can be 0.1 0.05 0.02. There are caliper i ital resolution of 0.01 mm. The system of i nch calipers the present with vernier to 0.001 "or 1 / 128. Rea in : 2

Nomenclature There are several types of calipers as eep, with fine a justment, with rea in s by the clock, heavy uty, articulate nozzle, with special nozzles, with i ita l rea out, etc.. MICROMETROS On September 7, 1848, the Parisian Jean Louis Palmer applie for a patent to a m icrometer allowin rea in of hun re ths of a mm in a simple manner. Durin the ays followin this instrument has been improve an is nowa ays calle a enera l micrometer, with the exception of France, where this instrument accor in to i ts inventor's name is calle "PALMER". Swiss watchmakin in ustry in such an ins trument has been use previously, without bein patente . Antoine le Couter in t he Vallee e Joux concocte in 1844, combine with a micrometer ial in icator w ith a ivision in thousan ths of mm. Nomenclature

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Quality Calipers As Din Stan ar 862 are recommen e ient of aroun 0.0115 mm per meter ea in calipers with 0.05 mm - 5μm Nozzles: For rea in calipers with - 0. Allowable Tolerance: Use the represents the len th in mm.

as follows: Material: Must expansion coeffic per e ree Celsius Flatness of Nozzles: For r an rea in of 0.02 mm - 2μm. Parallelism of 0.05 mm ± 10μm - 0 an rea in + 0.02 mm 5μm formula ± (50 + 0.1. L1) micrometres where L1

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Definition of Metro "One meter is the istance travele 299 792 458 of a secon ."

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3 Operation: The operatin principle of the micrometer is base on the axial ispl acement of a micrometer screw with hi h precision step insi e an a justable nut. Turnin the micrometer, it pro resses in proportion to the step that usually is 0.5 mm (or 0.025). The circumference of the threa (which correspon s to the r um as it is securely fastene to the screw by ockin cone), is ivi e into 50 equal pieces (or 25 shares in the instruments in inches), enablin rea in s of 0 .01 mm or 0.001 ". Thus, a complete revolution of the rum correspon s to the th rea pitch, an so on. Thus, we conclu e that: Rea in Drum = Threa pitch No. o f ivisions of the rum If the show oes a vernier micrometer with 10 ivisions in the sheath can be rea to 0.001 mm (or .0001 ") for, just as the calipers: Rea in = Rea in Vernier rum No. of ivisions of the vernier

For both cases the reference to the rea in foun in the sheath as a strai ht ho rizontal line an the rum as his own si e face. So, to take the rea in shoul be consi ere primarily the value of the trace of the rum that matches the refe rence line of the sheath. In the case of micrometer with vernier, you must also a the value of the trace of the vernier coinci es with a ash of rum. Rea in : 4 Quality Micrometers: Accor in to DIN 863 are recommen e as follows: Bow: It shoul be of special st eel an heat treate in or er to eliminate internal stresses an must be fitte with insulatin plates to prevent heat expansion of the han s. Screw Micrometer: Must be of hi h ra e steel alloy, tempere har ness of 63 Rc. The threa must have the hi hest precision possible with the mirrore surface. The precision in the step shoul be 0,001 mm. Drum & Barrel shoul be matte black with recor in s that allow easy rea in an enjoyable. Accuracy an Tolerance A missible: To the beat of the axial spin le - Max€3μm surface flatness measurement - 1μm Ma ximum error = 4 + L/50 (mm) Error rea in of zero-settin = ± (2 + L/50) μm Para llelism surface measure = 2 + L/50 (mm) There are several types an mo els of mi crometers, each to serve a specific nee . After some enumerate types: Micromete r with conical tips, with stop in "V", with steppe spherical type caliper, tubu lar, eep, for measurement of threa s, etc.. PATTERN BLOCKS Were create by Mr. C. E. Johansson, at the en of last century, an it was in 1 898 that sou ht to patent his invention. In 1908 provi e a complete ame, in in ches, for Phisical National Laboratory in Te in ton - En lan , allowin run abo ut 80,000 measurements scale in tenths of thousan ths of inches. The pattern bl ocks are wi ely use in mo ern in ustry from the laboratory, servin as a refere nce stan ar to the workshop, provi in an invaluable service, both in the setti n of measurin evices, either in the esi n of parts, or even in our own machi ne tools. Thus all the requirements, the pattern blocks eserve special attentio n from its users re ar in their choice an use.

5 The materials most use for the manufacture of stan ar blocks are:

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Accuracy - Class The au e blocks are manufacture accor in

to four classes of accuracy:

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Steel - To ay is the most wi ely use in in ustries. The steel is heat treate t o ensure imensional stability, an ensure har ness above 800 HV. Carbi e - bloc ks are usually ma e of tun sten carbi e. To ay, this type of block-pattern is us e more as a protector block. The har ness of this type of pattern block is loca te above 1500 HV. Ceramics - The basic material use is zirconium. The use of t his material is still new, an its main a vanta es are the exceptional imension al stability an resistance to corrosion. The har ness achieve in stan ar bloc ks of ceramic is above 1400 HV. Association of blocks: For certain measures, you shoul make the association of blocks, as follows: The blocks shoul initially be cleane with cotton soake in benzene or in some kin of solvent. Then cut up all impurities an moisture, with a piece of sue e, pa per, or somethin similar, lint-free cloth. The blocks are place to cross, one over the other. This must be one so that the surfaces remain in contact. Then m ust be rotate slowly, exertin a pressure in mo erate until their faces are ali ne an there is perfect a herence in or er to expel the bla e of air that sepa rates them. The a hesion thus obtaine seems to reflect the physical phenomenon known as molecular attraction (with a value of approximately 500N/cm2), an pro uces the a herence of two metal bo ies which are finely polishe contact surface . For the assembly of other blocks, the proce ure is the same way, until reachin the esire extent. In eneral, two assemblies are ma e to establish the maxim um an minimum size you wish to calibrate, or accor in to the require quality for work (IT). Block stan ar protector The fabrication of uar s subject to the same stan ar s use in the construction of stan ar blocks normal. However, the term is material that allows to obtain hi her har ness. Usually come in sets of two blocks, an their thicknesses are t ypically 1, 2 or 2.5 mm, ran in in special situations. The blocks have uar s i nten e to protect the au e blocks at the time of its use. Protractor ANGLES (Goniometer) A major achievement in science was the etermination by French scholars at the t ime of Louis XIV, the three elements of paramount importance: Measure the circum ference of the earth. Distance from Earth to the Sun of Li ht! The first step wa s to accurately measure the istance between Paris an Cayenne, thereby obtainin the base of the trian le Paris-Cayenne-Mars. Knowin the istance from the Ear th-Mars calculate the istance from Earth to the sun, an the ra ius of Earth's orbit, measurin at the same spee of li ht. 6 What was the measurement of the an les of the trian le Paris-Cayenne-Mars, we ca n see in an attempt to raw this trian le scale: Assumin 1 mm for the istance Paris-Cayenne, the two si es of the trian le have a len th of 6 m. For us it's h ar to even ima ine such a trian le, but those scientists not only ima ine , as measure their an les with reat precision: The istance to Mars as they iffer by only 6% of the istance to ay taken for rante . The Protractor An les can be ivi e into two roups: vernier, usually accurate to 5 '. Without vernier,€usu ally accurate to 1 °. Nomenclature: Rea in 7 Usin the Protractor An le to etect small variations throu h a tip

 

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Dial Comparator The Clock Comparator has been evelope

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contact an a mechanical amplification system present value with a clear rea in an precision. This instrument is often use couple to some means of attachme nt, such as measurin tables, special evices, instruments, etc.. The operation is basically a zone with a rack that rives a small pinion ear with a soli arit y, which in turn tri ers another small pinion, pinion calle central, which is mounte the rea in pointer. Another ear in contact with the pinion is inten e to eliminate aps in the action of a coil sprin , calle hair.

Nomenclature: Operation: The most common measurement for comparison have amplification system for ears. The ifferences of ma nitu e as the tri er point of contact are mechanically am plifie . The point of contact moves the spin le that has a rack that rives a e ar train which, in turn, rives a pointer on the ial in icator. In most compara tors use , one complete revolution of the pointer correspon s to a isplacement of 1 mm from the tip of contact. As the isplay contains 100 ivisions, each iv ision equals 0.01 mm. 8 Amplification lever - The lever principle applies to simple evices, calle in i cators with levers, whose measurement capability is limite by the small ma nitu e of the tiltin system. Thus we have: amplification ratio = len th of pointer istance between the bla es urin measurement, the stem that supports the mobil e knife slips, espite efforts to the contrary pro uce by the sprin contact. T he han -lever, kept in contact with two cleavers sprin by callin , turn forwar to ra uation. The fi ure below represents the classic assembly of a evice cap able of rea in ± 0.06 mm an 0,002 mm per ivision. Amplification mixe - is the result of the combination lever an ear. Lets brin the sensitivity up to 001 mm without re ucin the ability of measurement.

9 Uses the clock comparator: Dial Test It is an instrument of short course of work an low contact pressure. It was esp ecially evelope for scan jobs eometric (flatness, parallelism, taper, eccentr icity, etc.).. The clock turns an wi ens probe an ular motion of a measurin ti p in a circular pointer mounte on a ra uate ial. This instrument allows mult iple applications, but always en a e in some sort of mountin bracket. Operatio n: The movement of the point of contact causes an an ular movement, which in tur n activates an arm that has a serrate e e, which rives a pinion ear with a s oli arity, which in turn tri ers another small pinion, calle the central pinio n, where is mounte rea -pointer. There is another ear in contact with the cent ral pinion in or er to eliminate backlash because it has a sprin calle hair. 10 TABLE OF Decametre DECIMAL Prefix exa peta tera i a me a kilo milli centi eci eca Hecto micro nano femto atto Symbol EPTGM peak of DCM kh μ n p f a Factor 1,000,000,000,000,000,000 1,000,000,000,000,000 1,000,000,000,000 1,000,0 00,000 1,000,000 1,000 100 10 0.1 0.01 0.001 0.000 001 0.000 000 001 0.000 000 0 00 001 0.000 000 000 000 001 0.000 000 000 000 000 001 Power 1018 1015 1012 109 106 103 102 10 10-1 10-2 10-3 10-6 10-9 10-12 10-15 10-

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18 11