Soft ': NClAS I'EI> A (; Ú (; ICAS IN SCHOOL l'Natica TTloJllento Nesle, valllos tral conceptions of teaching properly dit <: ts, ie, we address

the various the oretical lcndências prelcnderam realize that understanding and orientation of ed ucational practice in different moments ("circumstances of the human histúria. T hus, we are deepening the understanding of the relationship between philosophy c education, which here reaches the level of design filosúfica education, quc it settles into a pcd <: tgogia. Generally, we can say that the perspective is refl ected by redcntora pedagogy "liherais perspcctiva and transforming the" progress ive pedagogies. "-",,, And a discussion is of utmost practical importance rclevá neia because it allows each teacher to be situated theoretically Sohr their opti ons, and sc-alticulando autodelinindo up. descnvolver For the approach: a tenden cy "pedagogical use discretion with ~ the position that each trend adol cm compa red io_" social purposes of schools. So let's organi7.ar the conjl.mto "pedagogi es into two groups. wnforme appears below: I. Pedagogy traditional liberal 1.1 1 .2 1.3 progressivist renewed non-renewed direliva 1.4 technicist 2. Iibertadora Pedagogy progress 2.1 2.2 2.3 libertarian and social critic of contents It is evident that the trends in its manifestations are not pure or mutually exc lusive, which, incidentally, is the main limitation of G ~ or attempt at classif ication. In some cases the trends are complementary in others they diverge. In a ny event, the classification and description may serve as an analytical tool for the teacher to evaluate their classroom practice. The exposure of pedagogical t rends consists of a general characterization of liberal and progressive tendenci es, followed by the presentation of pedagogies that reflected and manifested in the teaching practice. 1. LIBERAL PEDAGOGY The term liberal has no sense of Adva nced • • "• • democratic," • • open, "as commonly used. The liberal doctrine app eared as a justification of the capitalist system that, in maintaining the predo minance of liberty and interests individual in society, established a form of so cial organization based on private ownership of means of production, also called class society. The liberal pedagogy, therefore, is itself a manifestation of th is type of society. The Brazilian education, at least the last fifty years has b een marked by liberal trends in their ways sometimes conservative, sometimes ren ewed. Obviously, such trends have emerged, particularly in school practices and educational ideas of many teachers, even if they do not realize that influence. The liberal pedagogy argues the idea that the school has the task of preparing t he indivitjuos for the performance of social roles according to individual aptit udes, so individuals must learn to adapt to the values and norn1as prevailing in class society through the desc: nvolvimento individual culture. The emphasis on cultural aspect hides the reality of class differences, because although spread the idea of equality of opportunity, does not take into account the unequal con ditions. Historically, the liberal education began with traditional pedagogy and for the sake of restoration of the hegemony of the bourgeoisie, has evolved to the renewed pedagogy (also known as new school or active), which is not meant to replace un1a the other, since both lived and live in prátiea school. tradiciOl. al In the trend, pedagogy is characterized by emphasizing liberal education hWll anístico, general culture, in which the student is educated to attain, by their own efforts, his full realization as a person. The content, teaching procedures, the teacher-student relationship have nenhwlla with the student every day, much less with social realities. It is the predominance of the word of the teacher, the rules imposed exclusivamcnte intellectual cultivation. The trend libcral rcn Ot'ada acentull also the sense of culture as the dcsenvolvimcnto aptidõcs indivi duuis. But education is a process ..; the internal, not external; part dus she n eeds and Two individual interests ncct'ssúrios for adaptation to mcio. ! \ Cducaç; prcsentc i t is life, is part of human experience itself. ! \ Propôc a revamped school educ ation that enhances self-education; it (aiuno as the subject of knowledge), a di rect experience of () means the activity, a student-centered teaching and the gr

oup. ! \ Renewed liberal presents, among naked in two different versions: a rene wed Progressive: a ', or praglllll (úta. principalmer ~ te in f (mlla disseminat ed by the pioneers of the new education,€among which stands out Teixeira (d (~ v e be noted, too, inl1u ':: ncia Montessori, Deeroly and to some extent, Piaget), the non-renewed policy. oriented goals dc self- accomplishment (personal develo pment) and for relaçõcs interpessoúis in the formulation of psi '; ologist Ameri can Earl Rogers. The trend liherullec "ic: i

lu subordinates eJucação to soci ety, and horn function preparing" human resources " (manpower for the industry). ! \ Industrial Society and tccnológica down (scientifically) targets economic, s ocial and political education training (also scientifically) the behaviors of st udents in adjusting to these socks. In tecrlÍcislllo believed the reality that c ontains within itself its own,> Ic.: is, just to men discover Ia:; and apply Ias . Thus, the key is not the content of reality, but the techniques (shape) of dis covery and application. Technology (orderly exploitation of resources, based on scientific knowledge) is an efficient way to obtain the maximization of producti on and ensure an optimal functioning of society, education is a resource for tec hnological excellence. It is seen as a tool able to promote, without contradicti on, economic development for the qualification of the workforce, dt: labor, the redistribution of income, by maximizing production and at the same time, develop ing the 'political consciousness' indispensable to the maintenance of the author itarian state. " Used primarily on the systemic approach, educational technology and experimental analysis of behavior. 1.1 Trend liheral traditional Role of school - the school's performance is the intellectual and moral developm ent of students to take their place in society. The school's commitment to cultu re, social problems belong to society. The path toward cultural knowledge is the same for all students, provided that endeavor. Thus, the less able they should. Lltar to overcome difficulties and conquer their place alongside the m.ai.!. ab le. Failing this, they should seek further professional education. Learning cont ent - is the knowledge and valort: S social accumulated over generations and pas sed on to the adult student as truths. The subjects of study aimed at preparing the student for life, are determined by the law and ordered society. The content s are separated from the student experience and social realities, using the inte llectual value, which is why the traditional pedagogy is criticized as intellect ualist and, sometimes, as encyclopedic. Methods - are based on verbal exposition of the matter andlor demonstration. Both the exhibition as acálise are made by the teacher, observing the following steps: a) preparing the student (the defini tion of working memory of the previous matter, arouse interest), b) presentation (highlighting key points, demonstration), c) association (combination of new kn owledge with the familiar by comparison and abstraction), d) generalization (of the particular aspects comes to the general concept is the systematic exposure), c) application (explanation of additional facts andlor resolution of exercises) . The emphasis in the exercises, the repetition of concepts and formulas to memo rize seeks disciplinary Tropical Mockingbirds forage and form habits. Teacher-st udent relationship - the predominant authority of the professor who requires rec eptive attitude of the students' and prevents any communication between them dur ing the lesson. The teacher conveys the content read form v ~ rdade to be absorb ed; co; tSeqüência, the discipline imposed is the most effective means to ensure the attention ~ Quiet OEO. Conditions for learning - the idea that education is to pass on knowledge to the spirit of criauça is accompanied by an-other: that the assimilative capacity of the child is identical to the adult, only less deve loped. The progranlas, then, must be, 'data in a logical progression, this ~ tio ns of the adult without taking into account the characteristics of each age. Lea rning, therefore, is receptive and mechanics, for which freqüentcmcnte recourse to coercion. The retention of the material taught is guaranteed by the repetitio n of exercises and systematic summary of the matter. The transfer of learning de pends on practice, it is essential to retention, so that the student can answer IA designation "progressivist" vt., N of "progressive education", a term usmJopo

r Anísio Teixciru to indicate the function of a civilization educução changing a s a result of scientific development (the equivalent idea "cvolução" in biology) . This trend is in:; piru-sine philosopher educator nOl1c c-lunericaJlll Jllhn [ IN; wey. 2 .

3 new situations of I (mna sellldhante to answers in siluilçúes ilnteriores. aVilJ iação if the di. verilicaçties of EUR10 per pmzo (inlerrogatbrios oral exercise from home) and longer-term (written tests, work dc house.) ESL () RCO is general ly negative (punishment, notes oaixas, appeals to parents), sometimes it is posi tive (emulation, classilicaçiies). Show / AC (ies practice school - Iibeml Tradi tional pedagogy is alive and very active in our schools. In dcserição presented here include the <; religious schools or secular <; adopting an orientation c! á ssico-humanist or a human-scientific orientation, and this is closer to the scho ol model prevalent in our educational history. 1.2 Trend renewed liberal pro ~ rcssjvjsta Role of school - the school's purpose is to match the n ~ cssidades individual t o the social c, for that, she Devco sc rctratar organize so, how can the life. A ll being within itself dispiic ECM: tI1ismos of gradual adaptation to the enviro nment and a con <; cqüente int.egração these forms of adaptation in behavior. Su ch integration takes place through experiences which must be satisfied at the sa me time, inter.:: Sses of the student and the social demands. The school fits ac supply; experiences that allow the students ducar ~ is in an active process of construction and rec () nstrução the object, a intcração between cognitive struc tures of individual structures and the environment. Learning content - As the kn owledge results from the action based on the interests and needs, the teaching c ontents are a function of experience that the subject experiences the challenges ahead cogllitivos and problematic situations. Takes place, so much more value t o the mental processes and cognitive skills than content organized rationally. I t is "learning to learn", or more importantly the acquisition of knowledge than the knowledge itself. Method di: education - the idea of learning by doing is al ways present. Value to the experimental trials, research, discovery, the study o f natural and social environment, the method of solving problems. Although metho ds vary, the active or new schools (Dewey, Montessori, Decroly, Cousinet and oth ers) are always based on activities appropriate to the nature of the student and the stages of its development. Most of them emphasized the importance of teamwo rk ~ not just technique, but as a basic condition of mental development. The bas ic steps of the method are active: a) place the student in the situation nu.-exp erience that has an interest in itself, b) the problem must be challenging, as a stimulus to reflection, c) the student must have information and instructions t hat enable it to investigate the discovery of soiuções d) interim solutions shou ld be encouraged and sorted with the help of discrete profesSOl e) should be gua ranteed the opportunity to put the solutions to the test in order to detemlinar its usefulness to the life. Teacher-student relationship - no privileged place f or the teacher, but rather its role is to assist the development of free and spo ntaneous child ~ if involved, is to shape the thinking of her. The discipline st ems from an awareness of the limits of group life; so disciplined student is one that is supportive, participant, respecting the rules of the group. To ensure a harmonious atmosphere within the classroom is an essential positive relationshi p between teachers and students a way to establish the "democratic experience" a s it should be life in society. Assumptions of learning - motivation depends on the strength of estinlulação the problem and the internal arrangements and inter ests of the student. Thus, learning becomes an activity of discovery, is a selflearning, and the environment, only the stimulator means. And it retained the ac

 

tivity incorporates the student's personal discovery, which is embedded begins t o compose the cognitive structure to be employed in new situations. The assessme nt is fluid and try to be effective as the efforts and successes are ready and e xplicitly recognized by the teacher. Demonstrations in school practice - the pri nciples of progressivist pedagogy are being broadcast on a large scale in underg raduate programs, and many teachers suffer from its influence. However, its appl ication is very small, not only by lack of objective conditions as tambél ~ l be cause it collides with a basically traditional pedagogical practice. Some method s are adopted in private schools such as Montessori, the method of centers of in terest Decroly, the design method of Dewey. The teaching based on Piaget's genet ic psychology has wide acceptance in preschool education. Pertcncem also€progres sivist tendency to many of the schools called "experimental", the • • community schools "and more remotely (60s) • • the secondary modern school, the version pe ddled by Lauro de Oliveira Lima. 1.3 Tl'llClí'ncia Iihl'rlll "cnllvlItllI Nall-t1ircti \ 'a I'apd her school - I \ l.: l.: NTUA in this has! Ence of the papd es.; At hello' (> rIllação attitude s, ra,: .- íopda which Devco est.lr problema'i more concerned with the psycholog ical than to the educational or social. Every effort is to establish a climate f or change within the individual, ie a adcquaçüo staff to the demands of the envi ronment. considcra Rogers ume that teaching is! atividadc excessively valued, fo r teaching him the procedures, jurisdiction in the matter, classes, books, every thing has very little importance, given the purpose of encouraging a person to c limate self-development and personal achievement, which means being good about y ourself c with their peers. The result of a good education is very similar to th at of a good therapy. Contents teaching - 1 \ ênfa'ie that this trend puts in de velopment processes relations and communication becomes secondary transmission o f content. The "teaching processes are intended to facilitate more students to t he m ~ ios mesmcs to seek for themselves the knowledge that, however, sound" exp endable. Teaching methods - The usual methods are dismissed, whichever almost ex clusively the teacher's effort to develop their own style to facilitate student learning. Rogers explains some of the characteristics of the teacher "facilitato r": acceptance of the person of the student ability to be reliable, responsive a nd have full belief in the capacity for self-development of international studen t ~. Its function is restricted to help students organize themselves, using tech niques of awareness where the feelings of each one can be exposed, without threa ts. Thus, the purpose of school work is exhausted in the process of better inter personal relationships, as a condition for personal growth. Teacher-student Rela tionship - A non-directive pedagogy proposes a learner-centered education, to fo rm his personality through the significant experiences that enable it to develop characteristics, "" characteristics inherent in its nature. The teacher is an e xpert in human relations by ensuring a climate of personal relationship and genu ine. • • absent "is the best way to re ~ ito and full acceptance of the student. Every action is threatening, inhibiting learning. Assumptions of learning - mot ivation results from the desire to! ldequação staff in the pursuit of self-reali zation is thus an act of procedure. The motivation increases when the individual develops the feeling that is capable of acting in terms of reaching their perso nal goals, that is, develop the appreciation of the • • me. "Learn, therefore, i s to modify their own perceptions, hence it only learns what it is significantly related to these perceptions. It is clear that retention is given by the releva nce of learning in relation to • • I ", ie what is not involved with the" I "is not retained nor transferred. Therefore, the assessment loses all sense school, focusing on self-assessment. Demonstrations in school practice - Between us insp ired the non-directive pedagogy is Carl Rogers, in fact most clinical psychologi st educator. His ideas influenced a significant number of educators and teachers , principahnente educational counselors and school psychologists who are dedicat ed to aconselliamento. Less recently, may also cite trends inspired by the Schoo l of English educator Summerhi11 The Neill. 1.4 Trend liberal technical paper fr om the school - in a harmonious social system, organic and functional, the schoo l functions as models of human behavior, using specific techniques. In school ed

ucation the responsibility of organizing the process acquisition of skills, atti tudes and specific knowledge, useful and necessary for individuals to be integra ted in the machine of global social system. This social system is governed by na tural laws (there are in society the same regularity t: the same functional rela tions between observable ~ natural phenomena), scientific discoveries. Simply ap ply Ias. • • The activity of discovery "is a function of education, but should b e restricted to specialists; • • the application" is the responsibility of the e ducational process comwn. The school works well in the improvement of social ord er (the capitalist system), to: liculando directly with the productive system fo r this purpose, employs the science of behavior change, ie the behavioral techno logy.€His immediate concern is to produce individuals • • Conii> eventy "for the labor market, providing, effectively, infoffiütções accurate, objective and fas t. Scientific research, educational technology, analysis experinlent'1l, behavio r ensure objectivity school practice, since the instructional objectives (conten t) resulting from the application of natural laws that are independent of those who know or executanl. Contents teaching - Are infornlaçõcs, scientific principl es, laws, etc.. established and ordered in a logical sequence and psychological specialists. And for education only what is redutíve1 observáve1 knowledge and m easurable; content decorrcm thus of objective science, e1iminundo-sc 4 5. any sign of suhjt: ness, () nwlerial illslruciollaf cncontra-:; and sislt: deals with standardized assessment in manuals, textbooks 1I0S in the cnsino Its modul ar in disposil; you audiovisual dc method. \ 'dl ~ l'll. ~ ino - Consists in pro cedimcntos and técnJcas m; ccssárias the arrangement and conlrole lias condition s amhient <lis, which ensure the transmission / reception in dc / ilHnaç (ies. I f the first task of the teacher is modeling <ls appropriate response to the goal s ilJstrueionais, prillcir> al is to get the comp ') rtc: appropriate treatment for control of education, hence the importance of tecllo! nal methods educ (Jcio nal. The techno! ogi (J is the educational • • impl (Jção systematic scientific principles comportament <lis c technological the educational problems, according to result <LDOs effective, useful: a methodology l.ando c abo, 'Dagli: m system ic comprehensive. "Any instructional system (there are a large variety of them) has three basic components: objective instrueionais operability; r . ados in c-o bservable measurable behaviors, procedures <.! ent instructional c ~ o. The aV'i lia et <LPAs b: ISIC a teaching-learning process; r.agem are: a) establishment o f terminal behavior through goals instructional b) analysis of the task of learn ing; r.ag ("m in order to sort scqüencialmente the steps of instruction, c) exec utable <lr the program, gradually reforçalldo correct answers correspondent ~ s goals. The essence of technology ~ educational programming for sequential steps used in programmed instruction in the techniques of microteaching, multimedia, c omplemen) the elc. The use of instructional technology in public schools appears in the forms of: planning in a way systemic conception of learning as behavior change, operationalization of goals, use of scientific procedures (programmed in struction, audiovisual, evaluation etc., including scheduling of textbooks.) tea cher-student relationship - relationships are structured and objective, with wel l-defined roles: the teacher manages:.; conditions transmission of matter as a s ystem inslrueional efficient and effective in terms of learning outcomes, the st udent receives, learns and sets the information. Professor.'s just a link betwee n scientific truth and the student, and shall employ instructional system provid ed. The student is an individual responsibility, not participating in the prepar ation of an Educational Program. onlookers Both are facing the objective truth \ 'a.-teacher communication alWlo has a purely technical sense, which is to ensur e the effective transmission knowledge. Debates, discussions, questions are unne cessary, as the little matter of personal relationships and individuals involved in the teaching-learning process. Assumptions of learning - learning theories t hat underlie the pedagogy technicians say that learning is a matter of change of

dese: npenho: good teaching depen-le organize efficiently stimulating condition s, so that the student from the learning situation differently than they entered . In other words, education is a process of conditioning through the use of rein forcement of . c:! CSpostas who wants to obtain. Thus, the instructional systems designed to control individual behavior against preestablished goals. This is a directive approach to teaching, centered on control of the conditions surroundi ng the organism behaves. The objective science teaching, from the psychology is the scientific study of behavior: discover the natural laws that govern the body 's physical reactions that can learn, fun to enhance the control of variables th at affect it. componf'ntes The learning - motivation , retention, transfer - res ulting from the application of operant behavior according to Skinner, the learne d behavior is a response to external stimuli,€controlled by reinforcements that occur with the answer or after the same: • • If the occurrence of a (behavior) o perant is followed by the presentation of a stimulus (reinforcer), the probabili ty of reinforcement is aunlentada. "Among the contributing authors for studies o f learning include: Skinner, Gagné, Bloon and Mager. Afanijestações in school pr actice - The influence of pedagogi3 kcni::: ist dates back to February - mid-50 (PABAEE - Progranla Brazilian-anlerieano Au.xilio of the En. "Ino Elementary). H owever it was introduced more effectively in the late 60 with ~ oo jctivo adcqua r of the educational system to the political-economic orientation of the militar y reginle: insert cscola models to rationalize the system of capitalist producti on. It is when the New School orientation gives rise to the trend tecniei:; ta, at least nívcl of official policy, the landmarks deployment model tccnieista are LCIS and 5540/68 5.692/71, which reorganized the higher education and the teach ing of 1st and 2nd degrees. Despite the official machine, however. there is no e vidence of insurance that public school teachers tcnham assimilated pedagogy tec hnicality. at least in tenn idcário. The application of mctodologia tccnicista ( plancjamento. textbooks scheduled procedinlentos assessment etc.). technicality does not configure a posture of the teacher; before. the professional still more to take a stance on the principles ecJética pcdagógicos asscntados nns pc: dllg ogias traditional rcnovada. ') . QU <Jlquersill <J1de suhjdividade, () Ilwll: ri <J1illslruciollal cllcolllra-:: c sistclnati /. 1l0S the l11alluais • •, d didactic books in Mudu) of the ellsin o, audiovisual devices in dc. MétodlJ, \ 'di: I'i / sil / IJ - Consists 1l0Sproc edimentos and technique.; The arrangement and the necessary condition in conlrol e (; es amhienl <lis, which ensure the transmission / reception in / ilflnaçôes. If the first task of teacher is to model resposl <ls pertinent to the objective s i'lslru <.; Íonais the prilJ (; il1al is to get the comp ') rt <.: menlo suita ble for control of education, hence the importance d <Jtecno! nal methods educ < Jcional . / \ tecnoJogia • • education is the systematic application of scientif ic principles comportamenl <lis and technology to educational problems, accordin g to resulwdos effective, used; r.ando a methodology and abo, 'dag (: m Sisterna comprehensive. "Any system instructional <J1 (there are a variety of them) has three basic components: instructional objectives operationalized; f.ados in comp ortamcntos mcnsuráveis observable, instructional procedures aV'1lia c ~ o. ", st eps b, tsica 'dc process cnsino -aprendizagcm are: a) estahelecimento behaviors terminals, through instructional objectives, b) task analysis of learning; f.age m in order to sort scqüencialmente the steps of instruction, c) run the program, reinforcing the gradualmcnte "answers correct correspondent: s goals. The essen ce of educational technology is. prograr.lação by the sequential steps used in p rogrammed instruction in the techniques of microteaching, multimedia, complemen) the etc.. The use of the teen) in the public school instructional nal methods a ppears in the forms of: planning in a way systemic conception of learning as beh avior change, the operationalization of goals, use of scientific procedures (pro grammed instruction, audiovisual, evaluation etc., Including scheduling textbook

s). Teacher-student relationship - relationships are structured and objective, w ith well-defined roles: the teacher admin <; the tra:> conditions for the supply of matter, as an instructional system efficient and effective in terms of learn ing outcomes, the student receives, learns and fix the information. The teacher is only a link between scientific truth and the student, it shall use the system instructional schedule. The student is an individual responsibility, not partic ipating in the preparation of the educational program. Both are facing the spect ators objective truth. Communication professor alWlo has a purely technical sens e, which is to ensure effective transmission of knowledge. Debates, discussions, questions are unnecessary, as the little matter of personal relationships and i ndividuals involved in the teaching-learning process. Assumptions of learning learning theories that underlie the pedagogy tecmcista say that learning is a ma tter of changing the desired: npenho: good teaching depen-le organize efficientl y stimulating conditions, so that the student from the learning situation differ ent from how he entered. In other words, education is a process of conditioning through the use of reinforcement. <:! CSpostas who wants to obtain. Thus,€instru ctional systems aimed at controlling individual comportam.mto against predetermi ned goals. This is a directive approach to teaching, centered on control of the conditions surrounding the organism behaves. The goal of science teaching, from the psychology is the scientific study of behavior: discover the natural laws th at govern the body's physical reactions that can learn, fun to enhance the contr ol of variables that affect it. The componf'ntes learning - motivation, retentio n, transfer - resulting from the application of operant behavior according to Sk inner, the learned behavior is a response to external stimuli, controlled by rei nforcements that occur with the answer or after the same: • • If the occurrence of a (behavior) operant is followed by the presentation of a stimulus (reinforce r), the probability of reinforcement is aunlentada. "Among the authors contribut ing to studies of learning include: Skinner, Gagné, Bloon and Mager. Demonstrati ons in school practice - The influence of pedagogi'l k - cni::: 28 istaremonta t he mid-50 (PABAEE - Brazilian Program-anlericano AlLxilio of the Elementary Educ ation). Entn: much more effectively was introduced in the late '60s with the ol> jective of adapting the educational system to guide political and economic Dú t he military regime to enter school in the models to rationalize the system of ca pitalist production. It's when the New School guidance gives way to the trend te cnici:; ta, at least at the level of official policy, the landmarks of the model deployment techniques are laws 5540/68 and 5.692171, quc reorganize higher educ ation and the teaching of 1st and 2nd °. Despite the official machine, however, there is no evidence that the insurance of public school teachers have dssimilad o pedagogy technicality, at least in tenn idcário. The methodology tccnicistn (p lanejamcnto, textbooks progrllmudos, procedinlentos assessment etc.). Technicist not set a teacher's stance, but rather the professional continues for a more ec lectic approach to teaching principles dc take a..; Sentlldos naked p < : novati ons traditional and renovated. the term "progressive", borrowed from Snyders, is used here to designate the "tr end <.: ias that, starting from a critique of anúlise reaiidades social sustenti llll implicitly sociopolilicas purposes of education. Evidently the progressive pedagogy has no way to institutionalize in a 'capitalist ioeiedade thence s.: r it an instrument to fight the teachers along with other prútica "social. The pro gressive pedagogy has been manifested cm three trends: Iihertadora. better known as the pedagogy of Paulo Freire, a / Iberti, which brings together the champion s of self-management teaching: the r..; ritic; osocial the count / gone that unl ike the previous "emphasizes the primacy of content in its confrontation with th e realities social. versions release / ae Iibertária share the anti-authoritaria nism, the valuing of experience as viviJa ba "and the educational relationship a nd the idea of a \ Àtogestão teaching. As a result, give more value to the proce ss of group learning (participation in discussõcs, asscmbICias, polls) that the contents of ensin0. As a result, the educational practice only makes sense in a social practice among the people, which is why they prefer the methods of popula r education 'non-formal. " The tendency of critical pedagogy and social content

propõc united synthesis of surpassing traditional pedagogies and renewed valuing the pedagogical action as embedded in concrete social practice. Does the school as a mediator between the individual and social, exercising there the relations hip between the transmission of content and the active assimilation by a particu lar student (inserted in a context of social relationships); know the results of this joint critically reworked. 2.1 Trend progressive liberating role of the sc hool - It is not proper to talk about liberating pedagogy in school, since its b rand is acting "non-formal." However, teachers and educators engaged in school e ducation are adopting assumptions of pedagogy. So when we talk about education i n general. it says that it is an activity where teachers and students, mediated by the reality that they perceive and which draw the learning content, reach a l evel of consciousness of that reality in order to act on it, a sense of social t ransformation. Both the traditional education, called • • banking "- which refer s only to file information about the student - quant0 renewed education - which pretecde: would an individual psychological liberation - are domesticated, becau se in D3da contnbuem to reveal the reality of social oppression. Education hbert adora instead€questions specifically realidaàe relations of man with nature and with others, seeking a transformation - hence it is a critical education QJnteúd os teaching - Denominated generative themes are drawn from problcmatização the p ractice of life of students. Traditional content are rejected because every pers on, every gxupo involved in pedagogical action has in itself, albeit in rudiment ary form, the contents of which are necessary party. What matters is not the tra nsmission of specific content. But to awaken a new form of relationship with the experience. The transfer of structured content from outside is considered cultu ral invasion • • "• • or deposit of information," because it stems not from popu lar knowledge. If they are required to read these texts should be written by the learners themselves with the guidance of the educator. At no time was the inspi rer and mentor of liberating pedagogy, Paulo Freire, fails to mention the essent ially political character of his pedagogy, which, in his own words, prevents it from being implemented in systematic terms, in official institutions, before tra n.c; formation of society. That is why his performance is more of the level of n on-school education. What has not prevented, however, that their assumptions are adopted and implemented by a ~ rosos teachers. Teaching methods - • • To be an act of knowing the process of adult literacy demand, between educators and stude nts, a relationship of genuine dialogue, one in which the subjects of the act of knowing are mediated by the object to be known "( ...) • • Dialogue engages ati vanlente subject to both the act of knowing: CDuce-educator and student-edu <: a dor. So if! Ldo, the educational work fornla • • is the discussion group "to who m" It is self-manage learning, content and dynamics defmindo activities. The tea cher is a aninlador that, in principle, should "descend" to the level of the stu dents, adapting to their own characteristics and development of each group. Shou ld canlinhar 'next' action the minimum necessary, though not skimp when necessar y to provide a more systematic infornlação. The steps of learning - Coding-decod ing, and questioning of the situation - penllitirão learners an understanding of the effort. • lived, until you reach a more critical level of awareness of your reality, always through the trocu of ('xperiênclu in Lorne du Pral! Ca social. If it is the 6 7 conlcúdo of trabillho educiltivo, dispensilm is Ulll programs: nil eslruturildo prior, written work. .;, Classes expositiviJs, ilssim COIllOqualquer lipo checks <,; to direlil ilprcnd izagclll dil,! C> rJllilSssas pr ' lprias d, 1 .. educi lção hilncúria and "therefore, tame. But it is admitted to the aVilliação pr <Il ica vivellciada cducildor between wire-educated group process and, sometimes, se lf-made in avilliilção terlllos commitments with iI pr <ITIC Social Relationship s pndessor-student - In the dialogue, COIllOmétodo hasici the relilção is horiz (JIltal, where educator and cducandos posicioflilm to act as subjects of knowled ge. The criterion of good relationships is the total identification with the peo

 

ple, without () the pedagogical relationship c lose <Jflsistéf) ciiJ. Eliminates , for pres.suposto, every relationship iJutoridiJde, otherwise this inviability: the l.ar triJhalho awareness, L1C "approach di; conscience,". This is a "non-di rectiveness", but not towards the teacher is absent (as in Rogers), but remains vigilant to ensure the group a human to say "his word" to express ~; EmSee neutr aJi7.aí. Assumptions Learning - The very desig'1ação clc "education problema: l. adora" as a correlate of liberating education reveals the motivating force for l earning. The motivation is given from the codlficação a problem situation, which is taken away:; l to analyze Ia critjcamen ~ e. "This analysis involves the exe rcise of abstraction, through which we seek to achieve, through representations of reality, the reason for the facts." Learning is an act of knowledge of concre te reality, ie, the actual situation experienced by the learner, and if it makes sense stems from a critical approach that reality. What is learned is not due t o a levy or memorization, but the critical level of knowledge, which is reached by the process of understanding , reflection and criticism. What the student tra nsfers, in terms of knowledge, is what was built as a response to situations of OPRC! "~ o - ie, their engagement in political activism.€Practical demonstration s in schools - pedagogy has liberating and inspiring and promoter Paulo Freire, who has applied his ideas in person àiversos countries, first in Chile, then in Africa. Between us, has exerted a significant influence ILOS popular movements a nd unions, and practically merges with the most experience of what is called "po pular education". There are several such groups that have worked not only at the level of popular practice, but also? Or through publications, with relative ind ependence from the ideas of oliginais liberating pedagogy. Although the theoreti cal formulations of Paulo Freire are restricted to adult education or community education in general, many teachers have been trying to put into practice in las : ny degree of formal education. 2.2 Trends progressive Iibertária Role of Schoo l - A libertarian pedagogy expect the school carries a transformation in the per sonality of the students a sense hbertário and self-management. The basic ide is to introduce ~ m ~ i: tions institutional levels from subordinates who then wil l contaminate • • "The whole system. The school shall establish, based on group participation, institutional mechanisms for change (assemblies, councils , elect ions, meetings, associations, etc..), so that the student once atuarldo • • exte rnal institutions, to take everything you learned there. Another way of work of libertarian pedagogy, related to the first, is enjoying a degree of freedom of t he system - create groups of people self-management educational principles (asso ciations, informal groups, self-managed schools). There is thus an explicitly po litical sense, as stated • that the individual as a product of social and indivi dual development only ~ takes place in the collective. Self-management is thus t he content and method; resunle both the pedagogical and the political goal. The libertarian pedagogy in their discipline better known among us, • • il1Stitucion al pedagogy ", aims to be WNA fOIDla resistance against bureaucracy CEMO instrum ent dominating the action of the state that controls everything (teachers, progr ams, tests, etc..) Draining the auk) economy. COllleúdos teaching - The material s are placed avail ~; jçào student, but are not cxigidas. wn instrument are a pl us, because inlportante conhcci.nento is clear that the experiences of the group , especially vivêucia participation mechanisms critical. • • Knowledge "here is not cognitive research of the real, to extract his wn system of mental represent ations, but the discovery of answers to the needs and demands of social life. Th us, the contents themselves are the ones who Tt.-sultamde needs and interests ma nifested by the group and which are not necessary nor indispenSllvdmente, matter s of study. A1étodo education - and the group experience, self-management in fon ua that students buscanio find the most satisfactory basis of their own "institu tion", thanks to their own initiative and without any Fonni power. Tratu is in p lace • • miíos students whatever is posslvel: conjwlto of the vi <L1. s aea utiv idudes orglUlizuçiio of trabulho within escolu du (n \ l 'in the $ 11 c1l1boruçã o progrumas dl'cisi and \ (d ~' $ exhume 7

it depends neither of doccntes or students). "Students have lihl.: nlade of laho r or perch, the liGllldo inll.: est in teaching lkpendéncia your needs or those of the group. The progress of autonomy precluded any direction rom the group tak es a "crescl.: nl! the": first the opportunity to I.: ontacts, openings, relatio n <ll.: ~: infónnais among students. Then the group begins to organii ' . air, s o that everyone can participate in discussion <les. cooperatives, assemblies, ie diwrsas Fonni participation and expression by the word; Qul.: mquiser olher do something, or enter into agreement eom the group, or retreat. In the third step, the group is organized Fonni more effective and ultimately the qU'lrto time, pa rt for the job. Rela • • u ~ ress RRP (),.-(,/ Belluno - The pedagogy aims insti tueional .. firstly transform relaçiio: teacher-student in the non-directivity, ie eonsiderar since iníeio inefficiency and harmfulness of all methods to ba <; edc obligations and threats. "Although r, and rofessor students are AD, differen t equals, nothing prevents the teacher is put in the service of pupils: first, w ithout imposing his concepts and idea <; without turning students into "object." U professor is a mentor and a catalyst, C1E mingles with the grupu for a common reflection. If students are free to the teacher ahead, this one is for the stud ents (it can, for example,€refuse to answer a perglmta, remaining silent). Howev er, this freedom of ~ Isao has a meaning quite clear: if a student decides not t o participate, because it does not feel integrated, but the group has responsibi lity for this fact and will pose the question: when c is silent on teacher a que stion, your silence has a meaning that education can, for example, be a help to the group assume the answer or the situation created. In all, the teacher fits t he role of counselor • • "and other times, instructor-monitor the disposal of th e group. At no time did these roles of the teacher are confused with the" model ", since the pedagogics libertáJ.ia refusal any form of power or autoridad ~. pr esupposes ~ tosde learning - The bureaucratic forms of existing institutions, fo r their trace of impersonality, endanger personal growth. The emphasis on inform al learning via group, and the denial of all forms of repression aimed at promot ing developing people freer. The motivation is therefore in the interest in grow ing within the group experience, because it is assumed that the group return to each of its members to satisfy their aspirations and needs. vanish the experienc ed, the experienced is incorporated and usable in new situations. The criterion of relevance of systematic knowledge is its possible practical use. I therefore do not sense any attempt to fu evaluation - will learning, at least in terms of content. Other teildências runs educational / Minutes - The libertarian pedagogy covers a lmost all the anti-authoritarian tendencies in education, among them, the anarch ist, the psychoanalyst, the sociologists, and also that of progressive teachers. Although Neill and Rogers can not be cx) Osiderados progressive (as understood here), also affects some libertarians, such as Lobrot Among the foreigners must cite Vasquez and among the most reeentes Oury, Ferrer y Guardia among the oldest . Particularly significant is the work of C. Freinet, which has been extensively studied among us, there are even some schools applying his method. Among schola rs and popularizers of the trend can be cited libertáJ.ia Tragtenberg Mauritius, despite the keynote of his work is not exactly educational, but criticizes the institutions in favor of a self-managed project. 2.3 Trend C4 progressive social -critical content "Role of the school - the broadcast content is the primary tas k. Not content abstract, but alive, concrete, and therefore inseparable from soc ial realities. The appreciation of the school as a tool for knowledge acquisitio n service that is best suited to people's interests, since the school can help e liminate the social selectivity and take la democratic. If the school is part of the social whole, to act within it is also acting in the course of the transfor nlação society. If what defines a critical pedagogy is the consciousness of thei r restrictions hislóricO-l'ociais, the function of pedagogy • • of contents "is a step in the frenlc transformative role of school, but from existing conditions . Thus, the condition for which the school serves the interests of the people is to provide everyone with bbiü education, that is, ownership of basic school sub jects that resonate in the lives of students. Understood in this sense, educatio

n is an activity • • mediator in the Scio prálica soeial global ", ie one of the mediations in which the student, the teacher's intervention and his own partici pation relieves, is an experiment initially confused and fragmenlada (syncretic) to a synthetic vision and more organized uniftcada. In summary, the performance of the school is to prepare the student for the adult world and SUllS cl'lltrad ições, forneeendo him an instrumental by mcio of content acquisition and sociali zation for an organized and active participation in society dcmocratizaçilo. 8 . C) Conll'lÍdos di 'I'lIsillO - are universal cultural content that is C (dc JIlstit uíriJlIIcm dOlJlínios knowle (; rdativam nt:.: Nk autÍlnolllos incorporated pda IlIlIn'JIlidade but perlllóJncnlcrncllle rcavaliados lace to social rcalidades. While it is accepted that contents are rcal idadcs outer aI) student, who devell l simplcsmcnte not be assimilated and reinvented, they do not s. "Io refratfJrio s closed and the social realidlldes. It is not enough content to be ap (; in <, (; r.sinados, however well trained, we need to turn it on, d (; Fonni inseparabl e, their human and social significance. This way of conceiving the contents of k nowledge estahelece no opposition between high culture and popular culture, or s pontaneous, but a continuing relationship where, progressivamcnte,€if Passil of immediate experience and knowledge sistematil disorganized '.. ado. Perch that t he first apprehension of reality is wrong, ma <, it is necessary to rise to a hi gher Fonni preparation, conscguida prc'Jprio the student, with the intervcnção t eacher. The posture of pedagogy "content" - Assuming a knowledge; ent relllrivam c: nte llutimomo takes s'lbcr as having a relatively objective content, ma <;, t he same specimen tcmpo introduces the possibility of a critical reassessment of the face of this content . As sin ~ etiza Snyders, to mention the role of the te acher, it is, on one hand, to obtain the student's access to content, linking th em with the actual experience of it - the continuity, but on the other, to provi de evidence critical analysis that will help students to overcome the experience , stereotypes, pressure diffuse the dominant ideology - is the rupture. These co nsiderations it is clear that one can go to learn to political engagement, but n ot vice versa, at the risk of affecting the very specific nature of knowledge an d even fall into a Fonni pedagogical ideology that is what is critical in tradit ional pedagogy and the new pedagogy. Teaching methods - The question of methods is subordinated to the content: if the objective is to highlight the acquisition of knowledge and a knowledge sociaiE linked to the realities, we need to promot e the methods matching the contents with students' interests and that they can r ecognize in the help content to their efforts to understand the reality (social practice). Thus, it is not dogmatic methods of transmitting knowledge of traditi onal pedagogy, nor its replacement by the discovery, investigation or free expre ssion of opinions, as if the knowledge could be invented by the child, in the de sign of pedagogy renewed. The methods of critical pedagogy and social content p' lrtem not then know of one artificial, deposited from the outside, not knowing t he spontaneous, but a direct relationship with the student experience, faced wit h the knowledge brought out. The work Docena:. And relates the practice as exper ienced by '\ lunos with the contents proposed by the teacher, when it will happe n to "break" in relation to experience little elaborate. Such a rupture is only possible with the explicit introduction by the teacher, the new elements of anal ysis to be applied to the practice of critically alun \). In other words, a less on begins with the observation of actual practice, havend ~, then awareness of t his practice in the sense described earlier-Ia to the terms of proposed content, in the form of a clash between experience and explanation of the teacher. That is to say: go to the action to the understanding and understanding into action, until the synthesis, which is nothing but the unity of theory and practice. Teac her-student relationship - If, as shown earlier, knowledge is the result of exch anges that are established in the interaction between the environment (natural,

 

social, cultural) and the subject, the teacher being the mediator, then the rela tionship is to replenish the teaching conditions in teachers and students can co llaborate to advance these exchanges. The adult role is irreplaceable, but empha sis is also participlição student in the process. That is, the student, with his experience inIediata nun! cultural context, participating in the search for tru th, I was going to confront with the content and models expressed by the teacher . But ess ~ effort in guiding the teacher in open outlook from Contel implies wu involvement with the lifestyle of students with inclw.ive awareness of the cont rasts between their cultures and the student. Do not be content, however, to sat isfy only need ~ and shortcomings; sought despcI1ar other needs, speed and disci pline mélodC's dc study, require the effort of alwlo propose content and models compatible with their experiences, so that the student be mobilized for union ac tive participation. Evidently the mediating role played in the analysis of tomo conteÓdos excludes nãodiretividade as fomla guidance of school work, because the adult-alwlO dialogue is uneven. The adult has more experience about the social realities, has a fomlação (at least should have) to teach, and he has the knowle dge to do it anal sc content in comparison with social realities. Non-directiven ess leave students to their own desires, as if he .. 'had UMN spontaneous tenden cy to achieve the expected goals of education. We know that trends are not nntum is cspontânens c • • natural "before tax are the conditions of Vidna and the env ironment. There are suticientes love, acceptance, that the children of pure trab alhlldores acquire the desire to study ISMN. pr ~) chalk: it is I \ l × cess.Ari ues the ICJ intervelll,:; io UOprolCssor pair <! take. a1uno the acrcditar in their possihil idades to go lIIais longl ~, extended iI try: NEIA viviua. I ',. Cs, MPOS / the c / e apl't' JiZlI); I'1II - In an effort prúprio, the student is recognized in conteúuos 1II0UcJOS and social apresenti.luos by pwlCssor; to ~ yes, turn enlarg e prúpria your experience. () again if eonheeimenlo apúia eognitiva an existing structure, or prolCssor Ul provides the structure: the student. 's beautiful doe s not have. The degree of involvement in learning dependc both the readiness and willingness uo student, the teacher's the context of c ~; wing classrooms. Lear n, ua peuagogia within the view of content, is the ability descnvolver dc proecs sar and information which would deal with environmental stimuli uo, organizé1l1d o available data of experience. As a result, the principle admitc the aprendiend o. "significant act" that assumes, as bread, so original, check what the student already knows. The teacher needs to know (understand) what students say or do, the student needs compr.: Cnder what the teacher tries to tell to them. The tran sfer of learning occurs from the moment of synthesis, ie, when the student surpa sses his vision and p'lreial confusing and becomes a:! dara and unifying vision. Resuita clearly that the work ~ paste needs to be evaluated, not as dogmatic an d definitive trial of the teacher, but as a demonstration for the student of the ir progress toward notions more systematized. Demonstrations in school practice - The effort to establish a pedagogy "content" is to propose models of teachingoriented content-interaction social realities, so in order to advance in terms o f a joint political and pedagogical, that as an extension of this , or education "in the service of transformation of production relations." Although the short term it is hoped the teacher greater knowledge of the contents of its matter and the field of transmission, to ensure technical competence, his contribution "wi ll be more effective as more capable of understanding the links of your practice with the overall social practice, taking into \ ist (...) "the democratization of society brasileLra, care of the interests of the grassroots, the structural t ransformation of Brazilian society" Within the general Iiuhas exposed here, we can mention the pioneering but more remote, the Russian writer and educator, Ma karenko. Among the present authors cite B. Charlot, Suchodolski, Manacorda and, in particular, G. Snyders, in addition to Brazilian authors who are developing r esearch relevant to destaeando Demerval Saviani.

 

I L I I I I Note: This book was drawn from texts of Cyprian and Jose Carlos Carlos Luckesi L ibaneo. 10

Related Interests

lu subordinates eJucação to soci ety, and horn function preparing" human resources " (manpower for the industry). ! \ Industrial Society and tccnológica down (scientifically) targets economic, s ocial and political education training (also scientifically) the behaviors of st udents in adjusting to these socks. In tecrlÍcislllo believed the reality that c ontains within itself its own,> Ic.: is, just to men discover Ia:; and apply Ias . Thus, the key is not the content of reality, but the techniques (shape) of dis covery and application. Technology (orderly exploitation of resources, based on scientific knowledge) is an efficient way to obtain the maximization of producti on and ensure an optimal functioning of society, education is a resource for tec hnological excellence. It is seen as a tool able to promote, without contradicti on, economic development for the qualification of the workforce, dt: labor, the redistribution of income, by maximizing production and at the same time, develop ing the 'political consciousness' indispensable to the maintenance of the author itarian state. " Used primarily on the systemic approach, educational technology and experimental analysis of behavior. 1.1 Trend liheral traditional Role of school - the school's performance is the intellectual and moral developm ent of students to take their place in society. The school's commitment to cultu re, social problems belong to society. The path toward cultural knowledge is the same for all students, provided that endeavor. Thus, the less able they should. Lltar to overcome difficulties and conquer their place alongside the m.ai.!. ab le. Failing this, they should seek further professional education. Learning cont ent - is the knowledge and valort: S social accumulated over generations and pas sed on to the adult student as truths. The subjects of study aimed at preparing the student for life, are determined by the law and ordered society. The content s are separated from the student experience and social realities, using the inte llectual value, which is why the traditional pedagogy is criticized as intellect ualist and, sometimes, as encyclopedic. Methods - are based on verbal exposition of the matter andlor demonstration. Both the exhibition as acálise are made by the teacher, observing the following steps: a) preparing the student (the defini tion of working memory of the previous matter, arouse interest), b) presentation (highlighting key points, demonstration), c) association (combination of new kn owledge with the familiar by comparison and abstraction), d) generalization (of the particular aspects comes to the general concept is the systematic exposure), c) application (explanation of additional facts andlor resolution of exercises) . The emphasis in the exercises, the repetition of concepts and formulas to memo rize seeks disciplinary Tropical Mockingbirds forage and form habits. Teacher-st udent relationship - the predominant authority of the professor who requires rec eptive attitude of the students' and prevents any communication between them dur ing the lesson. The teacher conveys the content read form v ~ rdade to be absorb ed; co; tSeqüência, the discipline imposed is the most effective means to ensure the attention ~ Quiet OEO. Conditions for learning - the idea that education is to pass on knowledge to the spirit of criauça is accompanied by an-other: that the assimilative capacity of the child is identical to the adult, only less deve loped. The progranlas, then, must be, 'data in a logical progression, this ~ tio ns of the adult without taking into account the characteristics of each age. Lea rning, therefore, is receptive and mechanics, for which freqüentcmcnte recourse to coercion. The retention of the material taught is guaranteed by the repetitio n of exercises and systematic summary of the matter. The transfer of learning de pends on practice, it is essential to retention, so that the student can answer IA designation "progressivist" vt., N of "progressive education", a term usmJopo

r Anísio Teixciru to indicate the function of a civilization educução changing a s a result of scientific development (the equivalent idea "cvolução" in biology) . This trend is in:; piru-sine philosopher educator nOl1c c-lunericaJlll Jllhn [ IN; wey. 2 .

3 new situations of I (mna sellldhante to answers in siluilçúes ilnteriores. aVilJ iação if the di. verilicaçties of EUR10 per pmzo (inlerrogatbrios oral exercise from home) and longer-term (written tests, work dc house.) ESL () RCO is general ly negative (punishment, notes oaixas, appeals to parents), sometimes it is posi tive (emulation, classilicaçiies). Show / AC (ies practice school - Iibeml Tradi tional pedagogy is alive and very active in our schools. In dcserição presented here include the <; religious schools or secular <; adopting an orientation c! á ssico-humanist or a human-scientific orientation, and this is closer to the scho ol model prevalent in our educational history. 1.2 Trend renewed liberal pro ~ rcssjvjsta Role of school - the school's purpose is to match the n ~ cssidades individual t o the social c, for that, she Devco sc rctratar organize so, how can the life. A ll being within itself dispiic ECM: tI1ismos of gradual adaptation to the enviro nment and a con <; cqüente int.egração these forms of adaptation in behavior. Su ch integration takes place through experiences which must be satisfied at the sa me time, inter.:: Sses of the student and the social demands. The school fits ac supply; experiences that allow the students ducar ~ is in an active process of construction and rec () nstrução the object, a intcração between cognitive struc tures of individual structures and the environment. Learning content - As the kn owledge results from the action based on the interests and needs, the teaching c ontents are a function of experience that the subject experiences the challenges ahead cogllitivos and problematic situations. Takes place, so much more value t o the mental processes and cognitive skills than content organized rationally. I t is "learning to learn", or more importantly the acquisition of knowledge than the knowledge itself. Method di: education - the idea of learning by doing is al ways present. Value to the experimental trials, research, discovery, the study o f natural and social environment, the method of solving problems. Although metho ds vary, the active or new schools (Dewey, Montessori, Decroly, Cousinet and oth ers) are always based on activities appropriate to the nature of the student and the stages of its development. Most of them emphasized the importance of teamwo rk ~ not just technique, but as a basic condition of mental development. The bas ic steps of the method are active: a) place the student in the situation nu.-exp erience that has an interest in itself, b) the problem must be challenging, as a stimulus to reflection, c) the student must have information and instructions t hat enable it to investigate the discovery of soiuções d) interim solutions shou ld be encouraged and sorted with the help of discrete profesSOl e) should be gua ranteed the opportunity to put the solutions to the test in order to detemlinar its usefulness to the life. Teacher-student relationship - no privileged place f or the teacher, but rather its role is to assist the development of free and spo ntaneous child ~ if involved, is to shape the thinking of her. The discipline st ems from an awareness of the limits of group life; so disciplined student is one that is supportive, participant, respecting the rules of the group. To ensure a harmonious atmosphere within the classroom is an essential positive relationshi p between teachers and students a way to establish the "democratic experience" a s it should be life in society. Assumptions of learning - motivation depends on the strength of estinlulação the problem and the internal arrangements and inter ests of the student. Thus, learning becomes an activity of discovery, is a selflearning, and the environment, only the stimulator means. And it retained the ac

 

tivity incorporates the student's personal discovery, which is embedded begins t o compose the cognitive structure to be employed in new situations. The assessme nt is fluid and try to be effective as the efforts and successes are ready and e xplicitly recognized by the teacher. Demonstrations in school practice - the pri nciples of progressivist pedagogy are being broadcast on a large scale in underg raduate programs, and many teachers suffer from its influence. However, its appl ication is very small, not only by lack of objective conditions as tambél ~ l be cause it collides with a basically traditional pedagogical practice. Some method s are adopted in private schools such as Montessori, the method of centers of in terest Decroly, the design method of Dewey. The teaching based on Piaget's genet ic psychology has wide acceptance in preschool education. Pertcncem also€progres sivist tendency to many of the schools called "experimental", the • • community schools "and more remotely (60s) • • the secondary modern school, the version pe ddled by Lauro de Oliveira Lima. 1.3 Tl'llClí'ncia Iihl'rlll "cnllvlItllI Nall-t1ircti \ 'a I'apd her school - I \ l.: l.: NTUA in this has! Ence of the papd es.; At hello' (> rIllação attitude s, ra,: .- íopda which Devco est.lr problema'i more concerned with the psycholog ical than to the educational or social. Every effort is to establish a climate f or change within the individual, ie a adcquaçüo staff to the demands of the envi ronment. considcra Rogers ume that teaching is! atividadc excessively valued, fo r teaching him the procedures, jurisdiction in the matter, classes, books, every thing has very little importance, given the purpose of encouraging a person to c limate self-development and personal achievement, which means being good about y ourself c with their peers. The result of a good education is very similar to th at of a good therapy. Contents teaching - 1 \ ênfa'ie that this trend puts in de velopment processes relations and communication becomes secondary transmission o f content. The "teaching processes are intended to facilitate more students to t he m ~ ios mesmcs to seek for themselves the knowledge that, however, sound" exp endable. Teaching methods - The usual methods are dismissed, whichever almost ex clusively the teacher's effort to develop their own style to facilitate student learning. Rogers explains some of the characteristics of the teacher "facilitato r": acceptance of the person of the student ability to be reliable, responsive a nd have full belief in the capacity for self-development of international studen t ~. Its function is restricted to help students organize themselves, using tech niques of awareness where the feelings of each one can be exposed, without threa ts. Thus, the purpose of school work is exhausted in the process of better inter personal relationships, as a condition for personal growth. Teacher-student Rela tionship - A non-directive pedagogy proposes a learner-centered education, to fo rm his personality through the significant experiences that enable it to develop characteristics, "" characteristics inherent in its nature. The teacher is an e xpert in human relations by ensuring a climate of personal relationship and genu ine. • • absent "is the best way to re ~ ito and full acceptance of the student. Every action is threatening, inhibiting learning. Assumptions of learning - mot ivation results from the desire to! ldequação staff in the pursuit of self-reali zation is thus an act of procedure. The motivation increases when the individual develops the feeling that is capable of acting in terms of reaching their perso nal goals, that is, develop the appreciation of the • • me. "Learn, therefore, i s to modify their own perceptions, hence it only learns what it is significantly related to these perceptions. It is clear that retention is given by the releva nce of learning in relation to • • I ", ie what is not involved with the" I "is not retained nor transferred. Therefore, the assessment loses all sense school, focusing on self-assessment. Demonstrations in school practice - Between us insp ired the non-directive pedagogy is Carl Rogers, in fact most clinical psychologi st educator. His ideas influenced a significant number of educators and teachers , principahnente educational counselors and school psychologists who are dedicat ed to aconselliamento. Less recently, may also cite trends inspired by the Schoo l of English educator Summerhi11 The Neill. 1.4 Trend liberal technical paper fr om the school - in a harmonious social system, organic and functional, the schoo l functions as models of human behavior, using specific techniques. In school ed

ucation the responsibility of organizing the process acquisition of skills, atti tudes and specific knowledge, useful and necessary for individuals to be integra ted in the machine of global social system. This social system is governed by na tural laws (there are in society the same regularity t: the same functional rela tions between observable ~ natural phenomena), scientific discoveries. Simply ap ply Ias. • • The activity of discovery "is a function of education, but should b e restricted to specialists; • • the application" is the responsibility of the e ducational process comwn. The school works well in the improvement of social ord er (the capitalist system), to: liculando directly with the productive system fo r this purpose, employs the science of behavior change, ie the behavioral techno logy.€His immediate concern is to produce individuals • • Conii> eventy "for the labor market, providing, effectively, infoffiütções accurate, objective and fas t. Scientific research, educational technology, analysis experinlent'1l, behavio r ensure objectivity school practice, since the instructional objectives (conten t) resulting from the application of natural laws that are independent of those who know or executanl. Contents teaching - Are infornlaçõcs, scientific principl es, laws, etc.. established and ordered in a logical sequence and psychological specialists. And for education only what is redutíve1 observáve1 knowledge and m easurable; content decorrcm thus of objective science, e1iminundo-sc 4 5. any sign of suhjt: ness, () nwlerial illslruciollaf cncontra-:; and sislt: deals with standardized assessment in manuals, textbooks 1I0S in the cnsino Its modul ar in disposil; you audiovisual dc method. \ 'dl ~ l'll. ~ ino - Consists in pro cedimcntos and técnJcas m; ccssárias the arrangement and conlrole lias condition s amhient <lis, which ensure the transmission / reception in dc / ilHnaç (ies. I f the first task of the teacher is modeling <ls appropriate response to the goal s ilJstrueionais, prillcir> al is to get the comp ') rtc: appropriate treatment for control of education, hence the importance of tecllo! nal methods educ (Jcio nal. The techno! ogi (J is the educational • • impl (Jção systematic scientific principles comportament <lis c technological the educational problems, according to result <LDOs effective, useful: a methodology l.ando c abo, 'Dagli: m system ic comprehensive. "Any instructional system (there are a large variety of them) has three basic components: objective instrueionais operability; r . ados in c-o bservable measurable behaviors, procedures <.! ent instructional c ~ o. The aV'i lia et <LPAs b: ISIC a teaching-learning process; r.agem are: a) establishment o f terminal behavior through goals instructional b) analysis of the task of learn ing; r.ag ("m in order to sort scqüencialmente the steps of instruction, c) exec utable <lr the program, gradually reforçalldo correct answers correspondent ~ s goals. The essence of technology ~ educational programming for sequential steps used in programmed instruction in the techniques of microteaching, multimedia, c omplemen) the elc. The use of instructional technology in public schools appears in the forms of: planning in a way systemic conception of learning as behavior change, operationalization of goals, use of scientific procedures (programmed in struction, audiovisual, evaluation etc., including scheduling of textbooks.) tea cher-student relationship - relationships are structured and objective, with wel l-defined roles: the teacher manages:.; conditions transmission of matter as a s ystem inslrueional efficient and effective in terms of learning outcomes, the st udent receives, learns and sets the information. Professor.'s just a link betwee n scientific truth and the student, and shall employ instructional system provid ed. The student is an individual responsibility, not participating in the prepar ation of an Educational Program. onlookers Both are facing the objective truth \ 'a.-teacher communication alWlo has a purely technical sense, which is to ensur e the effective transmission knowledge. Debates, discussions, questions are unne cessary, as the little matter of personal relationships and individuals involved in the teaching-learning process. Assumptions of learning - learning theories t hat underlie the pedagogy technicians say that learning is a matter of change of

dese: npenho: good teaching depen-le organize efficiently stimulating condition s, so that the student from the learning situation differently than they entered . In other words, education is a process of conditioning through the use of rein forcement of . c:! CSpostas who wants to obtain. Thus, the instructional systems designed to control individual behavior against preestablished goals. This is a directive approach to teaching, centered on control of the conditions surroundi ng the organism behaves. The objective science teaching, from the psychology is the scientific study of behavior: discover the natural laws that govern the body 's physical reactions that can learn, fun to enhance the control of variables th at affect it. componf'ntes The learning - motivation , retention, transfer - res ulting from the application of operant behavior according to Skinner, the learne d behavior is a response to external stimuli,€controlled by reinforcements that occur with the answer or after the same: • • If the occurrence of a (behavior) o perant is followed by the presentation of a stimulus (reinforcer), the probabili ty of reinforcement is aunlentada. "Among the contributing authors for studies o f learning include: Skinner, Gagné, Bloon and Mager. Afanijestações in school pr actice - The influence of pedagogi3 kcni::: ist dates back to February - mid-50 (PABAEE - Progranla Brazilian-anlerieano Au.xilio of the En. "Ino Elementary). H owever it was introduced more effectively in the late 60 with ~ oo jctivo adcqua r of the educational system to the political-economic orientation of the militar y reginle: insert cscola models to rationalize the system of capitalist producti on. It is when the New School orientation gives rise to the trend tecniei:; ta, at least nívcl of official policy, the landmarks deployment model tccnieista are LCIS and 5540/68 5.692/71, which reorganized the higher education and the teach ing of 1st and 2nd degrees. Despite the official machine, however. there is no e vidence of insurance that public school teachers tcnham assimilated pedagogy tec hnicality. at least in tenn idcário. The application of mctodologia tccnicista ( plancjamento. textbooks scheduled procedinlentos assessment etc.). technicality does not configure a posture of the teacher; before. the professional still more to take a stance on the principles ecJética pcdagógicos asscntados nns pc: dllg ogias traditional rcnovada. ') . QU <Jlquersill <J1de suhjdividade, () Ilwll: ri <J1illslruciollal cllcolllra-:: c sistclnati /. 1l0S the l11alluais • •, d didactic books in Mudu) of the ellsin o, audiovisual devices in dc. MétodlJ, \ 'di: I'i / sil / IJ - Consists 1l0Sproc edimentos and technique.; The arrangement and the necessary condition in conlrol e (; es amhienl <lis, which ensure the transmission / reception in / ilflnaçôes. If the first task of teacher is to model resposl <ls pertinent to the objective s i'lslru <.; Íonais the prilJ (; il1al is to get the comp ') rt <.: menlo suita ble for control of education, hence the importance d <Jtecno! nal methods educ < Jcional . / \ tecnoJogia • • education is the systematic application of scientif ic principles comportamenl <lis and technology to educational problems, accordin g to resulwdos effective, used; r.ando a methodology and abo, 'dag (: m Sisterna comprehensive. "Any system instructional <J1 (there are a variety of them) has three basic components: instructional objectives operationalized; f.ados in comp ortamcntos mcnsuráveis observable, instructional procedures aV'1lia c ~ o. ", st eps b, tsica 'dc process cnsino -aprendizagcm are: a) estahelecimento behaviors terminals, through instructional objectives, b) task analysis of learning; f.age m in order to sort scqüencialmente the steps of instruction, c) run the program, reinforcing the gradualmcnte "answers correct correspondent: s goals. The essen ce of educational technology is. prograr.lação by the sequential steps used in p rogrammed instruction in the techniques of microteaching, multimedia, complemen) the etc.. The use of the teen) in the public school instructional nal methods a ppears in the forms of: planning in a way systemic conception of learning as beh avior change, the operationalization of goals, use of scientific procedures (pro grammed instruction, audiovisual, evaluation etc., Including scheduling textbook

s). Teacher-student relationship - relationships are structured and objective, w ith well-defined roles: the teacher admin <; the tra:> conditions for the supply of matter, as an instructional system efficient and effective in terms of learn ing outcomes, the student receives, learns and fix the information. The teacher is only a link between scientific truth and the student, it shall use the system instructional schedule. The student is an individual responsibility, not partic ipating in the preparation of the educational program. Both are facing the spect ators objective truth. Communication professor alWlo has a purely technical sens e, which is to ensure effective transmission of knowledge. Debates, discussions, questions are unnecessary, as the little matter of personal relationships and i ndividuals involved in the teaching-learning process. Assumptions of learning learning theories that underlie the pedagogy tecmcista say that learning is a ma tter of changing the desired: npenho: good teaching depen-le organize efficientl y stimulating conditions, so that the student from the learning situation differ ent from how he entered. In other words, education is a process of conditioning through the use of reinforcement. <:! CSpostas who wants to obtain. Thus,€instru ctional systems aimed at controlling individual comportam.mto against predetermi ned goals. This is a directive approach to teaching, centered on control of the conditions surrounding the organism behaves. The goal of science teaching, from the psychology is the scientific study of behavior: discover the natural laws th at govern the body's physical reactions that can learn, fun to enhance the contr ol of variables that affect it. The componf'ntes learning - motivation, retentio n, transfer - resulting from the application of operant behavior according to Sk inner, the learned behavior is a response to external stimuli, controlled by rei nforcements that occur with the answer or after the same: • • If the occurrence of a (behavior) operant is followed by the presentation of a stimulus (reinforce r), the probability of reinforcement is aunlentada. "Among the authors contribut ing to studies of learning include: Skinner, Gagné, Bloon and Mager. Demonstrati ons in school practice - The influence of pedagogi'l k - cni::: 28 istaremonta t he mid-50 (PABAEE - Brazilian Program-anlericano AlLxilio of the Elementary Educ ation). Entn: much more effectively was introduced in the late '60s with the ol> jective of adapting the educational system to guide political and economic Dú t he military regime to enter school in the models to rationalize the system of ca pitalist production. It's when the New School guidance gives way to the trend te cnici:; ta, at least at the level of official policy, the landmarks of the model deployment techniques are laws 5540/68 and 5.692171, quc reorganize higher educ ation and the teaching of 1st and 2nd °. Despite the official machine, however, there is no evidence that the insurance of public school teachers have dssimilad o pedagogy technicality, at least in tenn idcário. The methodology tccnicistn (p lanejamcnto, textbooks progrllmudos, procedinlentos assessment etc.). Technicist not set a teacher's stance, but rather the professional continues for a more ec lectic approach to teaching principles dc take a..; Sentlldos naked p < : novati ons traditional and renovated. the term "progressive", borrowed from Snyders, is used here to designate the "tr end <.: ias that, starting from a critique of anúlise reaiidades social sustenti llll implicitly sociopolilicas purposes of education. Evidently the progressive pedagogy has no way to institutionalize in a 'capitalist ioeiedade thence s.: r it an instrument to fight the teachers along with other prútica "social. The pro gressive pedagogy has been manifested cm three trends: Iihertadora. better known as the pedagogy of Paulo Freire, a / Iberti, which brings together the champion s of self-management teaching: the r..; ritic; osocial the count / gone that unl ike the previous "emphasizes the primacy of content in its confrontation with th e realities social. versions release / ae Iibertária share the anti-authoritaria nism, the valuing of experience as viviJa ba "and the educational relationship a nd the idea of a \ Àtogestão teaching. As a result, give more value to the proce ss of group learning (participation in discussõcs, asscmbICias, polls) that the contents of ensin0. As a result, the educational practice only makes sense in a social practice among the people, which is why they prefer the methods of popula r education 'non-formal. " The tendency of critical pedagogy and social content

propõc united synthesis of surpassing traditional pedagogies and renewed valuing the pedagogical action as embedded in concrete social practice. Does the school as a mediator between the individual and social, exercising there the relations hip between the transmission of content and the active assimilation by a particu lar student (inserted in a context of social relationships); know the results of this joint critically reworked. 2.1 Trend progressive liberating role of the sc hool - It is not proper to talk about liberating pedagogy in school, since its b rand is acting "non-formal." However, teachers and educators engaged in school e ducation are adopting assumptions of pedagogy. So when we talk about education i n general. it says that it is an activity where teachers and students, mediated by the reality that they perceive and which draw the learning content, reach a l evel of consciousness of that reality in order to act on it, a sense of social t ransformation. Both the traditional education, called • • banking "- which refer s only to file information about the student - quant0 renewed education - which pretecde: would an individual psychological liberation - are domesticated, becau se in D3da contnbuem to reveal the reality of social oppression. Education hbert adora instead€questions specifically realidaàe relations of man with nature and with others, seeking a transformation - hence it is a critical education QJnteúd os teaching - Denominated generative themes are drawn from problcmatização the p ractice of life of students. Traditional content are rejected because every pers on, every gxupo involved in pedagogical action has in itself, albeit in rudiment ary form, the contents of which are necessary party. What matters is not the tra nsmission of specific content. But to awaken a new form of relationship with the experience. The transfer of structured content from outside is considered cultu ral invasion • • "• • or deposit of information," because it stems not from popu lar knowledge. If they are required to read these texts should be written by the learners themselves with the guidance of the educator. At no time was the inspi rer and mentor of liberating pedagogy, Paulo Freire, fails to mention the essent ially political character of his pedagogy, which, in his own words, prevents it from being implemented in systematic terms, in official institutions, before tra n.c; formation of society. That is why his performance is more of the level of n on-school education. What has not prevented, however, that their assumptions are adopted and implemented by a ~ rosos teachers. Teaching methods - • • To be an act of knowing the process of adult literacy demand, between educators and stude nts, a relationship of genuine dialogue, one in which the subjects of the act of knowing are mediated by the object to be known "( ...) • • Dialogue engages ati vanlente subject to both the act of knowing: CDuce-educator and student-edu <: a dor. So if! Ldo, the educational work fornla • • is the discussion group "to who m" It is self-manage learning, content and dynamics defmindo activities. The tea cher is a aninlador that, in principle, should "descend" to the level of the stu dents, adapting to their own characteristics and development of each group. Shou ld canlinhar 'next' action the minimum necessary, though not skimp when necessar y to provide a more systematic infornlação. The steps of learning - Coding-decod ing, and questioning of the situation - penllitirão learners an understanding of the effort. • lived, until you reach a more critical level of awareness of your reality, always through the trocu of ('xperiênclu in Lorne du Pral! Ca social. If it is the 6 7 conlcúdo of trabillho educiltivo, dispensilm is Ulll programs: nil eslruturildo prior, written work. .;, Classes expositiviJs, ilssim COIllOqualquer lipo checks <,; to direlil ilprcnd izagclll dil,! C> rJllilSssas pr ' lprias d, 1 .. educi lção hilncúria and "therefore, tame. But it is admitted to the aVilliação pr <Il ica vivellciada cducildor between wire-educated group process and, sometimes, se lf-made in avilliilção terlllos commitments with iI pr <ITIC Social Relationship s pndessor-student - In the dialogue, COIllOmétodo hasici the relilção is horiz (JIltal, where educator and cducandos posicioflilm to act as subjects of knowled ge. The criterion of good relationships is the total identification with the peo

 

ple, without () the pedagogical relationship c lose <Jflsistéf) ciiJ. Eliminates , for pres.suposto, every relationship iJutoridiJde, otherwise this inviability: the l.ar triJhalho awareness, L1C "approach di; conscience,". This is a "non-di rectiveness", but not towards the teacher is absent (as in Rogers), but remains vigilant to ensure the group a human to say "his word" to express ~; EmSee neutr aJi7.aí. Assumptions Learning - The very desig'1ação clc "education problema: l. adora" as a correlate of liberating education reveals the motivating force for l earning. The motivation is given from the codlficação a problem situation, which is taken away:; l to analyze Ia critjcamen ~ e. "This analysis involves the exe rcise of abstraction, through which we seek to achieve, through representations of reality, the reason for the facts." Learning is an act of knowledge of concre te reality, ie, the actual situation experienced by the learner, and if it makes sense stems from a critical approach that reality. What is learned is not due t o a levy or memorization, but the critical level of knowledge, which is reached by the process of understanding , reflection and criticism. What the student tra nsfers, in terms of knowledge, is what was built as a response to situations of OPRC! "~ o - ie, their engagement in political activism.€Practical demonstration s in schools - pedagogy has liberating and inspiring and promoter Paulo Freire, who has applied his ideas in person àiversos countries, first in Chile, then in Africa. Between us, has exerted a significant influence ILOS popular movements a nd unions, and practically merges with the most experience of what is called "po pular education". There are several such groups that have worked not only at the level of popular practice, but also? Or through publications, with relative ind ependence from the ideas of oliginais liberating pedagogy. Although the theoreti cal formulations of Paulo Freire are restricted to adult education or community education in general, many teachers have been trying to put into practice in las : ny degree of formal education. 2.2 Trends progressive Iibertária Role of Schoo l - A libertarian pedagogy expect the school carries a transformation in the per sonality of the students a sense hbertário and self-management. The basic ide is to introduce ~ m ~ i: tions institutional levels from subordinates who then wil l contaminate • • "The whole system. The school shall establish, based on group participation, institutional mechanisms for change (assemblies, councils , elect ions, meetings, associations, etc..), so that the student once atuarldo • • exte rnal institutions, to take everything you learned there. Another way of work of libertarian pedagogy, related to the first, is enjoying a degree of freedom of t he system - create groups of people self-management educational principles (asso ciations, informal groups, self-managed schools). There is thus an explicitly po litical sense, as stated • that the individual as a product of social and indivi dual development only ~ takes place in the collective. Self-management is thus t he content and method; resunle both the pedagogical and the political goal. The libertarian pedagogy in their discipline better known among us, • • il1Stitucion al pedagogy ", aims to be WNA fOIDla resistance against bureaucracy CEMO instrum ent dominating the action of the state that controls everything (teachers, progr ams, tests, etc..) Draining the auk) economy. COllleúdos teaching - The material s are placed avail ~; jçào student, but are not cxigidas. wn instrument are a pl us, because inlportante conhcci.nento is clear that the experiences of the group , especially vivêucia participation mechanisms critical. • • Knowledge "here is not cognitive research of the real, to extract his wn system of mental represent ations, but the discovery of answers to the needs and demands of social life. Th us, the contents themselves are the ones who Tt.-sultamde needs and interests ma nifested by the group and which are not necessary nor indispenSllvdmente, matter s of study. A1étodo education - and the group experience, self-management in fon ua that students buscanio find the most satisfactory basis of their own "institu tion", thanks to their own initiative and without any Fonni power. Tratu is in p lace • • miíos students whatever is posslvel: conjwlto of the vi <L1. s aea utiv idudes orglUlizuçiio of trabulho within escolu du (n \ l 'in the $ 11 c1l1boruçã o progrumas dl'cisi and \ (d ~' $ exhume 7

it depends neither of doccntes or students). "Students have lihl.: nlade of laho r or perch, the liGllldo inll.: est in teaching lkpendéncia your needs or those of the group. The progress of autonomy precluded any direction rom the group tak es a "crescl.: nl! the": first the opportunity to I.: ontacts, openings, relatio n <ll.: ~: infónnais among students. Then the group begins to organii ' . air, s o that everyone can participate in discussion <les. cooperatives, assemblies, ie diwrsas Fonni participation and expression by the word; Qul.: mquiser olher do something, or enter into agreement eom the group, or retreat. In the third step, the group is organized Fonni more effective and ultimately the qU'lrto time, pa rt for the job. Rela • • u ~ ress RRP (),.-(,/ Belluno - The pedagogy aims insti tueional .. firstly transform relaçiio: teacher-student in the non-directivity, ie eonsiderar since iníeio inefficiency and harmfulness of all methods to ba <; edc obligations and threats. "Although r, and rofessor students are AD, differen t equals, nothing prevents the teacher is put in the service of pupils: first, w ithout imposing his concepts and idea <; without turning students into "object." U professor is a mentor and a catalyst, C1E mingles with the grupu for a common reflection. If students are free to the teacher ahead, this one is for the stud ents (it can, for example,€refuse to answer a perglmta, remaining silent). Howev er, this freedom of ~ Isao has a meaning quite clear: if a student decides not t o participate, because it does not feel integrated, but the group has responsibi lity for this fact and will pose the question: when c is silent on teacher a que stion, your silence has a meaning that education can, for example, be a help to the group assume the answer or the situation created. In all, the teacher fits t he role of counselor • • "and other times, instructor-monitor the disposal of th e group. At no time did these roles of the teacher are confused with the" model ", since the pedagogics libertáJ.ia refusal any form of power or autoridad ~. pr esupposes ~ tosde learning - The bureaucratic forms of existing institutions, fo r their trace of impersonality, endanger personal growth. The emphasis on inform al learning via group, and the denial of all forms of repression aimed at promot ing developing people freer. The motivation is therefore in the interest in grow ing within the group experience, because it is assumed that the group return to each of its members to satisfy their aspirations and needs. vanish the experienc ed, the experienced is incorporated and usable in new situations. The criterion of relevance of systematic knowledge is its possible practical use. I therefore do not sense any attempt to fu evaluation - will learning, at least in terms of content. Other teildências runs educational / Minutes - The libertarian pedagogy covers a lmost all the anti-authoritarian tendencies in education, among them, the anarch ist, the psychoanalyst, the sociologists, and also that of progressive teachers. Although Neill and Rogers can not be cx) Osiderados progressive (as understood here), also affects some libertarians, such as Lobrot Among the foreigners must cite Vasquez and among the most reeentes Oury, Ferrer y Guardia among the oldest . Particularly significant is the work of C. Freinet, which has been extensively studied among us, there are even some schools applying his method. Among schola rs and popularizers of the trend can be cited libertáJ.ia Tragtenberg Mauritius, despite the keynote of his work is not exactly educational, but criticizes the institutions in favor of a self-managed project. 2.3 Trend C4 progressive social -critical content "Role of the school - the broadcast content is the primary tas k. Not content abstract, but alive, concrete, and therefore inseparable from soc ial realities. The appreciation of the school as a tool for knowledge acquisitio n service that is best suited to people's interests, since the school can help e liminate the social selectivity and take la democratic. If the school is part of the social whole, to act within it is also acting in the course of the transfor nlação society. If what defines a critical pedagogy is the consciousness of thei r restrictions hislóricO-l'ociais, the function of pedagogy • • of contents "is a step in the frenlc transformative role of school, but from existing conditions . Thus, the condition for which the school serves the interests of the people is to provide everyone with bbiü education, that is, ownership of basic school sub jects that resonate in the lives of students. Understood in this sense, educatio

n is an activity • • mediator in the Scio prálica soeial global ", ie one of the mediations in which the student, the teacher's intervention and his own partici pation relieves, is an experiment initially confused and fragmenlada (syncretic) to a synthetic vision and more organized uniftcada. In summary, the performance of the school is to prepare the student for the adult world and SUllS cl'lltrad ições, forneeendo him an instrumental by mcio of content acquisition and sociali zation for an organized and active participation in society dcmocratizaçilo. 8 . C) Conll'lÍdos di 'I'lIsillO - are universal cultural content that is C (dc JIlstit uíriJlIIcm dOlJlínios knowle (; rdativam nt:.: Nk autÍlnolllos incorporated pda IlIlIn'JIlidade but perlllóJncnlcrncllle rcavaliados lace to social rcalidades. While it is accepted that contents are rcal idadcs outer aI) student, who devell l simplcsmcnte not be assimilated and reinvented, they do not s. "Io refratfJrio s closed and the social realidlldes. It is not enough content to be ap (; in <, (; r.sinados, however well trained, we need to turn it on, d (; Fonni inseparabl e, their human and social significance. This way of conceiving the contents of k nowledge estahelece no opposition between high culture and popular culture, or s pontaneous, but a continuing relationship where, progressivamcnte,€if Passil of immediate experience and knowledge sistematil disorganized '.. ado. Perch that t he first apprehension of reality is wrong, ma <, it is necessary to rise to a hi gher Fonni preparation, conscguida prc'Jprio the student, with the intervcnção t eacher. The posture of pedagogy "content" - Assuming a knowledge; ent relllrivam c: nte llutimomo takes s'lbcr as having a relatively objective content, ma <;, t he same specimen tcmpo introduces the possibility of a critical reassessment of the face of this content . As sin ~ etiza Snyders, to mention the role of the te acher, it is, on one hand, to obtain the student's access to content, linking th em with the actual experience of it - the continuity, but on the other, to provi de evidence critical analysis that will help students to overcome the experience , stereotypes, pressure diffuse the dominant ideology - is the rupture. These co nsiderations it is clear that one can go to learn to political engagement, but n ot vice versa, at the risk of affecting the very specific nature of knowledge an d even fall into a Fonni pedagogical ideology that is what is critical in tradit ional pedagogy and the new pedagogy. Teaching methods - The question of methods is subordinated to the content: if the objective is to highlight the acquisition of knowledge and a knowledge sociaiE linked to the realities, we need to promot e the methods matching the contents with students' interests and that they can r ecognize in the help content to their efforts to understand the reality (social practice). Thus, it is not dogmatic methods of transmitting knowledge of traditi onal pedagogy, nor its replacement by the discovery, investigation or free expre ssion of opinions, as if the knowledge could be invented by the child, in the de sign of pedagogy renewed. The methods of critical pedagogy and social content p' lrtem not then know of one artificial, deposited from the outside, not knowing t he spontaneous, but a direct relationship with the student experience, faced wit h the knowledge brought out. The work Docena:. And relates the practice as exper ienced by '\ lunos with the contents proposed by the teacher, when it will happe n to "break" in relation to experience little elaborate. Such a rupture is only possible with the explicit introduction by the teacher, the new elements of anal ysis to be applied to the practice of critically alun \). In other words, a less on begins with the observation of actual practice, havend ~, then awareness of t his practice in the sense described earlier-Ia to the terms of proposed content, in the form of a clash between experience and explanation of the teacher. That is to say: go to the action to the understanding and understanding into action, until the synthesis, which is nothing but the unity of theory and practice. Teac her-student relationship - If, as shown earlier, knowledge is the result of exch anges that are established in the interaction between the environment (natural,

 

social, cultural) and the subject, the teacher being the mediator, then the rela tionship is to replenish the teaching conditions in teachers and students can co llaborate to advance these exchanges. The adult role is irreplaceable, but empha sis is also participlição student in the process. That is, the student, with his experience inIediata nun! cultural context, participating in the search for tru th, I was going to confront with the content and models expressed by the teacher . But ess ~ effort in guiding the teacher in open outlook from Contel implies wu involvement with the lifestyle of students with inclw.ive awareness of the cont rasts between their cultures and the student. Do not be content, however, to sat isfy only need ~ and shortcomings; sought despcI1ar other needs, speed and disci pline mélodC's dc study, require the effort of alwlo propose content and models compatible with their experiences, so that the student be mobilized for union ac tive participation. Evidently the mediating role played in the analysis of tomo conteÓdos excludes nãodiretividade as fomla guidance of school work, because the adult-alwlO dialogue is uneven. The adult has more experience about the social realities, has a fomlação (at least should have) to teach, and he has the knowle dge to do it anal sc content in comparison with social realities. Non-directiven ess leave students to their own desires, as if he .. 'had UMN spontaneous tenden cy to achieve the expected goals of education. We know that trends are not nntum is cspontânens c • • natural "before tax are the conditions of Vidna and the env ironment. There are suticientes love, acceptance, that the children of pure trab alhlldores acquire the desire to study ISMN. pr ~) chalk: it is I \ l × cess.Ari ues the ICJ intervelll,:; io UOprolCssor pair <! take. a1uno the acrcditar in their possihil idades to go lIIais longl ~, extended iI try: NEIA viviua. I ',. Cs, MPOS / the c / e apl't' JiZlI); I'1II - In an effort prúprio, the student is recognized in conteúuos 1II0UcJOS and social apresenti.luos by pwlCssor; to ~ yes, turn enlarg e prúpria your experience. () again if eonheeimenlo apúia eognitiva an existing structure, or prolCssor Ul provides the structure: the student. 's beautiful doe s not have. The degree of involvement in learning dependc both the readiness and willingness uo student, the teacher's the context of c ~; wing classrooms. Lear n, ua peuagogia within the view of content, is the ability descnvolver dc proecs sar and information which would deal with environmental stimuli uo, organizé1l1d o available data of experience. As a result, the principle admitc the aprendiend o. "significant act" that assumes, as bread, so original, check what the student already knows. The teacher needs to know (understand) what students say or do, the student needs compr.: Cnder what the teacher tries to tell to them. The tran sfer of learning occurs from the moment of synthesis, ie, when the student surpa sses his vision and p'lreial confusing and becomes a:! dara and unifying vision. Resuita clearly that the work ~ paste needs to be evaluated, not as dogmatic an d definitive trial of the teacher, but as a demonstration for the student of the ir progress toward notions more systematized. Demonstrations in school practice - The effort to establish a pedagogy "content" is to propose models of teachingoriented content-interaction social realities, so in order to advance in terms o f a joint political and pedagogical, that as an extension of this , or education "in the service of transformation of production relations." Although the short term it is hoped the teacher greater knowledge of the contents of its matter and the field of transmission, to ensure technical competence, his contribution "wi ll be more effective as more capable of understanding the links of your practice with the overall social practice, taking into \ ist (...) "the democratization of society brasileLra, care of the interests of the grassroots, the structural t ransformation of Brazilian society" Within the general Iiuhas exposed here, we can mention the pioneering but more remote, the Russian writer and educator, Ma karenko. Among the present authors cite B. Charlot, Suchodolski, Manacorda and, in particular, G. Snyders, in addition to Brazilian authors who are developing r esearch relevant to destaeando Demerval Saviani.

 

I L I I I I Note: This book was drawn from texts of Cyprian and Jose Carlos Carlos Luckesi L ibaneo. 10

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