CONCEPTS OF ACOUSTIC INSULATION AND SOUND ABSORPTION Sound insulation refers to the ability of certain materials to form a barrier

, p reventing the sound waves (or noise) pass from one enclosure to another. In thes e cases if you want to keep the noise to reach the man. They are normally used d ense materials (heavy) as eg concrete, glass, lead, etc.. . When the sound wave hits a wall, energy is merely transferred from one side of the division to anoth er by direct movement of the obstacle. The heavier the latter, less sound will p ass through it. For example, some units for ceilings, metal panels come with a s tronger rear impenetrable and can solve the most difficult problem of sound tran smission between offices by way of the roof, when the divisions, for practical r easons, must finish in the suspended ceiling. We also must realize the tremendou s importance of leaks and cracks in separatórios obstacles. All the sound energy that hits a hole through it, and passes the same amount of sound energy that th e rest of the wall! For this reason, there is much interest in making any obstac le acoustic insulation, completely impervious to air, and to prevent any porosit y that is in construction. The sound absorption is the phenomenon that minimizes the reflection of sound waves in the same environment. Ie, reduces or eliminate s the level of reverberation (which is a variation of the echo) in the same envi ronment. In these cases one wants, and also decrease the levels of sound pressur e in the enclosure, improving the level of intelligibility. Unlike the insulatio n materials, these materials are lightweight (low density), fibrous or open pore s, such as eg polyester open cell foam, fiber, ceramics and glass, textiles, car pets, etc.. Sound waves enter the air in these porous materials, and through the friction of air particles in the fibers of the material, energy is lost as heat , and this fraction of energy is no longer recovered in the form of sound, provi ding a short time reverberation. Virtually all materials on the market or insula te or absorb sound waves, albeit with different efficacy. One material that has great power of sound insulation has almost no power of sound absorption, and vic e versa. Some other materials have low acoustic power and also low power of soun d absorption (such as lightweight plastics and waterproof) as they are low densi ty and no open pores. Foam polystyrene (expanded or extruded) has excellent ther mal insulation characteristics, but are not recommended in acoustics. Cork (wide ly used in the past) no longer has the desired acoustic results by the consumer of today, and also presents problems of hygiene and deterioration (is an organic product that deteriorates very quickly). The industry has developed new materia ls with coefficients of acoustic insulation and / or absorbing much more efficie nt than the materials previously regarded as "noise." Thus it has been possible to obtain, through changes in its composition, acoustic satisfactory results tha t meet user needs. Each precinct, as their use requires well defined criteria of sound pressure lev els and reverberation to allow the acoustic comfort and / or eliminate conditions harmful to health. Sound pressure levels are too low can make the roo m boring and tiring, leading people to the conditions of inactivity and sleepine ss. Usually a good design provides acoustic isolation and sound absorption used with well-defined criteria, aiming at better efficiency in the final result. For this, one should take into account the acoustic performance of materials to be used, its attachment, the relative position of the noise source and ease of main tenance, without restricting the functionality of the enclosure. The application of an acoustic material, supplied or used without strict criteria for design, d oes not mean the solution of the problem. The reflection of sound by surfaces is extremely important in auditoriums and venues that good audibility is required. On the other hand, where we reduce the noise and control the spread of sound, w e should treat the surfaces so that reduce the sound energy reflected. This mean s that the part of the wave that is not absorbed or transmitted is reflected bac k into the enclosure. We should have areas large enough to obtain that kind of d irect reflection. The surface should also be relatively stiff and heavy enough t o resist the movement of coming and going of molecules in the air and to force t he wave to turn around and go in another direction.€If we have large curved surf

aces - with cupola or dome structures - reflected sound will tend inevitably to focus as it departs from the surface, rather than continuing to spread, as it do es with flat surfaces, which makes the difficulties of solutions acoustic compli cated. The diffuse reflection is simply an enrichment of the reflected sound, so that the listener realizes many rather than one or two simple reflections, and this is achieved through large irregularities in large quantities on the surface s of the enclosure. return Sound Insulation - technical aspects Two types of insulation should be considered separately: insulation against airb orne noise and impact noise insulation. The first refers to noises that originat e in the air: for example, radios, etc., the second refers to shock: steps, hit the locks, etc.. return Insulation against airborne noise Sound waves that focus on closing produce a vibration in it, what causes this be am energy to the other side. The amount of isolation that the closure produces d epends on the frequency of the incident sound and constructive characteristics o f the wall. The law of mass indicates that isolation increases by approximately 6dB for each doubling of mass. This should be observed along with increased isolation as a function of frequenc y, also about 6 dB per octave. But this law does not apply to any frequency. Exp erience shows that for low frequencies, below the resonance, isolation does not follow the law of mass and depends on the stiffness of the closure. For frequenc ies above resonance, the isolation is controlled by the law of mass up to a cert ain frequency, which produces a further reduction in isolation. The mass law sta tes that if it takes a great isolation, it is necessary to increase considerably the weight of the closure. Obviously, this has limits, fazendose necessary to s eek other systems. The most common is called the double wall. The insulation is produced by those between 5 and 10 dB higher than that produced by a single wall of the same weight. Several points can be raised: no use of a wall separating t wo adjoining rooms much insulation, if the noise can be transmitted by other way s (by structure, for example, or in and out through open windows), materials wit h many pores (cellular concrete , perforated bricks) convey much more than a sol id material of the same weight, a door or a window with different content of wea kening the rest of the wall significantly lower the global isolation, false ceil ings, light, supported by walls that are still not up to the ceiling cause prope r channels to carry the unwanted noise. return Insulation against impact noise The most important is the impact on the ground - for example, steps. The sound t hat cause these impacts depend on site adjoining the construction of the floor, and especially of its surface. It is best to act directly on it, use a soft surf ace that can absorb the impact: carpet, rubber or cork boards. As such finishes are not always possible or sufficient, it is sometimes necessary to treat the ac tual construction of the floor: a tight and strict separation between the surfac es of the floor and ceiling immediately below, or through independent structures , which is more common with the so-called floating floor. This consists of a con crete slab (or floor timbers) supported on a layer of flexible material - glass wool, polystyrene, rubber, etc.. - Which in turn rests on the structural slab. T he important thing is that I no time to establish a direct communication between the floor and the bottom liner, including the junction with the wall, the floor will be separated by this flexible material underneath the footer. Isolation cr iterion of residential Statistical studies confirm that the noises coming throug h walls or floors produce greater discomfort than those who enter through open w indows.

In the case of homes being separated, the insulation will depend on the distance between them. Between two houses separated by a few meters, with windows that d o not directly face and closed, the insulation will be approximately 60dB to 70d B (more than can be achieved when the houses are detached). In buildings where v edos non-masonry (eg, prefabricated slabs), the joints should be airtight and ri gid, sealed with mortar. A wall of separation can be made of various materials. As the porous material (which also applies to concrete coarse aggregate and cell ular), it is essential that the air slots of the material are sealed, what you g et carefully tugging the wall. A double wall of brick with ½ tube at least 5 cm is also possible, where they ar e only used butterfly clips to connect both sides. If they are not totally indep endent, isolation becomes smaller than that produced by a wall of a brick. Double walls of other materials will be used, where they have an overall surface density is not lower at 450 kg / m². It is still possible to use porous concret e or similar surface weight of 250 kg / m², where the camera is greater at 7 cm. return Construction Details On the mezzanine of a concrete slab spans of reinforced concrete, or composed of hollow concrete blocks, or even pre-molded panels cast concrete, weighing not less than superficial 200kg / m² and a thickness of at least 10 cm. The floating floor will consist of wooden boards nailed to plank s that rest on a layer of flexible material stretched over the concrete mezzanin e. The battens can in no way be in contact with the deck. For structural reasons , if used flooring tongue and groove boards, they should be at least 20 mm. The cover of flexible material can be made of glass wool or rock, on long-fiber matt resses, one inch thick with a density of 50-10 kg / m². They can also be used po lystyrene plates (20mm) or cork (10mm). A floating concrete slab should be at le ast 40 mm thick and rely on a layer of flexible material, which also make the ed ges of the slab in order to preserve the isolation of the structural system. A g ood mix is 1:2:4 for concrete, cement, sand, gravel, and this is no more than 1 cm in size. The floating slabs of concrete can not be used in places of over 15 square meters, or length of more than 5m, due to the possible deformations in dr ying the material. Obviously they could not be built on floating slab walls, thu s burdening them, would push the other flexible material, losing its insulating properties. The suspended ceiling can greatly increase the isolation of a floor regarding the airborne noise, but usually does not add to the impact noise insul ation. However, it should meet certain conveyances: weigh more than 25kg / m², n ot be too hard to be completely sealed with respect to air and the elements of s uspension should be as few and flexible as possible. The Mezzanine timber should be made out of planks of hard wood or metal, and floor boards will take a malefemale, if no other indication. return Degrees of Isolation Walls Approximately 55dB 1. 45 cm solid brick or stone about 50 dB 2. 23 cm solid bric k (or 30 cm hollow brick) towed. 3. 18 cm of fine aggregate concrete (d = 2.5 ton / m³) towed. 4. 30 cm of concre te with coarse aggregate (d = 1.6 ton / m³), towed. 5. Two slabs of concrete cel l of 8 cm, inner tube being towed by no less than 8 cm, with clips "Butterfly" o r without a clip. Approximately 45dB 6. 7. 8. 9. 12 cm solid brick, towed. 10 cm concrete with 20 cm of fine aggregate concrete jumbo towed. Two slabs of concre te cell of 5 cm, inner tube being towed by not less than 3 cm, Staples "butterfl y". Approximately 40dB 10. 8 cm of cellular concrete, hauled the two sides 11. 5 cm

of fine aggregate concrete. Approximately 35dB 12. 5cm cellular concrete, hauled on both sides. 13. 6 cm hollow brick, hauled on both sides. 14. Plaster (3 laye rs) to both sides of slats 10 cm. Approximately 30dB 15. Panel 2 boards of plywo od or pressed fiber, ¼ on battens 6 cm, 5 cm of glass wool in the cavities. 16. Gypsum plaster on mesh, 28 cm on both sides of slats 10 cm. Approximately 25dB 1 7. Gypsum plaster on mesh, 2 cm, on March emadeira d. About 20 dB 18. Card pulp ½ plywood on both sides of a wooden frame. Windows and doors Approximately 45dB 19. Two ports 5 cm of solid wood, with all openings properly sealed, along with an air chamber. 20. Double window glass 3mm Separase by 20 cm, and sealed with absorbent in the inner frame between the windows. Better insulation in serious obtained using gla ss plates 6 mm. About 35 dB 21. Same as 20, glass separated by 10 cm. 22. Double glazed windows mobile 3mm, 20 cm apart, in wooden or metal racks, closed but no t sealed with absorbent in March between the interior glass. 23. Two composite d oors (hollow with plywood or pressed fiber, 3mm each side) with cracks sealed ai r chamber. Approximately 30dB 24. Plas-glass windows of 6mm, all edges sealed. 2 5. Doors mass of 5 cm, all edges sealed. Approximately 25dB 26. Windows of glass plates of 3mm,€all edges sealed. 27. Massive door of 5 cm, with normal cracks i n the corners. Approximately 20dB 28. Simple window glass 3mm on the wings of wo od or metal, normally closed but not sealed. 29. Composite port (ibid. 23) with cracks sealed Approximately 15dB 30. Same as 29 with normal cracks in the corner s. 31. Note: these estimates are for wall insulation between dwellings. For the isolation between a housing and an outdoor noise, isolation generally be reduced by 5 dB. Mezzanine Approximately 50dB 32. Floating slab of concrete of 18 cm, plastered ceiling, wi th any finish on the floor. 33. Mezzanine concrete, hauled in the ceiling, float ing wood floors or other related material. 34. Mezzanine, concrete lining with heavy freely suspended and any finish on the floor. 35. Mezzanine concrete, hauled in the ceiling, with 5 cm light mortar on top. 36. Mezzanine of wooden beams, with floating floor, ceiling plaster of 5 c m (15 kg / m²) of mortar lime and sand directly on the lining, supported by thic k walls. Approximately 45dB 37. Mezzanine concrete, hauled in the ceiling with a ny floor finish. 38. Mezzanine of wooden beams, floor boards male-female, with p laster ceiling and 5 cm mortar of lime and sand directly above it. 39. Mezzanine wooden beam, floating floor, ceiling plaster and 8 cm d rock it (or similar) di rectly on the lining (thick walls). Approximately 40dB 40. Mezzanine wooden beam , floor boards male-female, plaster ceiling of about 2 cm to 8 cm mesh of rock w ool (or similar) directly on the lining. 41. Mezzanine of wooden beams with floa ting floor and 2 cm of plaster on mesh lining. Approximately 35dB 42. Mezzanine of wooden beams, floor boards and tongue and groove ceiling plaster of about 2 c m mesh. Approximately 30dB 43. A mezzanine floor with wooden beams board male-fe male and lining egesso d of 2 cm on mesh and glued joints filled with paper. App roximately 25dB 44. Mezzanine beams with simple floor and ceiling of plaster of about 2 cm mesh together Approximately 20dB 45. Mezzanine of wooden beams with f loor boards male-female without lining. Acoustical Materials In principle, all materials have acoustic features that can be willed or not, th e question that search. For example: The AR is acoustic, for it is he who "passes" the sounds to our ears; The absolu te vacuum is acoustic, because he is not transmitted sounds (acoustic insulation is perfect); A wall of concrete, massive, is acoustic because it presents a hig

h level of noise reduction, but also has high levels of sound reflection, fibers (rock wool, glass wool, ceramic wool), open-pore foams, fabrics, carpets, and o ther materials of this kind have reasonable power to avoid sound reflection, but do not isolate the sound. If the issue is "leakage" of sounds from one environment to another, the solutio n should be directed to the use of materials "thick", like concrete, glass, stee l, etc.. In these cases you should not use materials like fibers, fabrics, carpe ts and the like, does it mean the final solution. If the problem is lack of inte lligibility of the spoken word within the same environment, the solution should be directed to the use of fiber and / or open-pore foams. Do not use materials t hat are dense or impermeable to air. The best final solution typically requires the use of two types (insulators and absorbers) on very strict criteria. There a re no materials "better" or "worse" for acoustic solutions. What exists is the a ppropriateness (or not) of a given material for the purpose that you want. Care must be given to the use of a material just because he "worked" at another locat ion or other application. There are many real examples in which a given material "worked" for an application and it was a failure in another. There are material s whose acoustic characteristics are so small that does not pay to use them. The se materials are usually very inexpensive, motivating people to buy them and use them. Beware! It is common to find advertisements that assure that the materials are insulator s "thermo-acoustic." Thermal and Acoustic Characteristics of the materials are n ot dependent, meaning that a good material that insulates heat is not necessaril y a good acoustic insulation, and vice versa. The "Styrofoam" (which is enclosed in small air cells) is an example of excellent thermal insulator (low temperatu re), but is not an acoustic insulator. Another example is the "steel" that is a good acoustic insulator, but not good thermal insulator. The application of an a coustic material, supplied or used without strict criteria for design, does not mean the solution of the problem. The effects of noise on man Research showed serious effects of noise on man, such as accelerated heartbeat, increased blood pressure and narrowing of blood vessels. Long time exposure to l oud noise can cause overload of the heart, muscle tension and abnormal hormone s ecretion, causing a modification of psychophysiological behavior of the individu al, such as nervousness, mental fatigue, impaired work performance, mental and e motional difficulties, irritability and even sexual impotence. There may also be a pupil dilation, increased production of thyroid hormones, increased productio n of epinephrine and corticotropin, contraction of the stomach and abdomen, vari ous muscular reactions and contraction of blood vessels, among others. The effec ts and sleep disturbances and health of the urban inhabitants, due to noise, has been revised in the last 20 years. In standby, the noise to 50 dB (A) may distu rb, but is adaptable. As of 55 dB (A) causes mild stress, exciting, addictive an d leading to lasting discomfort. Stress degradative organism begins at 65 dB (A) . Probably the 80 dB (A) has biological releases morphine in the body. Sleep, fr om 35 dB (A) starts to get shallow, and 75 dB (A) reaches the 70% loss of the de ep stages that restore the brain and physiological effects, since the highest fu nctions of sleep (as restorative psychological , intellectual, memory, mood, lea rning and creativity), cease to be consolidated. Some statistics show a situatio n in residences truly unbearable. The average noise level on the street during t he day in residential areas, is in the range 70-75 dB (A). Whereas the maximum a cceptable level is 50 dB (A), one can say that the citizen receives 6.5 times mo re sound energy than the maximum acceptable by the body (without coming to harm health). At night the situation may be, in some areas, even more critical becaus e if the maximum acceptable to the restorative sleep is 35 dB (A) (although national law to request a maximum of 45 dB (A)), and if the urban area generates about 55 dB (A), the difference of 20 dB means 17.4 times more sound energy tha

n the recommended amount, and this difference should be isolated by the construc tion of the residence, which rarely occurs in modern buildings, the use of light er materials, less noble and cheaper. The Problem "noise" in the apartment A residential environment must necessarily mean a place with no environmental ri sk, to protect its residents from physical, chemical and / or biological. It is during the design and building design that decide the most important aspects of its environmental suitability. On the issue of noise, environmental concerns and views of buildings can be considered tolerable. The reasons may be various, but the key has been the insensitivity of investment management, technical ignoranc e of the causes and solutions or extreme financial difficulty for the implementa tion of solutions. Despite numerous complaints, very little has been done to min imize these problems. When you combine the three elements conditioning the envir onment: heat, light and noise, the design of residential building in its design phase, requires careful technical expertise that are not always available in the contractor (or contractor) of the enterprise. Projects often are idealized by s taff without professional qualifications; to use materials of questionable quali ty, the owner does not define the prerequisites, because normally it is not thei r specialty. The result of the residential setting has proven inadequate, inconv enient or even unacceptable. Users will only take note of these facts after secu ring his residence. Several sources are causing noise in buildings, and also var ied are the ways that noise travels up to the ear. The main complaints from resi dents of apartment buildings are: the noise of the engine room of elevators, plu mbing noise, noise from neighbors, noise from the street, etc. .. There are comp laints, even against neighbors who snore during sleep, or when using the bathroo m. Integrated Solution Knowledge of the necessary prerequisites to environmental conditioning of a part icular residential area (heat, sound and light) will determine, in project desig n, lower cost / benefit advantage of the multiple solutions adopted, compared th e performance of the solutions after physical execution of the building. For example, the installation of acoustic absorbers in the engine rooms (and lif t pumps), reduce the propagation of acoustic noise generated for the residences, €allowed a reduction of noise in the area (absorption) and provide some insulati on from heat radiated by them. The replacement of a particular element of buildi ng a partition in a more acoustically efficient, may also benefit in the thermal area. The use of double glazing may be an alternative to allow for lighting, im proving the acoustic and thermal insulation. Altering the layout on hydraulic eq uipment can reduce the losses, prevent noise transmission by solid and have lowe r installation cost, etc.. Note: The combined solutions, for being an intelligen t interpretation of the basic concepts, value the project and cheapen the provid ences. Each case requires: careful specification of ambience geared to the fitne ss for use, the appropriate choice of materials and their disposal, to ensure th e quality of the solution, control parameters governing the quality of residenti al environment.