Faculty of Engineering - Universidad Rafael Landivar Newsletter No. 01 How To Reduce Electricity Bill Power Factor Correcting For Mr.

Jose Luis Garcia Ola (1) ABSTRACT The high consumption of reactive power (increased need to magnetize mor e equipment is placed under the network) causes not only poor regulation of volt age or low voltage in an industry, but also may affect other users. In addition, decrease the efficiency with which the networked computers take advantage of th e energy supplied to them. Improving the power factor is practical and economic, through the installation of static capacitors or synchronous motors using avail able in the industry. KEY WORDS Power Factor. Reactive Power. Static electric capacitors. Charge deman d. POWER FACTOR CORRECTED WHY IN THE INDUSTRY? 1. Introduction ever wondered, why d o we need a conversion efficiency of energy? What is the reason for the high ele ctricity rates to energy-intensive industry that uses electric motors or equipme nt? Currently, the energy consumption efficiency is topical, from consciousness to users in the rational use of energy to factories and industries through its p rocesses of energy they needed, of course! An industry has to pay more will ask: But is that these can reduce your energy bill if they take precautions or actio ns? At home, companies in charge of the energy distribution charge a special rat e to those industries that consume much energy if they pass a certain range, suc h as reactive power rates for consumption above permitted by rush hour, each con nected user to the electricity grid is in a consumer category, the category will depend on whether it is for residential, commercial or industrial, and so will be the bill at the end of each month. In an industry where you are your electric al equipment motors, lighting ballasts, drilling equipment, lathes, refrigeratio n equipment etc., Everything you need magnetized present disadvantages when oper ating on the network, the electricity company will be turning a bill for excess consumption of reactive power 1 Full-time professor of Industrial Engineering at Universidad Rafael Landivar. Ju ly 1 Faculty of Engineering - Universidad Rafael Landivar Newsletter No. 01 due to increased generation capacity of the latter. The industry should provide that this does not happen or slows, the reactive consumption makes them less abl e in the electricity network to meet the demands of other users, the excess was charged to a high tariff, the industry is currently correcting this factor using capacitor banks to compensate reactive power consumed in it, by generating it t hemselves. The benefit comes when placed as close to the load consumes. 2. Certainly early computers connected to a power grid are property inductive (c urrent lag the voltage), power consumed and need to magnetize its internal eleme nts, inductors, capacitors, magnetic fields and so on., Increasing the need to m agnetize more equipment is placed under the network. This energy is magnetizing the internal elements is known as reactive, Reactive Power in general. One under stands better knowing that it is heat or light, the greater the consumption of r eactive power, the worse the use of energy received by the teams. The Power Fact or is an indicator of this achievement, which can take values between 0 and 1. F or example, if the power factor is equal to 0.80, indicates that the total energ

y delivered (100%) only 80% of that energy is harnessed into useful work. Reacti ve power has no benefit, go to and from the load to the source, but is very nece ssary for the proper functioning of equipment, this reactive power is constantly increasing in the peak hour (4:00 pm to 7:30 pm) by the voltage on the network decreases as a result of increased power consumption and more reactive. In some cases the residential user is affected by reducing the voltage, but an industry (large customers) is even more concerned if he does not correct this problem. Th e following figure summarizes the concepts treated: P = I2R = VICOS (Φ) S = Appa rent Power Units complex VA, KVA, MVA S = P + jQ S = I2Z = VI P = real power or average, units, W, kW ., Q MW = This is the reactive power and that has to compe nsate: Imaginary units, var, kvar, Mvar jQ = XsI2 = VISen (Φ) July 2

2.2. Power actor Correction, generally referred to notions of power factor to t he ratio between active power and apparent power, which coincides with the cosin e of the angle between the voltage and current when the form is pure sine wave. Industrial loads by their nature are reactive power due to the presence mainly o f refrigeration, motors, ballasts, etc. Active power consumption (KW) is added t o the consumption of so-called reactive power (KVAR), which determine overall op erational performance of the equipment and engines. This has traditionally been reactive power supplied by power companies, but may be provided by the industrie s themselves. As provided by the electricity companies should be produced and tr ansported by the railways, causing need for investment in higher capacities of e quipment and transmission and distribution networks. Reactive power, which produ ces no direct physical work on computers, it is necessary to produce the electro magnetic flux that is operated items such as motors, transformers, fluorescent l ights, refrigeration equipment and the like. When the number of teams is signifi cant reactive power requirements are also significant, (a larger number of equip ment that consumes reactive and more reactive required) which produces a signifi cant decrease in power factor. A high consumption of reactive power may occur as a result primarily of: • A large number of engines. • Presence of refrigeration and air conditioning. • or poor planning and operation in the electrical syste m in the industry. • Poor physical condition of the mains and equipment in the i ndustry But it must take into account purely resistive loads like incandescent l amps, space heaters, etc., Do not cause this type of problem and need not reacti ve current. July 3

aculty of Engineering - Universidad Rafael Landivar

Newsletter No. 01 The fact that there is a low power factor in its industry produces the following problems: 2.2.1. The user (industrial): • Increasing the current intensity • Lo sses in conductors and high voltage drops • Increases power plants, transformers , reducing its useful life and reducing the driving ability of drivers • The con




aculty of Engineering - Universidad Rafael Landivar

Newsletter No. 01 2.1. Impact of Reactive Power High consumption of reactive power results in not only the poor regulation of voltage or low voltage in an industry but also may a ffect other users as well as a negative consequence for all: the power factor wi ll decrease network! Means power factor efficiency with which the networked comp uters exploit the energy that is supplied. One of the goals of compensating the reactive power factor correction, this through capacitor banks as far as economi cally feasible.

ductor temperature increases and this reduces the life of your privacy. • Increa ses in the bill for electricity consumption igure 1. Equipment and Operational Performance Engines

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aculty of Engineering - Universidad Rafael Landivar

Newsletter No. 01 An induction motor without power factor correction that consumes only 80 A for y our workload, you need the excitation current of 60 A (reactive), must obtain th e power circuit 100a: 80 2 + 60 2 = 100

or the power line current flows working together with the current is not useful or magnetization current (reactive). After you install a capacitor on the motor to meet the needs of the magnetization ( ig. 2), the power circuit only has to drive and deliver 80 A for the engine to perform the same work, since the capaci tor is responsible for delivering the remaining 60A ( igure 4) igure 4. Induction Motor with Power actor Corrected

The drive power circuit now only working current (80A). This allows you to conne ct additional electrical equipment on the same circuit and reduces energy consum ption costs as a result of maintaining a low power factor. 3. Installation of capacitors for installation of capacitors must be taken into account various factors that influence their location such as: The variation and distribution of loads, load factor, engine type, uniform load distribution, the disposition and length of the channels and the nature of the voltage. Do not ca rry excessive compensation of reactive power, since in this case due to over-com pensation can be set up voltage equipment over the network.







2.2.2. A power distribution company: Increased investment in generating equipmen t, as its capacity in KVA should be higher in order to deliver the additional re active power. Increased capacity in transmission and distribution lines and tran sformers for the transport and transformation of this reactive power. High volta ge drop and low voltage regulation, which may affect the stability of the grid. One way to electricity companies national and international industries made to r eflect on the desirability of generating or controlling their consumption of rea ctive power has been through a demand charge, billed in Q. / KVA, ie by charging capacity provided in KVA, a factor which includes the consumption of the KVAR t hat are delivered to industry July 4 aculty of Engineering - Universidad Rafael Landivar

Newsletter No. 01 Improving the power factor is practical and economic, through the installation o f static capacitors or synchronous motors using available in the industry (somet hing less economic if not available). igure 2. Using a Compensation Capacitor for Power

Example: A capacitor installed on the same circuit of an induction motor has the effect of reactive power exchange between them.€The current advance stored by t he capacitor current then feeds the delay required for the induction motor. igu re 3 shows an induction motor without power factor correction. igure 3. Induction Motor without Power actor Correction

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RE ERENCES 1. CHAPMAN, STEPHEN J.. Electrical machines. 2nd Edition. McGraw Hill. Mexico: 1 998 2. Kosow, IRVIN. Electrical Machines and Transformers. 2nd Edition. Limusa P ublishers. Mexico: 1996 3. BOYLESTAD, ROBERT. Introduction to circuit analysis. Pearson Publishing 10th Edition. Mexico: 2004 4. LOPEZ GONZALEZ, RANCISCO JAVIE R. Harmonicas theoretical foundations. 2nd edition. Siglo21 training. Mexico: 20 00 Egrafías: 1. ENDESA. www.endesaonline.com 2. EDENOR. www.edenor.com.ar July 7




aculty of Engineering - Universidad Rafael Landivar

Newsletter No. 01 The capacitors must be located in or near the loads in order to obtain the minim um cost and maximum benefits. CONCLUSIONS To reduce energy consumption bill has to take into account the follo wing aspects: • Control of reactive power consumption in the industry is advanta geous to reduce the bill for reactive power consumption • It improves the voltag e regulation on the net power (does not fluctuate) • You get more teams operate with the same capacity of grid • You get an increase in the capacity of lines an d transformers installed • The requested decrease of energy • You get a reductio n in the overall cost of • Less energy cross section of conductors • Less energy lost by high flows on the line