1 OPINION ON THE CALCULATION OF PLACE IN PRIMARY EDUCATION adopted by the Secret Committee of January 9, 2007 (With my comments in red

) By letter dated December 14, 2006, the Minister of Nat ional Education, Higher Education and Research wrote to the President of the Aca demy of Sciences to ask to the pole to provide an analysis so he can "provide gu idelines regarding the teaching of mathematics in primary schools." The Minister pointed out that it is "capital to establish the intellectual development of ch ildren's performance on math ... "which" ... requires immediate recommendations, which are not exclusive to the longer term reflections on important issues invo lved in such an approach, such as the role of memory in learning .... "In respon se to referral to the Minister made under Conventioncadre signed between the Min istry and the Academy of Sciences, the office of the Academy has formed a small working group consisting of S. Dehaene, J.P. Demailly, J.-P. Kahane, P. Lena, Y. Meyer, AD Yoccoz, to prepare the text that follows, subject to the Secret Commi ttee of Tuesday, January 9, 2007, and adopted a quasiunanimité. > "Quasiunanimit é" presents, or just over 70 out of 250, and knowing that no legislation was pro posed competitor vote. The short delay allows only very general observations, wi thout going into details of the common core or its variation in the programs. Th ese initial findings of the Academy will be transferred to the Minister at the m eeting of January 23. ** 2 ABSTRACT > Curiously, there are a number of small differences between the summary below, and one in the text except for the press. Overall, the summary for the press is a bit better but this is not true at all. I write below the specific comments th at relate to differences between the two summaries. 1. The improvement of desira ble performance computing at the end of primary school requires significant acti on but cautious, accompanied by further analysis and experimentation. > Here the problem of teacher training is not mentioned. Yet it is always good to talk abo ut this huge problem and essential. 2. The calculation should be taught in close contact with other subjects: French, natural sciences, geography, music, sports , to refer to concrete situations, vital complements and supports the developmen t of abstract skills. > It lacks the last sentence on the need to involve the us e of numbers and the quantities. Pity. 3. His learning, based on an intuitive ar ithmetic present in all young children, but also requires efforts Thurs The intr oduction of automation is accompanied by new mental representations, it involves thinking and understanding. The automation that can be the ultimate outcome of a natural and regular and well understood the calculation. > This paragraph is s ignificantly worse than in the other version. Put the effort and play on the sam e plane is amazing. On the other hand, it lacks the "attention" and "Store" Fort unately mentioned in the another text. 4. The teaching of calculation must start with a simultaneous practice of numeration and operations of the four, a gradat ion in complexity occur between kindergarten and primary school end, to decimals and fractions. > Very strong paragraph short and punchy, which contains several very important principles. It would have been even better to write with more pr ecision: "... to calculate decimals and fractions." 5. The load capacity is grow ing by several methods, all relevant, necessary and complementary: mental arithm etic calculation posed in writing, approximate calculation, calculation instrume nted. The first,ubiquitous in everyday life, develops 3 memory, the second richest of subsequent developments, is important for struct uring knowledge and the third is essential in the natural sciences and handling orders of magnitude, the fourth must find its articulation with other modalities

. All these methods of calculation must be mastered by the citizen. > In the oth er version, it says that "instrumented load" does not replace the "other methods of calculation." Here, this is not even sure! 6. The numeracy can not be develo ped independently from that of geometry. The links between geometry and calculat ion should be introduced very soon, especially since not all immediate children. > This paragraph is better than the other version, because it is devoid of refe rence to cognitive science as an argument of authority. 7. The importance of pro portionality in several disciplines, and especially the natural sciences, requir es a sound mastery of the rule of three in late primary, and thus some manipulat ion of fractions. > Here it is "solid grasp of the rule of three" cons "good com mand of the rule of three" in the other version. It is stronger and therefore it is better. In contrast, the expression "some manipulation of fractions' hopes. At this rate, it is better to say nothing, and that's what the other version. 8. All children can be calculated as all children can swim. It is a matter of will , work and pleasure. The kids love playing games are a natural source of calcula tions, sometimes naive, sometimes subtle, and the calculation can luimême become a game we can and must have the ambition that all children enjoy the calculatio n. > Here, no change compared to the other version. Doubtless the authors of cha nges estimentils that paragraph is so perfect that there can be no question of c hanging a letttre. *** 4 OPINION The Academy of Sciences was founded to speak on this issue until the studies con ducted by some of its members and their shares in favor of a quality science edu cation in primary schools and for the place of computing in all activities scien tists. > Rather than saying it is entitled to intervene, the academy would do be tter to worry about writing a very good text. The phrase seems especially design ed to express the profound appreciation that some academics are addressed public ly to each other in many circumstances. His thinking is drawn up under the commo n base of knowledge (Decree of July 11, 2006). > "Base" with a capital ... In ge neral, we use a lot of capital to the Academy of Sciences and Ministry of Educat ion. It relies on one fact: at the end of college and high school, among girls a nd boys, many converging observations indicate an insufficient grasp of arithmet ic, whose foundations are undoubtedly bring up the school. > What these terms ga llant choseslà are saying! One wonders what meaning in the minds of the editors, adding the word "definitely." Paradoxically, the sentence would be stronger wit hout this prefix. The analysis provided by the Academy of Sciences organized bel ow into five points: First, the calculation is considered on its links with othe r subjects taught in school, then with the cognitive sciences. It is then examin ed more detail according to its different modalities (mental arithmetic, asked, approached instrumented) and its links with geometry, and finally with the games . > This text is strangely on the same plane, the most incongruous things: ties of computing with other subjects and those with "cognitive science, mental arith metic, posed,approached or "instrumented", geometry and games. After that, how t o recommend students to never add the quantities of different kinds! 5 In fact, if the performance calculation - which refers to the referral - are e ssential to the child, their development must be pursued in harmony and balance with that of geometry, arithmetic and geometry may correspond to different forms of intelligence in children. In addition, although the referral focuses on the primary school, high concern for continuity, to ensure between school and colleg e, must be present. > "The concern of a strong continuity must be present." Perh aps would it take to organize the Academy of Sciences during a proper use of Fre nch ... Finally, the proposed analysis, focused on the calculation and geometry, considers these issues in terms of performance expected of all children, rather than in terms of a mathematical education, which could be of a separate analysi s. The complexity of the question, and its variation in programs and instruction

s for inspectors (NEI) and teachers, calls for great caution in the statement of recommendations and conclusions. It would indeed be too easy in such situations , Experts seek beyond what they are able to claim or cause of deep misunderstand ings among the masters. That is why the Academy, in formulating this opinion, co nsider it prudent to refrain from immediate mandatory recommendations and recomm ends that the observations presented here can be corroborated with further analy sis, if contradictory, that it stands ready to assist. > Translation: Some schol ars believe that the issue of calculation in primary school is too complicated f or them. Or they do not want too get wet. But that does not they want to be cons ulted again. That what you will. The reference to "performance" is strange. Calc ulation Would it be a sport? Similarly, one wonders what is meant by "mathematic s education." Mathematics is a discipline, they would obviously not be an educat ion (what the term might suggest), they do not belong to the education but of ed ucation. The recommended changes should then be made in stages, and be accompani ed by field experiments, with special attention given to training teachers. -> Y es. 1. Links with other subjects. The calculation has a close relationship with all other materials, and first with the French - not a coincidence counting and recounting are homonyms. > Note that does nothing, sembletil. It would be better to talk about the extreme importance of writing, that the text does not. Then t here are the sciences of observation and experiment (measuring, units, Uncertainties 6) history and geography - of digital data sources to compare and treat -; basically anything that deals with quantities and measurements - to the music (rhythm and measure) and sport (evaluation performance). -> What tote! In the past, it has been repeatedly recommended to separate the study of numbers o f those quantities. This is a loss, and it is essential to encourage the systema tic practice of writing such as 2m +3 m = 5m, and not just 2 +3 = 5 or 5 × 3 = 15 , 5m x 3m = 15m ² ³ , 8km: 5h = 1.6 km / h, .... > Yes, but it this way, it opens the door to a formalistic drift. The measure of greatness, and the first length, area or volume, leads naturally to quantitative assessment: it extends t o times, temperatures, populations, and everything concerning the observation an d experimentation.€> There is a fundamental difference between the duration, len gth, area, volume and mass of first and second temperatures. This is the first a dded and then immediately lend themselves to calculations, and not seconds. Howe ver, temperature measurements provide a very good opportunity to introduce negat ive numbers. Veuton do in elementary school? Temperatures will begin to lend to a calculation that if we reintroduce in the curricula of primary concept of heat capacity. Why not, but the veuton? The use of conventional modes of representat ion of variables, such as tables, graphs, scales, can be an opportunity to reinf orce the comparisons of magnitude and prepare for the future use of Cartesian co ordinates. > The reference to Cartesian coordinates - the principle is very abst ract - is too much. On this point, it is going too far to the primary. 2. Cognit ive Foundations of Arithmetic. Research in cognitive psychology and neuroscience has shown that except for a small fraction of children with dyscalculia of gene tic or perinatal all children have very early arithmetic intuition. From the fir st year of life This intuition is as the ability to assess the continuous and di screte quantities, including the precise number (under 3) or approximate (positi oned beyond 4) of objects in a set. At this age, children are already capable of basic mental operations of comparison ("Which is bigger?"), addition and subtra ction approximate. This intuitive understanding of numbers is one ingredient tha t underlies the subsequent acquisition of the language of numbers, the counting, and algorithms "spontaneous" arithmetic - especially based on the count on the fingers. It grows spontaneously, including the lack of educational opportunity. The child thus comes to school with a wealth of intuitions and 7 competencies that should not be overlooked, much less opposed by the teachers, because they serve as a foundation for understanding the meaning of arithmetic. However, research has also shown that other aspects of arithmetic does not grow spontaneously and require a learning effort. The decimal numbers and fractions are for the child objects initially cons intuitive, requiring the development of

new mental representations. The link between number and space, and more general ly the linking of different representations of rapid numbers and quantities also change over learning. Last but not least, learning and execution algorithms req uire exact calculation initially a considerable effort of attention and memory f rom the child, which engages a vast network of parietal and frontal brain areas . Automation of the calculation is accompanied by a massive decrease of the acti vation of the prefrontal cortex, corresponding to a release of mental resources for other tasks. > Two paragraphs each starting with the incantation: "Research has shown that ..." Since this text is not directed to specialists in cognitive psychology and neuroscience, it is arguments authority. This opens the door to a new kind of "science education", which builds on both the cognitive sciences an d neurosciences. It's very dangerous in my opinion. As to the alleged "science e ducation "to which we have been entitled, and perhaps for the worse (as it would be" hard science "instead of" soft sciences "), would impose upon the teachers - by the usual means of coercion - to bow to the authority of science.€I persona lly think that we should rely only on arguments that are the consistency and int ernal logic of the subjects taught or verifiable by experience wise teachers. 3. Fundamentals of teaching arithmetic. In light of above results, the goal of num eracy should be twofold: first, give the child a solid foundation of automation in the field of calculation, on the other hand, consistently maintain these calc ulations on their quantitative meaning and solving practical problems. The worst pitfall to avoid is the learning of computational parts revenues of all compreh ension. > "The worst rock ..." It seems to me that there are many others. This i s certainly not on this rock that has impaled the primary school in recent decad es. Cognitive research shows that the arithmetic is often taught superficially, the child is forging an imperfect or downright wrong recipe to follow without un derstanding the basics. The goal of automating the calculation should not be for ward at the expense of understanding: the automation can only be the ultimate ou tcome of a natural and regular and well understood the calculation. > "The regul ar practice and understood the calculation is certainly essential, but 8 does not prevent that some knowledge must be learned by heart, starting with a ddition and multiplication. If we follow the text literally, these students will never learn tables by heart and they do not know ever, as is the case today of a large majority of French pupils except high school students. The priority must be to acquire a solid and well understood routines of calculation, and a smooth transition from the symbolic computation to intuition and the quantities handle d. The teaching of arithmetic should begin by doing simultaneous counting and ba sic operations. The meaning of operations are best acquired when cellesci perfor med simultaneously on the "real numbers" (number of apples, for example) and the "abstract numbers (number of times). This approach allows for a direct link wit h the magnitudes of the sensible world and to feel an almost visual need that wi ll later introduce non-integer. The meaning of individual transactions can not b e formed properly when cellesci are introduced simultaneously, since students ca n then compare and discern their various uses. Everyone knows that the problem o f sharing the candy arises from nursery school and is a Learning division! Simil arly, do not separate learning to count and operations, even if only because wri ting whole numbers already requires at least addition and multiplication, and de cimal numbers implies that the same division. These considerations argue for an introduction as early as possible in a certain practice of the four operations School Recent experiments show that this is possible from a large section of th e nursery school for highly small numbers. One of the goals of numeracy will be gradually strengthen math techniques gradually expanding the size and complexity of the numbers at stake: entire passages to decimals and fractions, eg . > Yes for the last two lines, two minor differences: I'm resistant to the insistent in vocation of "meaning". There have been more emphasis on decimals and fractions, indicating unambiguously in the higher primary students should know how to perfo rm the four operations on decimals and fractions. 4. Diverse forms of numeracy. There are several approaches to computing capacity, all relevant, necessary and complementary.€> Disagree with the placing on the same plane of these different

"approaches". Are addressed here in greater detail the relationship between ment al arithmetic, computation and calculation posed instrumented, and the relations hip between exact calculation and approximate calculation. a / mental arithmetic . Mental arithmetic is an opportunity to run some specific mental circuits, in c onnection with the development of memory. It is also essential to the daily life of citizens, as one of the fundamental tools of thought, a source of critical t hinking and autonomy. 9> Aten need to allude to mysterious circuits specific mental? Being a text on t he calculation does not spare us pourraiton citizenship? It must be fed by a flu id knowledge of tables of addition, subtraction and multiplication, parity, powe rs of ten, and exercised continuously on simple questions from other fields of l earning, for memory and the functioning of the mind are active and effective if they are maintained. -> Yes. b / Calculating asked. If mental arithmetic is that which is required from the earliest ages of the child and throughout adulthood, the calculation put in writing is the richest of subsequent developments in mat hematics, under more elaborate forms - for example, the calculation on the polyn omial in college. Its importance also stems from what he relies on writing, whos e role is fundamental in the structuring and establishment of knowledge. The pur pose of calculation applied to the elementary school must be in complete control of algorithms written several figures, accompanied by the understanding of thei r meaning, for the four arithmetic operations. It is desirable to introduce the notation of magnitude, especially for use in the natural sciences. Choices are t o do, since the ways of asking a transaction are not the same in different count ries. It would seem prudent programs that set these options in a conventional ma nner, for example in the practice of withholding or in writing of the divisions to prevent the dispersion of ratings. It also requires a precise vocabulary is t aught accurately and that his knowledge is required: terms of adding the sum, di fference, multiplication factors, multiplicand, multiplier, product, dividend, d ivisor, quotient, remainder, retaining, decimal. The fundamental units and their subunits are introduced during operations on the magnitudes . > Very good for a ll of this sousparagraphe. v. The approximate calculation. Throughout the school appear to distinguish between exact calculation and approximate calculation. Th e exact calculation starts with the practice of scanning and basic operations. A pproximate calculation and the magnitudes of the supplement. "Agreeing with the estimated magnitudes. But what is meant by approximate calculation? Normally it is the calculation of error ranges. It is much too subtle for the primary school . Approximate calculation in primary education may not have the sense of "exact calculation stopped after one or more digits of decimal expansion." Should be cl ear and, in this case, it is not put on the same plane as the calculation exact mental or posed. Care must be taken that even this form of approximate calculati on assumes control already acquired the exact calculation.'s Premature introduct ion would be disastrous. 1 The estimated magnitudes is related to changes in scale, have become increasin gly important in all disciplines. Learning usual units is an opportunity for acc ess to very large numbers, and also to shows the concept of dimension. It is goo d that the square and cube are handled as geometric objects before being introdu ced as number operations. The attention to vocabulary is necessary for this step . -> Yes,but what is the relationship with the approximate calculation? Once the concept of decimal number is obtained, many jobs approximation arise. The divis ion, which, as is well known, does not usually an accurate result, the guideline s introduced by excess and decimal by default. It is widely used in the measurem ents, including those made in science nature or sports. Approximate calculation allows rapid assessments and effective mental calculation. He played with the po wers of 10. It allows to predict and control the outcome of operations put on pa per or transferred to calculators. He familiarized with the concept of rounding . In subsequent studies, the notion of approximate calculation is clarified by t he use of analysis and probability: There should be no question in elementary sc hool. > We are in complete agreement that this should not be subject to primary

school, so why talk? Cognitive research has shown that young children, primarily for school, have skills to approximate quantities, addition and subtraction. Si nce the great mother, they already have an intuition of quantities, sizes, price s, and know, for example, that 35 16 is necessarily smaller than 92. This skill is the basis for learning about some aspects of arithmetic and mathematics score s is predictive of later. Learning the correct calculation must therefore depart ure based on this skill for the approximation. One can, for example, ask the chi ld to determine whether the magnitude of the result is correct, it could have fo und such a result without a calculation, etc.. These drills back and forth betwe en the formal manipulation exact numbers and reflection on rough and intuitive m eaning are essential to the objective of understanding the meaning and relevance of operations. > I am skeptical about the soundness of the entire paragraph. d / load instrumented. The calculators are now part of everyday life, they have th eir place in the lives of children and certainly in many classroom activities, p articularly in the natural sciences. They become very useful in college in these sciences, which provide output measures on which the calculations are prepared to make. At a younger age, they may solicit the imagination of children and invi te them to explore the game by the regularities of arithmetic. 1> I do not agree with any of this. In primary school, the calculator can not be for the students something other than black box. It did not belong. However, th eir use can never be a substitute for numeracy. -> Yes. The problem is that it i s found that the presence of calculators in schools discourages the majority of children make the effort necessary to master the calculation. But the mark is in dispensable to the construction of an intimacy with the numbers is the basis for learning more advanced mathematics and other sciences. In young children, it is more suited to handle early objects such as cubes, tumblers, boxes marked masse s that develop meaningful understanding of numbers and calculations. -> Certainl y. The relationship between instrumented calculation, calculation and mental ari thmetic applied is an important topic, on which work has begun and must continue . > Apparently, the questions posed by the calculation in primary school are too complex for some academics. 5. Geometry and calculus. In mathematics "learned", there is a deep link, several thousand years, between geometry and arithmetic.T he idea that numbers measure space and that can replace a reflection geometry by calculating the coordinates continues to play an essential role in many branche s of mathematics. > That's true but it would be very premature to talk about det ails in primary school. Now this text is the calculation in primary school, not on the history of mathematics. Cognitive research also shows strong links betwee n representations of number and space, drawing in part on the same brain regions . > Another argument that cognitive and brain, given the destination of this tex t, becomes an argument of authority. These links should be introduced early in e lementary education, especially since not all immediate children. Developmental psychology and intuition shows a linear relationship between numerical quantity and measured space is not present in children eight years, but can be learned fr om this age by measurement exercises and matching nombreespace on a ruler. > Yes , but it would have been even better without the reference to the incantatory "d evelopmental psychology". A link between geometry and calculation must be sought in drawing activities. Ac hieving friezes of geometric patterns (fabrics, meshes ,...), sketches, with map s can - and should therefore - give rise to procedures for counting and measurin g, organized explicitly in programs. Some aspects of the drawing and coloring ca n be addressed as early as kindergarten. Observation activities and science expe riments are simultaneously appeal to a vision of geometrical space (areas, shado ws, astronomical models, for example) and its becoming an object of calculation scanning (measuring a position). Such back and forth between arithmetic and geom etry exercise understanding and help give meaning to the algorithms that the chi ld has too often seen as formal exercises meaningless. The geometry can also imp lement visually rich and original forms of reasoning and calculation. Thus, the length measurement is one means of access to the most natural concept of decimal

number. Calculating areas of rectangles is linked directly to multiplication by addition, multiplication of decimals can be understood in the context of simult aneous changes of units of length and area. Obtaining the formula area of parall elograms, triangles trapezoids is an ideal opportunity to introduce real non-tri vial mathematical reasoning, based on geometric cutouts. -> Agree with all that. 6. The calculation and arithmetic. After the introduction of whole numbers and operations on them, the integer arithmetic considers prime numbers, then the dec omposition of integers into prime factors, used in finding the lowest common den ominator (LCM), operations on fractions and reducing them to a common denominato r, all knowledge should reinforce numeracy at the end of primary school. An impo rtant point related to the manipulation of fractions, is the notion proportional ity, omnipresent in daily life and in experimental sciences. Strong pedagogical reasons indicate that the ETF should be addressed through the traditional rule o f three, which introduces proportionality in pressing situations and practical p roblems. Questions of proportionality "direct" and "reverse", consisting find th e last term of a proportion, a wealth of problems for the end of primary educati on, and are essential to understanding the future of many areas of science and t echnology.€> Agree with all of this paragraph. 7. Games and mathematics. The gen eral public often uses math that allegedly forbidding appearance. This is forget ting that games are an important source of interesting mathematical consideratio ns - there is indeed a scholarly branch of mathematics known as Game Theory. 1> I'm afraid that if I dare say there is no play on words. The "Game Theory" is a very serious theory, neither more nor less interesting or "grim" than any oth er mathematical theory. At the elementary level, we can profitably use the geome tric structure of checkerboards, pavements, some building blocks to address aspe cts of basic combinatorics (dominoes, gender ...) and issues related to the calc ulation of proportions. > Why not. But we must not engage in activities not now and separated from each other. This is probably the most lacking in schools toda y is the structure of lessons. Without structure, they are like a flesh without bones and they do not. This probably explains why, after so many hours and years on the benches of institutions, most graduates today have finally learned so li ttle. Research in cognitive development has shown any interest in games on the n umbers from the kindergarten. -> Always the argument of authority ... Dice games and sharing as easy as "little horses" or "good pay" is a first approach to the numbers of their practical interest, and particularly the mapping between numbe rs and space. For U.S. business, a study found that using games such as high mat ernal, within a curriculum teaching many of us to allow disadvantaged children, including basic arithmetic test scores were initially low, recover a high level which was maintained in subsequent years. Thus the early introduction of mathema tical situations through the game may help reduce certain social inequalities. F or the interactions that cause the game contributes to the socialization of chil dren. > This paragraph seems foster confusion about the meaning of the ambiguous word "game." Sometimes it seems to be a specific form of mathematical exercise seriously. Sometimes something friendly and pleasant which implicitly opposed su pposedly grim side of school work. About the United States, we know that their e ducation system is highly inefficient, so that their scholarly worth studying? W ith regard to mathematics would be better to take other references, such as the Russian schools of the Soviet era. As for France, it is not the level it has imp roved since the school work and progressions Structured been questioned and that the game, the friendliness and "activities" have invaded many and varied classe s. Quite the contrary. It is also worth remembering that this is without doubt f rom the very small class that starts up the pleasure and confidence in mathemati cs. The early use of games, drawings, constructions, problems and tomahawk-inspi red mathematical entreating interest of children and can motivate them to furthe r the effort needed to learn in math class. 1> A paragraph that seems dangerous to me as it is written. I heard many teacher s complain that the practice of relentless games (under business-friendly and fu n) in the small classes make students resistant to the effort. The whole of para

graph 7 is written as if his or her editors were unaware that the work "fun" hav e invaded the classroom. Weird. 8. Conclusion. The notice did not go into detail s of the action,> bad.Who prevented the academicians to take their responsibilit ies? Even with a capital "advice". It's tiring. nor reforms. > Personally, I pre fer that we use a word other than "reforms" such as "reconstruction" or "re." In recent decades, the French school was largely destroyed by an uninterrupted suc cession of reforms taking huge. It outlines avenues for reflection that is neede d, comparing viewpoints and experiments already done or planned. > Okay for test ing, but when it comes to instruct. Agree especially for the program of rehabili tation of primary SLECC. He wants to end on a note of optimism. > It sounds like a political speech. Perhaps the influence of the current election campaign? "Th e only difference between an optimist and a pessimist is that the former is a ha ppy fool, and the second is a sad fool." (Georges Bernanos) All children can be calculated as all children can swim. It matter of will, work and pleasure. The k ids love playing games are a natural source of calculations, sometimes naive, so metimes subtle and calculating luimême can become a game we should have the ambi tion that all children love calculation. > Certainly, the authors of this flight will take these four lines Doubtless trouventils so beautiful, deep and powerfu l that they deserve their eyes to be reproduced several times. There are many re asons to believe that students and teachers are happy to work in a school enviro nment that conforms to the initial ambitions of the founders of public education - redesigned the face of changing context and demands of contemporary society. > "The ambition of the founders of public education" was not that anyone should find A pleasure to school. Was that the school dispense all high quality instruction. As developments in contemporary society and what we present as its requirements , the primary school should comply with them very little. As its mission is to t each basic literacy skills, it is coated, or should be covered , a character alm ost timeless. It has nothing to do with what should be, for example, the role of the universities or technical schools or professional. Indeed, an elementary sc hool that dispenses more, or dispensation evil, almost timeless fundamental know ledge, makes it impossible for its former students have become students of highe r education, one day acquire the level of science in the making or the latest te chnology. It also makes impossible the task of technical and vocational students who are arriving without all the necessary bases. ***