Energy Management of electric motors, improving the efficiency of the drives wit h the use of variable speed drives

Peñalba Luis Fernando Mantilla, Juan Antonio Pardo Cardona Department of Electrical Engineering and Energy ETSII and T., Universidad de Can tabria Avda los Castros, s / n. 39005 Santander (Spain) Tel: +34 942 201 381, fa x: +34 942 201 385, e-mail: Abstract. The main purpose of a speed reduction is the speed of an AC motor. In this way, the drive allows the machines driven by electric motors produce the sa me output obtained using other methods of flow regulation, but consuming less po wer input. Consequently, the energy saving obtained is important and more and mo re users who opt for this method of control. The best opportunities for savings are achieved in machines that operate at partial load for long periods of time. The use of this technology provides additional benefits such as improved product quality and reliability of the system, or the aging of equipment. In this work we have carried out an assessment of energy savings and economic costs in some e ngines installed in an industrial enterprise in the chemical industry based in t he Autonomous Community of Cantabria. The five engines have been selected, all a ctuators of pumps and fans. It was shown that the investment would be recouped w ithin five years, with annual savings of more than 25,000 euros per year. On the other hand, the estimated number of engines that operate under variable l oad from the engine size greater than 50 hp is about 25%. It was also expected t o grow higher than the same total experience. Hence the need for more efficient use of energy in this mode of operation increasingly common in engines. Like mos t systems working below rated capacity during most of the time, have developed m ethods to reduce engine output to a level that matches what you demand. Dampers, throttle valves and recirculation systems are traditionally used for this purpo se are very inefficient from an energy standpoint. Reducing the speed of the loa d, eg a pump or fan, you would have the same goal of a better way. It is in this area that become important variable speed drives, whose main function is to pro vide different working speeds. This will enable energy savings and therefore cos t savings on machines driven by electric motors that do not work at full load mo st of the time. Transport 15% Other 14% compressors Air compressors pumps 8% Other 8% 32% 23% Fa ns Keywords Energy efficiency motors, pumps and fans. 1. Introduction Electric motors are the largest consumers of electricity in industry and commerc e. Almost half of the electricity used and nearly two thirds of that used in ind ustry is consumed by electric motors. As shown in Figure 1, which shows the dist ribution of electric energy consumption by different types of loads, it is inter esting to look for opportunities to save energy when the engines working with pu mps and fans, due to its significant share of electricity consumption. Fig 1. Consumption engine power <300 kW The ultimate goal therefore is to minimize the use of the energy consumed by ele ctric motors using modern speed drives to replace, in whole or in part, conventi onal methods of controlling the load. 2. Case study in chemical industry A. Plant Description The study was conducted in an enterprise in Gajano (Cantabr ia) is a chemical that is dedicated to the manufacture of carbon black (or black smoke), a component of vital importance in the manufacture of many products dai ly use as tires, printing inks, industrial coatings, electrical conductors, cons truction sealants, etc. The plant currently operating three production lines. Th

e following explains in general the production process. The plant produces about 50,000 tons per year of various types of carbon black. The process consists of a thermal cracking of oil, obtained as reaction products of cracking gas (off-ga s) and carbon black that is in suspension of the gas at the exit of the reactors . Both products are separated into bag filters and then€carbon black is ground t o particle size are within the specifications. After grinding, Carbon Black is m ixed with warm water to form the wet product in granular form. The product is dr ied and finally stored until bagging. The plant will produce 12 different types of carbon black in its three lines. In line 3 (or line Carcass) are 5 products, known as the N683, N539, N660, N772 and N550. A distinction is made in the produ ct line since it is logical to think that, in principle, for each of them presen t a different load regime on computers, in particular in engines must move pumps , fans, etc, of the installation. Therefore, the study made engines (their consu mption, hours of operation, performance, etc) was done for each of the products with the ultimate goal of observing the average behavior of each motor. B. Profi le current operation of the plant 1) Take measures and collecting data to make d ecisions about the benefits of using variable speed or not the engines, you shou ld collect the data necessary to carry out inspections and analysis engine plant , and their cargoes. Some criteria for selecting this type of engines are as fol low below: Engines with high annual operating times. Motors with high power (gre ater than 20 hp) Engines with variable loads. Engines working large amounts of running time reduc ed loads. Motors accessible and legible nameplates. 2) Selection of the engines to study motors chosen are those with powers from 15 hp to 100 hp, both inclusiv e, all work continuously for every day of the year (except for scheduled outages for maintenance) and charges are moving fans or pumps (where the relationship b etween power and speed is quadratic). In addition, all engines are the same manu facturer, ABB, which facilitates data collection. Table I lists the engines work with his ID, load dragged manufacturer and brand power. TABLE I. - Motors candidates to use variable speed drives. Motor 300-306 300-308 300-307 300-774 300-776 Load Type Fan Blower gas tank fuel tank vent fan recirc ulating pump oil pump conversion process water ABB ABB ABB ABB ABB Power Brand ( CV) 60 100 40 100 100 3) measuring equipment in a three-phase power system is necessary to take action on each engine in all line voltages and currents, and engine operating speeds a nd loads. For the realization of the measures of consumption and engine speeds o f the plant in this project had its own material electrical maintenance departme nt of the company. We used a handheld multimeter to measure voltage DC / AC and intensity strobe light tachometer for speed and a network analyzer equipment, wi th which measured the instantaneous power consumed by motors. 4) Method of evalu ation of cost savings achieved with variable speed method is based on the Applic ation Guide, published by EPRI (Electric Power Research Institute) [4] and is di vided into two types of analysis: the energy and economic. Does not cover other types of benefits arising from the adjustment of speed, such as process improvement or reduction of wear. These added benefits wo uld result in additional savings in non-electric costs, which reinforce the vali dity of this technology. Energy analysis: To determine the energy savings produc ed by using a variable speed, determine both the energy consumption at constant speed and variable. From all this addresses the energy analysis which is detaile d below. First we study the constant speed operation. The objective of this anal ysis is to determine the annual energy use when working at constant speed and fl ow levels at each point of operation or load level. The phases of analysis are t he following: Develop a service-charge cycle to allow hours of operation annuall y assign each load level. To determine the input power to the motor at each load level (kW) Calculate the annual energy consumption (kWh) as a product of the po wer and hours of operation. Add the energy consumed in all load levels to find t he annual energy consumption at constant speed. The first two phases require dat

a derived from the site. The charge cycle is the fraction of time, a year that a machine works in various load levels, taking into account the time the machine is stopped. On the other hand,€the motor input power can be measured directly, o r indirectly, from measurements of flow or pressure characteristic curves, and e fficiency of the engine and the machine moves in each load level. The constant v elocity calculation is straightforward if measured flux levels. However, althoug h the flow values for each load level are not measured, it should identify becau se they are a necessary element for the analysis of variable speed. There are se veral methods of calculation, depending on the initial data available. Secondly we study the variable speed operation. The objective of the analysis is to predi ct variable speed annual energy consumption when you can control the speed of th e engine. The necessary elements for the analysis are the service-charge cycle, the characteristic curves, the curve of the system, and points of flow at consta nt speed. Just as in the case of constant velocity, the variable speed electric power is calculated at each point of operation. The product of the power and hou rs of operation for the annual energy consumption at each load level. The sum of these value represents the annual energy consumption when operating at variable speed. Economic analysis: The energy savings attributable to the operation mode adjust able speed is the difference between the annual energy consumption at constant s peed and that would be consumed at variable speed. The proceeds from the savings and energy cost, cent / kWh, thus saving on energy costs with the use of the dr ive. For an initial financial review of a project often uses a simple payback. T hat is, the sum of costs divided by the sum of savings. 5) Profile of actual ope ration of engines on the ground The first step must be taken is the analysis of the mode of operation of the engines of the plant, to know what energy they are consuming. We will study separately the two applications, pumps and fans, becaus e the input data are different in each case and, therefore, the methods to be ap plied are different in one application to another. Pumps There are two methods t o determine the energy consumption of the motors that move at constant speed pum ps. The choice of one method or another depends on the availability of historica l data and measurements. To obtain the consumption profile of each engine must h ave data: Power input or variables of the fluid. Annual operating hours. Energy price (euros / kWh) In this case we have measures in high pressure pumps, obtain ed in the control room through an analysis of the evolution of raw materials ove r a month. Table II shows the monthly distribution per hour (720horas per month) With pressure data over time is determined the charge cycle. From here the meas urement of power input to the motor, using the characteristic curves. TABLE II. - Distribution of pressure along the height months of pressure (mca) 3 30 325 318 298 120 504 hours per month 72 24 TABLE III. - Pressure, flow and power consumption of the pump operation point H (mca) Q (m3 / h) Pbin (kW) 1330 45 61.3 2325 49 64.8 3318 53 67.5 4298 58 70, 3 seen engines consume more energy in the line and which less. Fans There are seve ral methods to determine the energy consumption of the motors that drive fans, d epending on the type of flow control device and the data available. To obtain th e consumption profile of each engine are required data: Power input variables re lated to the fluid or annual operating hours of energy price (euros / kWh) In th is case, we took values of input power to the motors, speed , temperature at the inlet of the fan, etc. He took the production plan in April as the basis for de termining the consumption profile of engines throughout the year. The results ar e presented in Table VI TABLE VI. - Hours per month per product manufacturing (April) Production Product Hours 109.5 50.5 72 720 284 204 The characteristic curves of the pumps provide pressure data, flow, and input po wer to the pump (Table III) Therefore, knowing one of the above values, we can d etermine the remaining variables. If power is called a fraction of the ratio bet

ween the input power to the pump and the rating of the motor, you can get the en gine efficiency (hm) at each operating point using a weighting factor defined in tables (mefc) in function of that fraction of power. Once the engine performanc e (hm) and the input power to the pump (Pb), the calculation of the motor input power (Pm) is immediate: mefc × η m = η m _ a full c arg Pmin (kW) = PBM ηm N-683 N-539 N-660 N-772 N-550 MONTHLY HOURS Multiplying t e power for ours of operation is ac ieved energy consumption at c onstant speed at eac point of operation. TABLE IV. - Consumption and engine 300-776 300-774 300-774 300-776 Motor Annual Consumption (KW ) 584,553.6 306,316.8 Annual Cost (Euros) 32536.25 17049.59 Taking as a base mont of 30 days, are skipping t e mont s of 31 days, t us subt racting production ours. It is considered t at t ese ours despised offset unem ployment ours per year needed for maintenance. For eac product type were taken measures voltage, current, power and engine speed in eac line, in order to stu dy t e load profile of t e engines, since, in principle, it is assumed t at ener gy consumption is different for eac type of carbon black produced. Data collect ed during t e mont of April were taken as representative for all mont s of t e year. Wit performance data and ours of operation is determined t e c arge cycl e. T e energy consumed is t e area of power-time grap . T e energy cost is calcu lated as t e product of t e energy consumed and t e price of kW TABLE V. - Consumption of constant speed pumps Motor Point 1 (kW ) Punto 2 (kW ) Punto 3 (kW ) Punto 4 (kW ) Annual consumption (kW ) Annual Cost (euros) 300-77 6 21 254 92 160 410,054.4 61,084.8 , April 584,553.6 168,422.4 55 872 46 512 300 -774 32536.25 35510.4 17049.59 306,316.8 For two of t e engines selected, 300-776 and 300-774, process water consumption were t ose reflected in Table IV. Table V summarizes t e annual consumption of a ll of t em and t eir cost, can Total cost T e total cost for all engines studied and for bot applications, pum ps and fans, in t e current conditions amount to 90 980 euros, a sum of individu al costs of eac engine. T is cost represents 7% of t e total bill of t e compan y, w ic gives an idea of t e importance of t e motors in electrical energy cons umption of t e plant (and industry in general), taking into account t at t is st udy focuses on a small number of engines. C. Plan for improvement on t e current situation 1) and calculation of consumption Proposal T e proposal to improve t e efficiency of t e drive motors and, by extension, t e operation t ereof, t at arises is t e replacement of traditional met ods of regulation flow drives, more efficient in t is mission. It is now estimated, t erefore, t e value of t e ene rgy consumed at varying speeds in t e two applications, pumps and fans, and t en to determine t e savings would t is c ange in t e mode of operation. Pumps for pumps and values were obtained w en analyzing flow profile current operation of t e plant, so it is not necessary to calculate again. Wit t e data of pressure, flow and pump power at constant speed can get t e value of pump performance w e n t ere are no performance data on t e c aracteristic curves. Wit t e performan ce of t e pump ( b), and calculating t e eig t of t e system (HSIs), we obtain t e power absorbed by t e pump, depending on t e specific gravity: Fig 2. Mont ly profile engine operation 300-308 Figure 2 s ows t e representation of t e c arge cycle engine 300-308, w ic move s t e recirculation tank Fan and Table VII s ows t eir consumption. TABLE VII. - Motor output kW 300-308 depending on t e product N-683 N-539 15.8 1
























































































4.1 12.9 N-660 N-772 N-550 14.7 13.6 T e averaged energy prices under t e t ree trading powers wit electrical contra ctors and registered consumption is 0.05566 euros / KW Table VIII summarizes t e annual consumption of all of t em and t eir cost. It s ows t e ig est consump tion engines. Table IX indicates t e consumption of eac engine wit regard to t e product produced. TABLE VIII. - Consumption engines 300-306, 300-307, 300-308 300-306 300-307 300308 Motor Annual Consumption (KW ) 249,995.4 121,051.8 372,666.24 Annual Cost (e uros) 6737 20472.6 13914.74 74 TABLE IX. - Consumption-costs ( ) Motor engines according to N-683 product N-539 N-660 N-772 N-550 Annual Cost ConsumoKW 300-306 98491.2 64137.6 12362.4 27043. 2 47 961 13 914 249,995.4, 74 300-307 70.036,2 139.046,4 106,439 21.634,2 3.55 10,4 372.666,24 20.472,6 300-308 20761.2 48052.8 31579.2 11750.4 8908.2 121,05 1.8 6,737.74 g × H = Pb in (M.c.a.) × Q η b × 367 3 H Syst H = C × Q 2 C = H design 2 Qdiseño Once t e engine performance, calculated wit t e same procedure used at constant speed, t e power input to motor (PASD_in) is immediate,€and consumption Pasdar _ in = M × η η Pbin ASD p = K1 x K2 2 xp 'Q = K2 x Q' Pv in = K1X K2 3 x P 'v in TABLE XII .- Summary variable speed consumption (kW ) Motor N-683 N 66882.6 5334 8.4 10117.8 74294.4 58958.4 19766.4-539 N-660 37380.9 52142.4 12484.8 N N-550 -7 72 Drive performance is tabulated in terms of t e speed ratio, w ic coincides wit t e flow ratio. Tables X and XI summarizes t e annual consumption of all of t e m and t eir cost. It is noted t at motors consume more energy on t e line and w ic less. 300-307 300-306 300-308 8362.8 24883.2 5029.8 3878.4 50999.4 15724.8 TABLE X. - Summary variable speed consumption (kW ) TABLE XIII .- Summary variab le speed consumption (kW ) Motor 300-776 300-774 62 352 30 528 Item 1 Item 2 Ite m 3 326,349.6 131,702.4 57 456 25 574 49 104 Item 4 4 42940.8 Motor Motor 300-77 6 300-306 300-307 300-308 300-774 Annual Consumption (KW ) 254,275.2 471 732 Ann ual Cost (euros) 26256.6 14152.96 Annual Consumption (KW ) 208,470.96 50999.4 18 8,536.8 Annual Cost (euro) 2838.62 10493.96 11603.49 syst m


























TABLE XI .- Summary variable speed consumption (kW ) Total costs T e total cost for all engines studied and for bot applications, pu mps and fans, t e new conditions is 65345.55 euros / year. As noted, consumption of energy in t ese engines as decreased from EUR 90980.72 EUR 65345.55. It was so clear t e importance of keeping good control and good management of energy c onsumption of t e same, not only to save electricity but also costs. T e followi ng sections examine in detail t e savings t at ave been obtained. 2) analysis a nd economic valuation of t e proposed savings from t e alternative of improving t e operation of engines using variable speed drives instead of ot er traditiona l elements flow regulators provides energy consumption savings t at directly imp act operating costs eac to a lesser or greater extent. T ese savings are t e di fference between consumption at constant speed and variable speed. Table XIV sum marizes all t e savings wit t is met od. Fans For fans or blowers may be times w en t e reference conditions of rotationa l speed, gas density or pressure and temperature at admission, do not matc t e site conditions. T ese possible differences in speed or density alter t e c arac teristic curves. T erefore, in t ese cases it is necessary to redraw t e curves to fit t e c aracteristics of t e site. T is in t e case of t e pumps is not bec ause t e curves are defined in terms of eig t, w ic depends only on t e veloci ty of fluid in t e impeller, not density. T is correction factors are introduced in t e density and velocity K1 and K2. Taking five c aracteristic points of t e c aracteristic curves and applying t ese weig tings, we can determine five c ar acteristic points adjusted for site conditions and draw wit t em t e new curves . To determine t e values of pressure (p), flow (Q) and input power to t e fan ( Pvin) under field conditions using t e following expressions t at relate to t ei r respective values in terms of t e curves (p ', Q 'Pvin') TABLE XIV .- energy and economic savings obtained Motor 300-306 300-307 300-308 300-774 300-776 kW / year 41524.4 70052.4 52041.6 112,821.6 184,129.44 euros / year 10 248 2311.2 , 64 3899.1 6279.7 2896.62 300-306 300-307 300-308 300-774 30 0-776 TABLE XVI .- Economic Budget acquisition cost (euro) 8,978 13,271 5,550 13,271 1 3,271 Installation Cost (euro) 897.8 555 1327.1 1327.1 1327.1 Total Cost (euros) 9875.8 14598.1 14598.1 14 598 6105 1 59775.1 Unit Economic valuation of improvements T is economic analysis is based on calculatin g t e period of amortization of capital invested or return time of investment. T is economic indicator evaluates t e time needed to elapse so t at t e savings p roduced by t e use of speed to offset t e initial costs of investment. Investmen t costs include t e cost of ardware (drive) and its installation costs, assumin g a 10% price of t e drive. For an investment in a variable cost is considered t e period of return on investment must be between two to four years. Period is c onsidered return on investment to t e ratio between investment costs and savings . T e c oice of t e drive was carried out using t e software provided by t e Sc neider ome provider you work wit Columbian Carbon Spain,€w ic also offer pric es. As seen in Table XV all engines considerable annual cost savings, and return periods are less t an five years, so t at t e investment is totally viable. TABLE XV .- Period ROI Motor engine 300-306 300-308 300-307 300-774 300-776 Cost (euros) 6105 14598.1 9875.8 14598.1 Savings (euros / year) 2311, Return 10248.6 4 2896.62 3899.1 2 (years) 4.2 1.5 5 1.42 TOTAL 3.








































































Conclusions T is project as soug t to give t e keys to implementing an energy management pr ogram at t e Columbian Carbon Company Spain SA, and in general, any industrial p lant. T e recommendations are a first solution to t e current situation of t e p lant, but t e analysis of its evolution over time is w at will determine, ultima tely, t e validity and amount of improvements. After a review of t e plant's ele ctrical system, t eir possible sources of losses, and t e study of t e electrici ty bill of t e company, proceeded to study t e situation of a sample of engine p roduction lines at t e factory. We ave worked wit a number of small engines, i e small scale, but t is does not detract from t e tec nology presented ere. T e only intention in t is project is to ig lig t t e potential for energy savings are ac ieved t roug t e improvement of electric motor drives. Five engines wer e c osen representative of t e plant for t is study. After analyzing its operati ng conditions, fuel consumption and operating profiles, we developed an alternat ive to get reduce t e energy consumed by t e engines and t erefore t e electrici ty bill of t e company. T e solution suggests t e replacement of t e flow contro l valves currently used by t e company on mac ines powered by electric motors t at require no work at full load most of t e time (pumps and fans) for variable s peed. T e drives in accordance wit engine speed depending on demand conditions to avoid wasting energy unnecessarily. It was found t at t e required investment will be amortized over a period s orter t an five years. Savings 14598.1 6279.7 2.3 Budget Table XVI summarizes t e investment costs of t e proposed energy savings. is ac ieved in t is way amounts to about 25635.26 per year, w ile t e budget for t e purc ase of variable speed drives is EUR 59775.1. [3] [4] [5] [6] Acknowledgements T e aut ors wis to t ank t e company Columbian Carbon Spain for is contributio n in conducting material of t is work and is willingness to personal attention to t e aut ors. EASTON CONSULTANTS., "Variable Frequency Drives" Market Researc Report, Easton Consultants. Nort west Energy Efficiency Alliance. ELECTRIC POWER RESEARCH INSTI TUTE. "Adjustable Speed Drives Applications Guide." JOHN C. ANDREAS. "Energy-Eff icient Electric Motor. Selection and Application. " Second Edition. JEAN BONAL. "Variable speed electric drives. Fundamentals of Electrical and Mec anical "Sc n eider Electric. References [1] [2] CONTROL TECHNIQUES, "Fan & Pump Motor Energy Savings Guide." ENERGY EFFI CIENCY, "Variable Speed Drives. A guide for electrical engineers, "Energy Effici ency Best Practice Programme. [7] ENERGY EFFICIENCY. "Energy savings wit motors and drives." Good practice gu ide 2. Best Practice Programme. [8] ENERGY EFFICIENCY. "Energy savings in indust rial water pumping systems." Good practice guide 249. Best practice sc edule. Gu ide to t e Britis government obtained [9] Pacific Gas and Electric Company. "Efficiency Opportunities wit Adjustable Speed Drives"