# BEAMS OF BUILDINGS concrete Henry Long Innecco email: hlongo@civil.ee.ufrj.

br 4th edition April 2000 Beams of Reinforced Concrete Buildings - Henry Long 1 Beams of Reinforced Concrete Buildings 1 - Introduction The structural design of the beams of the building is to define the structural model to determine the loads to calculate the stresses and detai l the armor. What is the most appropriate structural model to represent a beam o f the building? How is the definition of cross-section? As the structural model chosen, the beams can be represented as elements of gateways (or spatial plans), elements of the grid or as isolated structures. The beams of the building are u sually calculated with rectangular cross section and, if considered the contribu tion of the slab, the section can have T-shaped or L (Fig. 1). How to tell if th e beam will be calculated with rectangular or T? Figure 1 - Cross sections of beams In some cases, the beams can be designed in a way reversed and the plant are rep resented by dashed lines to molds. 2 - Dimensions of beams T Figure 2 are shown the dimensions for the calculation of beam section T. bf hf b3 b1 b2 bw fig.2 - Dimensions of the beam T Beams of Reinforced Concrete Buildings - Henry Long 2 The NBR-6118 provides some parameters to get the table width for the section T. Were defined as those values? According to NBR-6118, for the calculation of resi stance or deformation, the portion of the slab to be considered as part of the b eam will be: bf = b1 + b3 + b1 bw ≤ 0.10 to 8 hf 0.5 b2 and bf - table width (flange) b3 ≤ 0.10 to 6 hf A values are: simply supported beam when leg with one leg with end moments at tw o ends balance beam in a = la = 3. l / 4 = 3. l / 5 = 2. l The section T can be considered in all sections of the beam? Importantly, the T section can only be considered in calculating the longitudinal section of iron w hen the table is compressed. Otherwise, if the table is pulled, the beam must be calculated with the rectangular cross section.

the middle pillar, can not be considered ne ative moment of absolute value less than perfect in this support the bezel. This can always be applied? No,This con dition provides the least ne ative moment in support intermediaries that meet th e followin relationship: a / H> 1 / 5 bein a - width of the support, measured in the direction of the beam H - hei ht of the pillar c) when you do not do the exact calculation of influence of the pillars of solidarity with the beam, shoul d be considered an obli atory bendin moment at the supports MEXT extremes. How to calculate this moment? The NBR-6118 provides a simplified formula to calculat e this moment. 6 - Schematic structural beams How to represent the structural scheme of the bea ms? Structural beams in the dia rams are iven support conditions, loads, active , and the len ths of the spans. The structural scheme and the loads on the beam V2 Pilot Project are shown in fi . 4. In this fi ure, we can see that this is co ntinuous beam with two spans and rests on pillars P4, P5 and P6. In support of t he end of this beam are also shown the bendin moments M1 and M2 representin th e solidarity of the beam with the pillars P4 and P6. A concentrated load P is ob tained from the beam V7. M1 q1 q2 M2 Fi . 4 - Schematic and structural loads of the beam V2 Pilot Project Beams of Reinforced Concrete Buildin s - Henry Lon 5 In Fi ure 5, the beam is shown V7, simply supported beams in V1 and V2. Why not show the moments at the end of this case? q4 Fi .. 5 - Schematic and structural loads of the beam V5 Pilot Project 7 - bendin moments of solidarity with the pillars of the end The calculation of a sin le beam is a simplification. The beam is connected to the pillars and thi s solidarity should be considered in the project. What does this solidarity betw een the beam and the pillars of the end? When the beam is calculated separately, the NBR-6118 recommends that one should necessarily take into account a bendin moment at the supports MVIG ends of the beam (Fi . 6) iven by the followin eq uation: MVIG = RINF + rSUP MENG. ------------------------- RVIG + + RINF rSUP RINF = bein IINF / LYMP stiffness index of the pillar in the lower section rSUP = ISUP / lSUP stiffness index of the pillar in the upper section rVIG = IVIG / lVIG the stiffness index of the beam I - inertia of the element l - the element will MENG - Crimpin perfect moment in the beam MVIG MSUP BEAM MINFO PILLAR 6 - bendin moments due to solidarity between the beam and pillar

Beams of Reinforced Concrete Buildin s - Henry Lon 6

This formula is interestin because it ives an idea of the de ree crimp end of the beam on the pillar. The beam must be calculated with the moment MVIG applied in support of the extreme. In practice, to keep the positive momentum in the le decreases, one can calculate the beam without this time and put the armor on t he ends for this moment. Should be considered as the solidarity between the ird er and the abutments? Example: Calculate the moment of solidarity of the beam V1 (12x50) with the pill ar P1 (50x20), as shown in Fi ure 7. P2 P1 3m MVIG q1 = 20 kN / m q2 q3 4m 3m 2m 3m fi .7 - Moment of solidarity on the ed e of the beam with the pillar in this cas e, the stiffness index of the upper pillar is equal to the bottom: rSUP RINF = = (50. 203/12) / 300 = 111 cm3 rVIG = (12. 503/12) / 400 = 312.5 cm3 The moment i n the support end of the beam will be: 2 x 111 MENG. --------------------- 312.5 + 2 x 111 0.41 MENG MVIG MVIG = = This result shows that the moment is 41% at the end of crimp perfect moment. If we consider that the load alon the span equal to q = 20 kNm / m, we et: MENG = 20. 4.02 / 12 = 26.7 kNm. The moment at the end of the beam will be: MVIG = 0.4 1 x 26.7 = 10.9 kNm Beams of Reinforced Concrete Buildin s - Henry Lon 7 The direction of the pillar would influence this moment at the end? If the pilla r was inverted, ie with the dimensions 20x50, we would have a different stiffnes s index: rSUP RINF = = (20. 503/12) / 300 = 2 x 694 cm3 MENG 694. ---------------------- 312.5 + 2 x 694 MVIG = MENG MVIG MVIG = 0.82 = 0.82 x 26.7 = 21.9 kNm Thus, because of chan e of the di rection of the pillar, the moment at the ed e of the beam increased from 41% to 82% when the crimp perfect. What would happen to this de ree crimp the pillar to be even lon er? 8 - Chance of calculation for lar e overloads If the overloads are reat you nee d to consider their positions and most difficult to trace the envelope of bendin moments and shear. The iron sections are then calculated for this maximum. The most unfavorable position of the overload should be indicated by the line of in fluence in the section considered. Thus, for maximum positive moment, one must l oad and unload the spans will nei hbors. For the maximum ne ative moment, you mu st load and unload the nei hbors below. Why? In Fi ure 8, for example,are shown on the calculation assumptions for determinin the maximum positive bendin mom

ents in the sections S1 and S2 and maximum ne ative moment section S3. In this f i ure p is the permanent char e and s is the overhead. s p s p S1 S2 s s p S3 Fi . 8 - Chance of calculation for determinin the maximum bendin Beams of Reinforced Concrete Buildin s - Henry Lon 8 In beams with swin s in the end, very common in buildin s with balconies, one mu st consider the calculation assumptions shown in Fi ure 9 to obtain the maximum ne ative and positive moments. P s p s p S1 S2 Fi .9 - Assumptions for calculatin a balance beam with a 9 - Dia rams of bendin moments Analyzin efforts alon a beam? The analysis of the efforts alon the beam can be made by the dia rams of bendin moments. The l ayout of these dia rams can be done by computer pro rams. In Fi .10, for example , is shown in the dia ram of moments of a continuous beam. In this case, this di a ram was drawn without the time to end that was added later. X1 X2 MVIG MVIG M1 M2 M3 Fi . 10 - Dia ram of bendin

moments of a continuous beam

How to tell if the computer pro ram correctly calculated the times? The preview of the layout of the dia ram of moments ives the en ineer the means to know if the pro ram did the calculations correctly. Any ross error can be detected by t he appearance of the dia ram. Hence the importance of the layout of the dia ram. Moreover, it is essential to compare the moments calculated by the pro ram with the values estimated in prédimensionamento. The experience of the en ineer is a lso an important factor to evaluate the numerical results. Beams of Reinforced Concrete Buildin s - Henry Lon 9 10 - Minimum bendin moments in beams In the project, you must set the beams for certain minimum positive and ne ative to ensure the safety of the structure and prevent the beam cracks present undesirable. Minimum positive moment Accordin to NBR-6118, the beams can be calculated as continuous, without ri id connection s with support, provided they consider the followin minimum positive moments: i n vain intermediaries in vain extremes - positive momentum with the ends of o c lamped - positive momentum with the internal support clamped In each ran e of the beam, the positive moment for the calculation of lon itudin al reinforcement must be at least equal to a minimum. For example, are shown in fi ure 11 times minimum positive for a continuous beam, considerin that each lo

moments

ad will be evenly distributed. M1 M2 M3 M1MIN q1 = L12 / 14.22 M3MIN q3 = L32 / 14.22 M2MIN q2 = L22 / 24 fi .11 - minimal positive bendin moments How to calculate the minimum positive bendin moment for the case of a concentra ted load applied in vain? Beams of Reinforced Concrete Buildin s - Henry Lon 10 For the moment at least ne ative NBR-6118, when the beam is in solidarity with t he middle pillar, the moment at least ne ative is the perfect time crimp this su pport if the relationship between the width of the support, measured in the dire ction of the beam, and the hei ht of the pillar is reater than 1:5. In this cas e, the fi ure 12 we have the followin condition: / H> 1 / 5 or a> H / 5 For exa mple, if H = 3m the minimum ne ative moment will be the perfect time crimpin wh en the width of the intermediate support for the > 60 cm the middle pillar H the beam Xmin Xmin Fi ure 12 - Moment minimum ne ative into a compartment inside of a rafter 11 - Roundin the dia ram of bendin moments Some beams may be supported on the monolithic support. There would be a reduction in the ne ative moment in this ca se? The NBR-6118 allows round the dia ram of moments (fi .13) on the monolithic support, takin the time to maximum ne ative calculated mean between the maximum and the half-sum of the moments on the faces of the pillar. Beams of Reinforced Concrete Buildin s - Henry Lon 11 By Fi .13, the ne ative moment rounded XR, will be iven in terms of moments on the faces of the pillar and the maximum ne ative moment: XR = (XMAX + XMedia) / 2

bein XMedia = (XA + XB) / 2 XMAX XA XB XR monolithic support beam Fi . 13 - Roundin the dia ram of moments 12 - Verification of the dimensions of the beams How to check if the dimensions of the beams are compatible with the architectural desi n? After determinin the dia ram of bendin moments, it is important to check the hei hts of the beams a re interferin with the architectural desi n, especially when the beam is passin over a door or a window (fi .14). BEAM SLAB hVIGA ri ht foot DOOR WINDOW fi .14 - beam passin over a door and a window Beams of Reinforced Concrete Buildin s - Henry Lon 12 For the beam compression has no armor (armor double), the value of kmd (input va lue table for sizin ) correspondin to the maximum moment Mmax should be limited : Mdmax ----------- = ≤ b d2 fcd kmd kmdmax bein kmdmax = 0.219 for steel CA-50 But if the value of kmd is reater than its maximum value, which the en ineer mu st do? If this condition is not satisfied, you can increase the size of the beam . If the moment is positive, the beam can be calculated as T section takin adva nta e of the table so depressed. The increased resistance of the concrete compre ssive fck is not always feasible in practice because usually this fck is unique throu hout the structure. If none of these possibilities is possible, you should then use the same armor compression. 13 - Calculation of iron sections of the lon itudinal sections of the lon itudin al iron can be calculated by scalin tables, with the followin value entry: Md kmd = ----------- b ≤ kmdmax d2 fcd With this value kmd, kz can be obtained from the table and the section of iron is therefore: Md The kz d = ---------- FYD is made with the choice of the lon itudinal bars? The choice of reinforcement bar is made considerin the spacin between the bars, the number of layers and the c onditions for avoidin the harmful cracks. Table 1 shows the diameter φ o the s tandard gauge in millimeters and inches, as well as the nominal values or calcu lating the iron sections (cm2) o standard EB-3/1980: φ (mm) 6.3 5 8 10 12 5 16

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20 25 φ (in.) 3 / 16 1 / 4 5 / 16 3 / 8 1 / 2 5 / 8 3 / 4 1 The (cm2) 0.200 0.31 5 0.5 0.8 1.25 2.0 3 15 5.0

Beams o Rein orced Concrete Buildings - Henry Long 13 The minimum rein orcement or beams is given by the NBR-6118: Asmine = 0.15% 0.2 5% bw bw h h or steels CA-40, 50 and 60 or steels 25 and CA-32 The armor may be the maximum amount recommended by CEB: Asmax h = 4% bw 14 - Model o the trellis Morsch How to represent a rein orced concrete beam at ultimate limit state? A rein orced concrete beam can be represented in the ultim ate limit state by the lattice model devised by Morsch. This lattice is ormed b y connecting rods (concrete) and risers (armor), representing the stress ields o compression and traction. Shown in Fig.15 is a trellis with bars bent and ig .15b a truss with vertical stirrups. In this igure, the traces are represented by solid lines and the connecting rods by dotted lines. z M z θ li ter (cotg cotg θ + α) α rods (A) θ (B) Fig. 15 - Models of the trellis for reinforced concrete be ms How is it possible to c lcul te the tr ction force in the bottom truss rod? The tensile force Td c lcul tion t the midpoint M of the rod below the trellis c n be c lcul ted by the e u tions of e uilibrium, considering the section SS Ritter going through this point M, s shown in Fig.16. Be ms of Reinforced Concrete Buildings - Henry Long SA 14 z θ x S l M Td Vd Fig.16 - Efforts section SS in the trellis Morsch By Fig.16, the tr ction force Td c n be obt ined by the sum of the moments t no de A: Td = Vd. (X + l) / z where: Td = Md / z + itchy l / z

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This e u tion shows th t this model of l ttice tensile strength should be incre sed. For this, the di gr m of tensile forces is shifted from the v lue l. Obser ving figs.15 nd 16, we get the v lue of l: l cotg θ = z - z (cotg cotg α + θ ) / 2 l = z (θ cotg - cotg α) / 2 for θ = 45 nd vertic l str ps α = 90, we h v e: l = z / 2 The NBR-6118 provides the v lue l t king into ccount the portion of the concrete: l = (1.5 to 1.5 η) d ≥ 0.2 d if transverse reinforcement is t ilted 45 ° al = (1.5 to 1.2 η) d ≥ 0.5 d in t e ot er cases being η t e quotient of t e sectional area of transverse reinforcement area calculated by t e effect ive voltage equal to 1.15 τwd, ie τc wi hou considering he reduc ion due o h e concre e. Thus, we have: 1.15 τwd - -------------------- τc η = 1 ≤ 1.15 τwd τ c being given i em in 7:23

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Table 1 - Sections o iron (nominal values)

or the standard gauges

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For simplici y, he NBR-6118 allows us o consider he following values when usi ng ver ical s irrups: al = d η ≤ 0.6 al = 0.6 d 0.75 <η <0.8 al = 0.5 d η ≥ 0.8 In t e usual beams of buildings, it can be considered an average value: al = 0.7 5 d Beams of Reinforced Concrete Buildings - Henry Long 15 15 - Distribution of longitudinal reinforcement in t e diagram s ifted How t e l ongitudinal reinforcement is distributed along t e beam? Longitudinal reinforcem ents are distributed according to t e diagram under tension. In practice, to tak e into account t e increase of traction forces, t e diagram of t ese forces s ou ld be s ifted from al wit a translation parallel to t e axis of t e beam in t e unfavorable direction. T us,one can obtain t e breakpoint (or folding in t e c ase of bent bars) of t e longitudinal bars. In t e case of beams usual building, you can use t e diagram of bending moments moved instead of t e diagram of tens ile forces s ifted, ie it is as if t e lever arm z remained constant along t e b eam. In fig.17 is s own t e distribution of t e bars from a piece of t e diagram of bending moments staggered obtained as follows: • moves al diagram bending mo ments • divide t e ordinate maximum sentence considered in a number of s ares. ( In fig. 7:17, for example, t e diagram was divided into 3 equal parts). • draws up a scaled diagram taking into account t e s ifted diagram and t e divisions pr eviously defined • t e bars s ould cover t e area of t e scaled diagram, giving an anc orage lengt lb from t e point at w ic t ese bars are no longer necessar y. In fig.7.17, t e bar N2 is covering t e stretc of t e diagram between points A and B, and t e anc orage lengt is given from t e point B. T is way, you get t e lengt , distribution and position of longitudinal bars. N1-N2-2φ 2φ 10 lb 10 lb Al N3 - 2φ B 10 lb

Beams o Rein orced Concrete Buildings - Henry Long 16 The criterion o NBR-6118, the anchorage length o the bar N2 would start at poi nt A (and not B) Diagram o place and would extend at least until 10φ beyond the point B. In the case where the slope o the tangent to the diagram is small (se e conditions o NBR-6118), the words anchor starts at B, being not necessary in this case the addition 10φ. Why the rein orcement bars are placed at di erent s izes? They could have e ual sizes? 16 - Length o anchor bars tensioned According to NBR-6118, the anchorage length o straight tensile bars will be set rom point A ( ig.17) and have the ollowi ng value: lb1 / 3 φ 10 10cm lb = lb1 Ascal -------- ≥ Ase FYD is φ = -------. --------- 4 τbu lb1 φ - Ascal longitudinal bar diameter - sectional area o rein orcement calculated Ase - sectional area o armature voltage existing τbu grip las for areas of go od adhesion (lower bars) is: τbu = 0.28 √ τbu fcd = 0 42 √ fcd2 3

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ig.17 - Distribution o the longitudinal bars

rom a scaled diagram o moments

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MPa MPa ηb to ≤ 1.0 (CA-25 steels, 32 and 40) to ηb ≥ 1.5 (CA-50 steel and 60)

Beams o Rein orced Concrete Buildings - Henry Long 17 When the bar inishing o the hook support ( ig.18), the anchorage length lb is given by: lb-lb-15φ ≥ 10φ ≥ lb1 / 3 lb1 10cm / 10cm 3 to ηb <1.5 (CA-steel 25.3 2 and 40) to ηb ≥ 1.5 (steels 50 and CA-60) W y t e ook reduces t e anc orage lengt of t e bars? T e lb T e lb - nφ ig.18 - length anchor line and hook with the NBR-6118 gives the lengths o the hooks (with straight tip) ends o rein orcement bars traction: semi-circular hoo ks 2φ hooks in 45-degree angle 4φ hook at a right angle 8φ 17 - Armor longitudinal ends at the supports o a beam as whether the longitudin al bars reach the end o the support beam are anchored? When the bar ends on the support hook, the anchor length is the same previous value but the bar should b e extended beyond the ace o the support o a minimum length e ual to r + 5.5 φ ≥ 6cm

18

The r + 5.5 φ ≥ 6cm lb - nφ ig.19 - Length o anchor rods that end in hooks support us I point A is the a ce o the support or addition to this ace and the tension decrease toward the c enter o the support (Fig. 20), the words will be the anchor measured rom that

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The ig.19 shows the anchorage length o the bar upport beam.

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Beams o

Rein orced Concrete Buildings - Henry Long

inished in the hook end o a s

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Table 2 - Values o the length o

anchor line

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For he ed ood

areas of low ad esion (upper bars) values τbu should be divided by 1.5. Why upper bars of he beam are in he area of poor adherence? In able 2 are lis values lb1 o he diame er φ or values o ck: ck (MPa) 15 18 20 lb1 lb1 g grip poor compliance 54φ 81φ 47φ 70φ 44φ 66φ

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side. In this case, the orce will be the anchor (a lattice model o Fig.20): Rs t = Vd. al / z z ≅ whereas the assumption that V is the cutting in the ace o t he support we have the ormula recommended by the NBR-6118: al = Rst --------- d ≥ 0.5 Vd Vd Vd is the value o the shear calculation in the ace o support z The Vd θA Rst lb - al nφ Al Fig.20 - Rein orcing the supports o the beam ends and the corresponding lattice model

19

The support The leg N3-3 φ12, φ12 5 N2-3, 5 φ12 N1-3, 5

As the armature supporting end o the beam must also resist the traction orce R st, the armor must meet: Rst = ------- The support FYD The leg ≥ 3 -------And i the armor that comes to the support is not extreme enough? I calculated on the armature support is not extreme enough, can increase the armor that goes to support or put an additional armor to anchor the traction orce Rst Beams o Rein orced Concrete Buildings - Henry Long 20 18 - Armor longitudinal internal support in a continuous beam I point A is on t he ace o domestic support or addition to this side ( ig.22), the stretch o th e anchor will be measured rom that side. In this case, it is convenient to put hooks on the bar to avoid the gaps in this region during concreting. The lb ig.22 - Anchoring the lower bars at intermediate support beam continuous I poi nt A is out o support, the bars will exceed the ace o the support o a length at least e ual to 10φ, as shown in ig.23.

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Fig.21 - Armor that reach the end o

a support beam

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By NBR-6118,should extend to each o the support beams o at least one third o the tensile armor corresponding to the maximum moment in the leg. In ig. 21, or example, the rein orcement corresponding to the highest point in the leg e ua ls 9φ12, 5 and armor until the backups should be 3φ 12.5.

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Beams o

Rein orced Concrete Buildings - Henry Long

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A ≥ 10φ lb ig.23 - Anchoring the bars when the item is out o the intermediate support in domestic support, it should also extend at least 1 / 3 o armor less traction co rresponding to the maximum moment in the leg, as shown in ig. 24. The (-) The leg N3-3 φ12, φ12 5 N2-3, 5 φ12 N1-3, 5 The support

Beams o Rein orced Concrete Buildings - Henry Long 21 19 - Arrangement o rein orcement in the cross section a ter the de inition o t he distribution o longitudinal rein orcement, you need to know the bars are in the cross section o the beam. The armor must be conveniently arranged in cross section. For this, NBR6118 recommends the ollowing minimum clearances between t wo bars (Fig.25): eH ≥ 2cm φ 1.2 Dmax horizontal clearance Dmax is maximum size o aggregate vertical space eV 2cm ≥ φ 0.5 Dmax Why should there be this minimum space between the bars? C C ≥ φ CG eV eH x <5% h T Fig.25 - Provision o bars in the cross section o the beam there any limitation on the number o layers o bars in the cross section? According to NBR-6118, th e resulting traction T on the armor can only be considered x concentrated at the center o gravity is the distance rom the center point o the section o the a rmature urthest rom the neutral line is less than 5% h. The ig.7.25 is showin g the GC o the resulting x T under tension and distance.

22 20 - cover thickness o concrete cover thickness How important is the concrete? The cover thickness o concrete in the beams, which is the distance between the outer ace o the beam and the external ace o the stapes must have a thick eno ugh armor to protect against the harm ul e ects o corrosion. What actors in l uence the cover thickness? The cover thickness (Fig.25) must be at least e ual t

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Beams o

Rein orced Concrete Buildings - Henry Long

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ig.24 - Armor that reaches the intermediate support o

a beam

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o the diameter o the armature bar, ie, C ≥ φ and be de ined according to the ty pe o inish o the concrete, the location o the beam and environment is the st ructure . The NBR-6118 provides the ollowing minimum cover thickness to the C: a) or concrete coated with mortar thickness o 1cm C ≥ 1.5 cm beams inside the building C ≥ 2 cm beams outdoor b) or concrete apparent C ≥ 2 cm inside buildin gs C ≥ 2.5 cm outdoor c) or concrete in contact with soil C d ≥ 3 cm) or concr ete in strong aggressive C ≥ 4cm What can happen with the rein orcement o the b eam i these minimum values o the cover are not respected? How to ensure that c over thickness during concreting? 21 - Armor Skin What is the purpose o the armor o skin? Where she is placed? T o prevent cracks appearing in the area pulled the high beams, ie, with heights g reater than 60cm, you must place a longitudinal rein orcement on each side ace o the beam. By NBR-6118, the cross section o armor skin ( ig.26) must be e ual to the skin = 0.05% bw h (on each side o the beam) The spacing between the bars must not exceed d / 3 and 30 cm, and the bar closes t to the tensile armor must extend more than 6 cm and less than 20cm (Fig. 26). Beams o Rein orced Concrete Buildings - Henry Long 23 e ≤ d / 3 30cm 6cm <i <20 cm Fig.26 - Armor Skin beams in high (≥ 60 cm h) The rein orcement o skin appear very o ten in the ra ters usual building? 22 - Veri ication o the shear stress that does not happen to crush the concrete , you should also check i the conventional shear stress is smaller than the she ar stress last τwu: Vdmax = ---------- bw d τwd ≤ τwu being Vdmax higher shear calcula ion ac ing on m he beam wid h bw of he rib of he bea

By NBR-6118, he shear s ress will las : τwu = 0.25 fcd fcd ≤ 0.30 ≤ 4.5 MPa o 5.5 MPa linear par s (bw ≤ 5h) wi h s raps for linear par s (bw ≤ 5h) wi h ben bars and s irrups inclined a 45 Wha should be done if he conven ional shear s ress is grea er han he ul ima e s ress? Under wha circums ances does i occur? If he beam is subjec ed o o rsion, he shear s ress due o τTd orque T mus be limi ed o an ul ima e value : τTd Td = ------------- 2. Ae. h ≤ τTu Ae

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h where: h - wall hickness around he fic i ious cross sec ion (defined by NBR-61 18) Ae - area bounded by he midline of he fic i ious wall Beams of Reinforced Concre e Buildings - Henry Long 24 By NBR-6118, he ul ima e s ress due o shear τTu orque will be: τTu fcd = 0.22 MPa ≤ 4 for simple wis wi h armor parallel and perpendicular o he axis of he piece fcd 0.27 ≤ 5 MPa for simple orsion armor inclined o 45 h If he beam is subjec ed o a wis ing momen and a shear, i is necessary combined shear s resses by he following equa ion given by NBR-6118: τwd τTd ---------- + - ≤ 1 ------- τwu τTu In wha si ua ions he beam is subjec ed o a orque? 7:23 - Ra e The ra e of ransverse s eel s irrups ρw can be calculated by the mo del of lattice Mo sch and int oducing τc ension in he concre e. For he case o f ver ical s irrups α = 90 nd with the inclin tion of the rod will h ve θ = 45o : 1.15 τwd - τc ρw FYD = --------------------- by NBR-6118, the tension τc for he case of bending valley: τc ψ1 √ = fck (MPa) ψ1 = 0.07 for ρ1 ≤ 0.001 = 0.14 ψ1 ρ1 ≥ 0.015 fo the inte val between two value s; ψ1 ρ1 = 5 + 0.065 0.001 <ρ1 <0.015 ρ1 - lowe ate of longitudinal tensile st etch at 2am in the face of suppo t (Fig. 27) h 2h 2h

Beams of Reinfo ced Conc ete Buildings - Hen y Long 25 By appea ing in the equation of the tension einfo cement atio τc in concre e? The NBR-6118 recommends he following minimum ra e for armor ρw: ρw ρw min = min = 0.14% 0.25% CA-40 steels, steels 50 and 60 CA-25 and 32

For the c se of vertic l stirrups α = 90, we h ve: Asw ρw bw = s and s - The spa cing of t ansve se steel sti ups pe mete (s = 100 cm) and if we bw in centime te s, is: Asw / m = ρw bw. 100 (cm2 / m) If using a calipe with two b anches, fo example, the c oss section of the stap es is: Asw / m Asw / b anch = --------- 2 A c oss section of i on can be abso be d by the bent ba s and sti ups . Why is cu ently the sti ups a e utilized mo e than doubled the ba s? They would not be mo e economical? The e is whe e the b a s a e bent mo e suitable? 25 - Sti ups In beams, it is always convenient to use sti ups spaced and ancho ed with hooks. Mo eove , as the sti ups should be placed along the whole lengt h of the beam, we ecommend using closed sti ups and sti ups p event open at t

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24 ding hea w th

Section a matu e Asw c oss section of t ansve se einfo cement total, inclu all b anches that c oss the neut al plane, is calculated as a function of s einfo cement atio ρw: Asw ρw bw = s sin α (not t king higher v lues for b n d)

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Fig.27 - Exce pt fo the definition of

einfo cement

atio ρ1

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he top because they would not be able to involve the uppe a mo of continuous b eams. Closed sti ups at the co ne s of the sti ups and hooks open, if the e is no longitudinal ba s dete mined by calculation, should be placed moo ing ba s g auge at least equal to the stapes. The diamete s of the ba s of the sti ups φt ( ig.28) should not be too large and must meet the ollowing values:

26 φt ≤ bw / 12 ≥ 5 mm et spacing o stirrups ( ig.28), measured parallel to the ax is o the piece should be: et d ≤ 0.5 30 21 cm φ i compression longitudinal rei n orcement steel or CA-25 and 32 12 i φ compression longitudinal rein orcement steel or CA-40, 50 and 60 by the spacing o the stirrups should be limited? The CORTE AA φ et The ig.28 - Stirrups or a beam o rectangular cross section o the stirrup hooks ( ig.29) can be semi-circular, at an angle o 45 and at right angles.What is the purpose o the hook in the stirrups? 5φ 5φ 10φ

Beams o Rein orced Concrete Buildings - Henry Long 27 Wider beams, can be employed double straps, as shown in ig.30. ig.30 - a large beam with double straps

The double straps could also be used in common not very wide beams? 26 - Distribution o stirrups in the beam is done in practice with the distribut ion o stirrups on the beam? The distribution o steps along the axis o the bea m is made rom the shear diagram. In practice, the beam is divided into sections , and in each passage spacing is di erent. In ig.31, or example, is shown in the diagram DV shear o a leg o a continuous beam, divided into three sections. In this case the brackets o each section were calculated or the cutting ace o V1 in support o the le t leg to V2 and V3 in the ace o the right support. In the irst and the third section, we used a spacing o 10cm and the second sec tion where the shear is less, a spacing e ual to 20cm. It is important to note t hat the stirrups are placed upon the ace o the beam, as shown in ig.31. It is possible to have another division or the distribution o stirrups on the beam? Some engineers tend to calculate the shear corresponding to minimum rein orceme nt and put straps on excerpts in which shear orces are smaller than this minimu m value. Beams o Rein orced Concrete Buildings - Henry Long 28 DV V1

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Rein orced Concrete Buildings - Henry Long

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V2 V3 First sentence φ 8c 10 Second sentence φ 8c 20 Third sentence φ 8c 10

Example - Determine the shear corresponding to the minimum rein orcement or a b eam (12 x 50) ( ck = 20 MPa concrete and steel CA-50B). The sharp minimum can be obtained rom the minimum rein orcement ratio: 1.15 τwd min - min τc ρw min = ------------------------ - = 0.14% (steel CA-50) If we ρ1min FYD = 0.15% minimum longitudinal einfo cement equal to the value of τc min, we have: min = τc ψmin fck = 0.0725 √ √ 20 = 0, 32 MPa = 320 kN/m2 for ψ min = 5 ρ1min + 0.065 = 0.072 5 min τwd The value can hen be calcula ed b : τwd min 0.14%. 500 000 / 1.15 + 3 20 = ------------------------------------------ - 808 = 1.15 kN/m2 The sharp Vmin corresponding o minimum reinforcemen is: τwd Vmin = min. bw d / 1.4 d bw = 577 Vmin = 35 kN Beams of Reinforced Concre e Buildings - Henr Long 29 27 - The suppor of beams indirec indirec suppor beams happens when he beam is no suppor ed b pillars, bu on ano her beam. The beam V6 fig.32, for exampl e, res s on he beam V4. P10 P7 V5A V3a V4 V6a P8 V3b P11 V7a P9 fig.32 - Excerp from he pavemen am V4 V6 pe appears where he beam res ing on he be

How is he load ransfer from one beam o ano her? How would he russ model for hese beams? Figure 33 is showing he load ransmission of he beam for beam V1 V2 hrough he compression s ru . I is impor an o no e ha he reac ion R o f he beam V1 is applied a he bo om of he beam V2. Thus, we need o pu s ir rups anchored suspension and on op of he beam V2 o suspend he load ha come s down. V1 h2

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Fig. 31 - Distribution o the steps in one leg o

a continuous beam

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V2 R h1 suspension bracke s fig.33 - Transmission of

Beams of Reinforced Concre e Buildings - Henr Long 30 In fig.34 appears in he dis ribu ion plan of he s eps recommended b LEONHARDT suspension for beams V1 and V2 of fig.7.33. The la ice models for beams V1 and V2 are in fig.35. BEAM V2 h2 / 2 ≥ b1 / 2 b1 h2 BEAM V1 / 2 ≥ b1 / 2 h1 / 2 ≥ b2 / 2 b2 fig.34 - Dis ribu ion of s irrups suspended beam wi h indirec R BEAM V2 BEAM V1 R fig.35 - la ice models for beams V1 and V2 The power of suspension is calcula ed according o he heigh s of he beams and he reac ion R: h1 = -------- F susp. R where R is he reac ion of he beam ha suppor s h2 Armor suspension dis ribu ed in he excerp shown in fig.34, i is: A = 1.4 F susp susp / FYD Beams of Reinforced Concre e Buildings - Henr Long 31 28 - Uploads nex res rain s Wha happens when he load is concen ra ed ver clo se o he suppor of a beam? When here is a concen ra ed load ver close o he suppor of a beam, he shear s reng h increases due o he effec of arc. In h is case, he model suppor ed he rellis can be shown in fig.36, as proposed b SCHAICH. The figure we can see ha a por ion of he load is ransmi ed b he connec ing rod C1 and ano her por ion for he rod and he rod C2 (s apes) T1. P C1 T1 C2 a ≤ 2h fig.36 - he la ice model for a bi-suppor ed beam wi h a concen ra ed load near he suppor ha case, he NBR-6118 allows he shear force is reduced in order ha a por ion of his charge goes direc l o suppor . Thus, he reduced shear can be calcula ed b : Vrede ---------- V = 2h is he dis ance from he load o suppor

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he load beam for beam V1 V2

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he suppor

In fig. 37 is shown he cu ing simpl reduced d near he suppor . The P ≤ 2h Vred

o a beam wi h a concen ra ed loa

fig.37 - Cu ing reduced o a concen ra ed load near Beams of Reinforced Concre e Buildings - Henr Long 32

he suppor

The ver ical s raps ma be emplo ed in his case o ensure he safe shear. If he concen ra ed load is oo large, ou can use s aples addi ional horizon al (f ig.38) o comba cracking. CORTE AA A The fig.38 - De ails of reinforcemen for heav loads near he suppor end if he lo ad is dis ribu ed, he lesser he sharp edged awa h / 2 from he face of he be am, as shown in fig.39 for he case of a simpl suppor ed beam wi h a dis ribu e d load. h / 2 DV Vface VRE fig.39 - Cu ing small for uniforml dis ribu ed loads This reduc ion of cu ing can be done o verif he shear s ress? This reduced shear can no be used o v erif he shear s reng h of concre e (τwd ≤ τwu). This reduc ion can onl be mad e for he calcula ion of ransverse reinforcemen . Wh ?

Beams of Reinforced Concre e Buildings - Henr Long 33 29 - Plan s of armor The fig.40 shows a plan of he reinforcemen (longi udinal and ransverse) of a con inuous beam. In his figure, he bars N3, N5 and N6 wer e placed o absorb he effor s of rac ion from he bending momen s. The bars N7 o N11 for he bending momen s posi ive. The momen s of solidari be ween he beam and he pillars were absorbed b he end of bars N1 and N4. The bars are N2 mooring o avoid his s re ch go wi hou armor. The calipers N12 are dis ribu e d wi h spacings smaller por ions in larger shear. Wh he bars N6 and N7 are pla ced in he second la er? The fig.41 shows a simpl suppor ed beam wi h a swing o he far lef . The bars N1, N3 and N4 absorb he effor s of rac ion from he n ega ive momen of balance and bars N6 for posi ive momen in he leg. The bars N 2 o ensure solidari wi h he abu men end. The bars are lashing N5 and N7 bar s form he s raps. Wh lower he armor of his beam is much smaller han he upp er armor? Beams of Reinforced Concre e Buildings - Henr Long 34 BEAM V23 (20x50) 2 N1-N2-φ 10 -115 -130 6.3 2 φ 2 φ12-N3, 5-330 - irst cam N4-2 φ 6.3 -150

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N5-2 φ12, 5-260- irst path N6-2 φ12, 5-205 - 2nd cam 6 φ12, φ10 May 2 The 2 φ 6.3 6 φ10 Φ N12 120 12 170 9 c 10 c 20 φ N12 The φ 12 120 10 130 N12 c N12 c 9φ 15 4 φ10 160 7φ N12 22.5 c

N10-2 φ10 - 460-1 cam the CORTE AA N12 - 49 φ 3.6 -130 46 16

ig. 40 - Plan o the rein orcement o a continuous beam Rein orced Concrete Buildings - Henry Long

35

N2-2 φ 6.3 -130 N4-2 φ12, 5-260 second cam-φ12 6, 5 The 2 φ 6.3 The φ N7 220 11 c 20 130 17 120 7.5 c φ N7 N7 8φ c 15 2 φ10 140 7φ N7 c 20 Φ6 N5-2, 3 -370 N6 - 2 φ 12.5 -300 CORTE AA N7 - 43 φ 10 -145 56

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BEAM V34 (20x 60) N1-2 φ12, 5-560 - irst cam N3-2 φ12, 5-380 -

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N7-2 φ10 - 250 - 2nd cam N8 - 2 φ10 - 320 irst path φ 10 -330 - irst cam

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irst cam N9 - 2 φ10 - 230 - N11-2

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16 ig.41 - Plant rein orcement o a beam simply supported with a swing Rein orced Concrete Buildings - Henry Long

36 Bibliography [1] LEONHARDT ., E. Monnig, "Concrete Construction", vols. 1-4, 1977, Ed Inters cience [2] MONTOYA, Jimenez, Meseguer AG, Cabré M, "Hormigón Armado" (vols.1 an d 2), Gustavo Gili Ed [3] ROCHA, Aderson Moreira da - "Concrete Armed "vols.1a 4 , ed. Nobel, 20th edition, 1984. [4] B. USCO Pericles, "Techniques o the Arm C oncrete Structures", 1994, Ed Pini. [5] B. USCO Pericles, The Martins. R., Ishi tani H., "Concrete Construction", 1990, USP handout. [6] SÜSSEKIND, José Carlos, "Course in Concrete, Vol. 1, 1983, Ed Globe [7] LONG, HI - "Structural Design o Rein orced Concrete Building," book, in March 2000. [8] Standard NBR-6118/78 "Design and Implementation o Works o Concrete", ABNT, 1978. [9] CEB- IP Model Code 1990, Bulletin d'In ormation No 203, inal Dra t, jul. 1991

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