Technical Bulletin of the Polytechnic School of USP Department of Civil Engineer ing ISSN 0103-9830 BT/PCC/173

Project Management in Construction Industry: Strategic Planning Model for the Pr oduction of Buildings Francisco José Pontes Assumpção John Rocha Lima Jr. São Paulo - 1996 Polytechnic University of São Paulo Department of Civil Engineering Technical Bu lletin - Series BT / PCC Director: Prof. Dr. Celio Taniguchi Deputy Director: Pr of. Dr. Eduardo Damasceno camilhas Head of Department: Prof. Dr. Vahan Agopyan D eputy Head of Department: Prof. Dr. Prof. Paulo Helene Editorial Board. Prof. Dr . Alex Abiko. Dr. Joao da Rocha Lima Jr. Professor. Prof. Dr. Luiz Sérgio Franco . Prof. Dr. Paulo Helene. Prof. Dr. Orestes Marraccini Gill. Dr. Vahan Agopyan T echnical Coordinator Prof. Dr. Alex Abiko The Technical Bulletin is a publication of the Polytechnic School ~ / Department of Civil Engineering, the result of research by scholars and researchers of thi s University. This paper is a summary of the doctoral dissertation of the same t itle. Assumpção, José Francisco Bridges Management in construction projects: str ategic planning model for the production of buildings / JFP Assumpção, J. da Roc ha Lima Jr. - New York: EPUSP, 1996. 37p. - (Technical Bulletin of the Polytechn ic School of USP, Department of Civil Engineering, BT/PCC/173) 1. Real estate 2. Construction Management 3. Strategy I. Lee Richardson Jr., John II. University of São Paulo. Polytechnic School. Department of Civil Engineering III. Title IV. Series ISSN 0103-9830 UDC 65.012.2 69 008 336.77 1. INTRODUCTION This paper describes a model for operational planning of buildin gs, structured to analyze production strategies. It is designed to operate with few variables scenario, taking into account the main features of the venture and some of its production parameters. The model can be generated information for a ssessing the impact of these strategies on the outcome of the venture, and the c ompany as a whole. The model is based on common characteristics that exist betwe en the works of buildings and the peculiarities of its production process, enabl ing simplifications are introduced in activities and variables to be represented , making up from there, the use of logical networks and open applications in the modeling process. 2. CHARACTERIZATION OF THE ENVIRONMENT FOR DEVELOPMENT AND OP ERATION OF THE MODEL The production strategies of buildings for sale in open mar ket housing market - are set to meet the best condition of adjustment of cash fl ows in order to reduce investment during the production period. These strategies are characterized primarily by the pace of work and the sequence and trajectory of its core services should be established according to the equation of funds s et up to enable the business. Thus, enterprises with funds from the equation bas ed solely on revenues from sales, production strategies may be compatible with t he ability to afford the target audience, which gives long term and, therefore, pace, sequence and trajectory of work should be adjusted to this reality. Likewi se, projects with the availability of funds for production and / or marketing ma y require faster rhythms, and sequences of services, leading to shorter periods of construction, as are the conditions for docking of revenue from these funds. These situations lead to the necessity of having tools to analyze production str ategies, which operate on the information available at the time that you take th e first decisions about the enterprise in setting limits on the amount and degre e of detail of information . At this point the information available to project data on production are characterized by masses of construction, defined by the f ramework of areas and number of floors of the building and global indicators of production, presented as parametric indices of cost and productivity. This is th e environment within which the model is structured, characterized by a restricte

d basis of information and the need to generate projections that cover the entir e production period. The construction of model to operate in conditions characte rized above will be achieved by exploiting the common characteristics that exist between real estate and buildings for the specificities of its production proce ss. These buildings are constructed from the same routine tasks,€where the repetitio n of sequences of services and allow the executive to introduce simplifications and generate parameterizations that allow the analysis of production strategies within the environment featured above. 2.1 Characteristics of production of buil dings for real estate buildings for real estate projects are built, mostly with traditional construction processes, which allow you to establish links between t he works, with regard to the standardization of services and services between se quences, as well as the ability to parameterize production indicators. These two conditions are discussed below: 2.1.1 Parametrization of output indicators Cons idering the similarity between the works of buildings, built with the same const ructive process, indicators such as average cost of construction (U.S. $ / m2 of built area), overall productivity of labor (Hh/m2 built area), and costs and co nsumption of inputs for service; can be parameterized - from prototype developme nt, and used to compose scenarios for analyzing the behavior of production. Thro ugh these indicators can generate information on key production variables of ent erprises that have the same type as that of the prototype development. This prac tice is already used by some companies that use historical data or references to cost and productivity to prepare the budget of his works. These forecasts are u sed for the analysis of feasibility and / or strategies for production of the en terprise. 2.1.2 Standardization of services and services between sequences Anoth er aspect to be explored in model development is the possibility of standardizin g services and sequences between services: • For buildings that use the same con struction process can be defined a set of services ever be represented in the mo del, whatever the volumetric characteristics of the building. These services, wh ich are most representative of that process, will form the basis for model build ing. For those buildings, some sequences between services - technology - remains a work for obra1. These sequences are always represented in the model • The ability to parameterize and production indicators to standardize services an d executive sequences, allows one to introduce simplifications in the modeling p rocess, without losing quality in the information. The quality of this informati on will be compatible with the hierarchy of decisions. As placed at the beginnin g of this text, the decisions of strategic and tactical are taken at times that do not have detailed information about the enterprise, justifying or even requir ing the use of simplified models to operate on that data. Standardize services a nd work with sequences and production indicators are of two basic conditions tha t allow introducing simplifications in the modeling process and therefore will b e explored in this work. 1. The sequences are technological constraints imposed by physical or technical and are characteristic of each process. For example, construction of buildings b y traditional construction, 2.2 Characteristics of the work - Buildings of multiple multi-floors buildings f loors are generally run from two work fronts, which develop through two subsyste ms of production. The first, vertical progression, operates in the region of the Tower, or the main body of the building. 0 seconds, the horizontal development, acts in the area of land or its outskirts. These subsystems are shown in Figure 01. These subsystems are related when the sequences are finishing services for the Ground Floor of the Tower, and when restrictions are established for the sim ultaneous execution of services on the facade and waterproofing of the Ground.

2.2.1 The subsystem of production in the region of the Tower This subsystem's ma in characteristic is the vertical development and repetition of activities. Thes e are implemented in a deck floor, using the same sequence, between services. Th e sense in which these services are performed, whether upwards or downwards, fea ture a path of execution. Sequence and trajectory are part of the strategy or pl an of attack, to be used for carrying out the work in the region of the Tower. T he concepts of sequence and trajectory will be used to characterize the connecti ons (dependencies) that exist between the activities of the work. Links trajecto ry set dependencies between activities of the same type€that repeat the pavement surface. Connections are used to sequence dependencies between activities of di fferent nature, which are developed within the same floor. For example, to chara cterize the dependencies between structures / walls / countermark / against the floor, on a particular floor of the building, use is made of string links. To in dicate that the service on a particular floor depends on concluding the same ser vice on the floor before he uses connections trajectory. In the flowchart of Fig ure 02, shows the connections of sequence and pathway that occur in the tower of a building, featuring an attack plan for this work. When the same type of activ ities are performed without interruption and without loss of continuity between the various floors of the building, the links of history can be deleted from the modeling process, and links to sequence can be simplified. This situation will be dealt with in detail later in this text, it is fundamental to the proposed mo del. Masonry can only be made after the execution of Structures, Coatings Masonry aft er ... After settlement of Doors Floors, etc. .. In program development, executi on sequences can be defined not technological, defined for convenience. Horn rul e defined for convenience the sequences can not overlap the technological or phy sical impairment or imply in reduction in quality or generating rework. 2.2.2 The subsystem of production in the region of the outskirts or Ground This subsystem can also be characterized as a subsystem that operates with repetitive activities, because the periphery is generally performed in trechos2 where serv ices also follow the same sequence executive. 2 This is a condition that sometimes is already established in the project, where expansion joints are set for the structure of the periphery. Even when this does occur, it is divided into sections, or to provide better conditions for the pre mises of the plot, or to provide better distribution of resources employed in it s execution. The works in the periphery usually do not define the critical path of work, allowing their execution in stretches, where the resources (manpower an d equipment, including forms) are displaced from stretch to stretch. The repetition of services, in this case, instead of occurring at levels or floo rs upright-like tower in the region, occurs in parts or in parts in which the pe riphery is split - horizontally. The concepts of sequence and defined path to th e Tower also apply to the outskirts, where the links of path will be used to int erconnect the same type of activities that are repeated passages in stretches, w hereas connections string will be used for different activities that occur withi n the same sentence. This condition of repetition of activities, both in the Tow er and in the periphery, and the standardization of the sequences between servic es from the use of the same construction process, create favorable conditions fo r the modeling process. The works and their production processes can be treated similarly, allowing you to build universal model, valid for most works of this t ype. The differences between works are characterized by more quantitative aspect s (size and quantity of decks and parts of the Periphery) and by the standards o f workmanship, than the logic of the production process. 3. BASIC CHARACTERISTIC S OF THE MODEL 3.1 Model Representation - validity and conditions for its use Th e basis for the development of the model is to consider the construction of the

building as a work with cyclic activities (where services are repeated in floor deck, or excerpts in parts, within the same sequence). The resources and time re quired for its production can be estimated in terms of its physical characterist ics and production parameters. Two basic conditions must be met to validate the model: • • Torre and subsystems that operate on sequences outskirts of standardi zed services, these services are developed through cycles of constant and unifor m production. These conditions, if analyzed from the perspective of production (in bed), may i mpose restrictions on the validity and use. model because in the day-to-day work , not always able to maintain programmed sequences of services, uniforms and cyc les of production. Although it is not logical, there may be situations in which sequences are programmed to be changed, and services have to be made in alternat e locations (eg, masonry run in the sixth, and then on the eighth floor, and not in the sixth and seventh as would be logical). However,€considering that the mo del is structured to analyze production strategies, the two conditions above do not restrict its use, however, must be contained therein, as are determinants fo r the establishment of strategies that lead to further rationalize the productio n process. This logic implies that production resources are flat, in situations that favor adjustments for stock that does not occur or anticipation of services . In light of these considerations, the following observations should be made to better characterize the conditions of applicability of the model: a) The type o f development • • Applies to buildings with multiple floors - tower only, withou t providing restrictions on the number of floors except in cases as described be low; model does not apply to situations in which, according to the height of the building, there is need to define two fronts services on different floors. For example, teams finishing running from 32 to 170 pavement and both teams running the same services from the 160 it to the floor. This strategy may be needed for very tall buildings with narrow terms of execution, not very common situation fo r the enterprises of the sector; model does not apply directly to vertical build ings with no floor Like where sequences and amounts of service are not repeated floor pavement and the cycle does not remain uniform. This • situation can occur in projects with architecture for customized floor, or those where all the apartments are duplex. b) The construction process buildings usin g traditional construction process - concrete structures molded on site, fencing with brick masonry or ceramic blocks and / or concrete, mortar coatings, electr ical / hydraulic embedded in masonry, traditional finishes such as painting on p laster or plaster, tile or stone walls and floors, and carpet or wood floors. Th is condition occurs because the path sequences and patterns that are intrinsic t o the model, have been proposed for this process constructively. However, as the model is operated through an open system, other sequences may be registered or changed by adjusting them to the characteristics of another building process, br oadening the applicability: the model. c) The types of units Building with apart ments of 1, 2, 3 and 4 / 4 or mixed types. There are no restrictions regarding t he type of model apartments, just that they are registered and calibrated the pa rameterizations that apply to these types 3.2 The design of the model - the use of techniques in the modeling process Amon g the programming techniques used in construction, and particularly in the const ruction of buildings, two stand out, the characteristics commented below: a) The lines or Balancing Diagrams Time - Space, are suitable for modeling work, with repetitive activities - such as the building, taking advantage of the fact induc e situations of resource leveling. These situations occur when the production ra tes are constant and uniform services to the building. Moreover, the simulations can only be made in a graphical environment, struggling to analysis of resource s and costs resulting from each simulation. b) The Technical Network, or critica l path, allow to build models that operate with inter-related activities, handli

ng, together with information on deadlines, costs and resources. However, the mo del works with a large number of activities - as is the case of vertical constru ctions - can be frustrated by the difficulties and effort required to build the model for their operation. Under this scenario, the two alternatives have restri ctions when they are used in the process of production planning of the building, leading to that alternatives to improve this process. In this study the alterna tive proposal is to combine the principles of Line Balancing - giving treatment simplified the programming of works with repetitive activities, with networking techniques - which allow to operate with the activities related by mathematical modeling and logic opening the possibility of operating within a computing envir onment. Two assumptions are placed pua validate this proposition. "1) The repeti tive activities should be developed in the floors - or portions of the buildingby stable production cycles. For this to happen teams housed in the floors or po rtions shall be considered constant during the entire process of production;€2) Teams must be sized and allocated to the work so that they can work continuously , without interruptions in production; These assumptions are basic to be able to better exploitation of resources in the production process. They can also repre sent the program through network logic, simplified form, with fewer activities. The process of simplification As activities in the work of building will occur in continuous cycles and stable , making it possible to delete the links course - service links - between floors . As a result, repetitive activities - the same type - can be grouped, like the activities or services single cycle. In turn, the connections string links betwe en services - on the pavement, can also be reduced, being restricted to links th at require gaps between them, stressing that these services do not run simultane ously on the same floor. This process of simplification - that is the basis for developing the model - is shown by the following figures: Figure 03 shows a stre tch of four network proposed in the traditional way - with links Top-End - where the activities of the work are detailed and represented by the pavement. 0 resu lting diagram will have a large number of activities: for a building of 10 floor s, representing the 15 main services that are repeated in the Tower have 10 floo rs x 15 = 150 service activities. 3 These assumptions can also be understood as recommendations that enable better u se of production resources, as they induce a state of flatness, where resources are kept constant (and therefore level) during the period in which the service r uns. 4 In the figures that follow the logical networks will be represented by diagram e dges - ADM - Arrow Diagram Method ", or network events. All the considerations a re equally valid for networks that use diagram vertex" PDM - Precedence Diagram Method 'or network precedence. In this example, the resulting program shows discontinuity in the work of some t eams - such as the teams implementing countermarks and plaster, which are subjec ted to situations of waiting, when they move from floor (wait 1 day in each chan ge). Figure 04 shows an evolution of the previous program, done through the Time -Space diagram, with the teams balanced and delays eliminated. FIGURE 04 - DIAGR AM TENTO-SPACE, BALANCED WITH ACTIVITIES Os,; countermark and plastering service s had their beginnings postponed to ensure continuity in their work. As a result , the duration of the plan rose from 63 to 72 days. Figure 05 shows the first tw o services of the network, with a balanced lineup. The beginning of countermark was postponed in nine days, to eliminate the waits that the team was referred to the change of pavement.

FIGURE. 05 - PARTIAL EXCERPT FROM THE NETWORK WITH THE FIRST TWO SERVICES BALANC E Figure 06 links to sequence and pathway were deleted - the internal events we ha ve been eliminated - except for the first and last deck showed "fronts" or "wait " between services. FIGURE 06 - NETWORK WITH ACTIVITIES FOR PAVEMENT replaced by activities ONLY. Fi gure 07 shows the final shape of the network, or graph. The dependencies between the services are shown by links between their beginnings and endings, using lin ks like Home-Start and End-End, with waits between these connections. These dela ys correspond to the time needed to run the service on a pavement, the more time to eliminate the delays that occur at the change of pavement. In the example in Figure 06 the wait between the start of Masonry and countermarks is: 5 + 9 = 14 days (five days to run it in masonry floors, 9 more days to eliminate the delay s). As a result, you get a diagram or rede5 with fewer activities, operating und er a "race tax" for each service. The services are understood as continuous, bei ng linked by dependencies like Home-Start and End-End with lags or delays betwee n these bonds. 5 Examples were presented using a representation by network events - ADM, and the considerations also apply to the representation by network precedence PDM. In the resulting network there are no intermediate links between services. In th is case, ensuring that services will be executed within the logical sequence, is through the dimension of the delays, which are made to ensure that services are not interdependent run simultaneously on the same floor. In this form of modeli ng,€the resulting network will have a smaller number of activities and links - a nd that its format will depend on the number of floors or sections that the buil ding may have. The example given by the sequence of figures sought to show how y ou can develop a more detailed proposal for modeling (Figure 03) to a simpler pr oposal (Figure 07). This condition allows to introduce the concept of basic netw ork, as a general purpose network, characterized by a set of standardized sequen ces, valid for the works that use the same constructive process, regardless of t he number of floors or sections that the work might have. Figure 08 shows, schematically, the basic grid for the construction of a buildin g, where other activities are added, some non-repetitive (foundations, structure of the engine room and water tank), constituting the final model of the network . 3.2.1 Definition of the physical basis for modeling the network definition of th e physical basis for the conformation of the model should be drawn from the stru cture matrix "WBS - Work Breakdown Structure" of development prototype, which re presents the type used by most of the enterprises company. 0 Table 1 shows one. WBS proposal, drawn up on new development with the following characteristics: • • • • Incorporation Vertical Residential - 56 apartments, 4 of cover; Program: 3 bedrooms, one suite, with balconies and a parking space; Standard acabamento6 a verage; 7 Floors and areas: 6 The venture is similar to finishing the NBR considers 12.721/92 average standard , which is why this classification is being used here. 7

The concepts of Area Real Equivalent Area Construction and Private Area are the NBR 12.721/92. For each service-specific weights were (in cost and man-hours), featuring its re presentativeness in relation to the sum of these parameters, needed to perform t he work. Some of these services have little representation in relation to the to tal cost or man-hours required to perform the work. For example, the services of Jigs and Rental of Work, Painting the lift shaft and the rocker assembly charac terized as little representation services, costs or consumption of man-hours. Ho wever, they represent milestones in the development of the work, and must be con tained in the model - the first represents the actual beginning of work, the sec ond releases the assembly of the elevators and the third marks the beginning of the implementation of the facades. 3.3 Structure and systems to operate the model 3.3.1 Scenario, basic network and information generated with the physical basis as shown in Table 01, and the mod eling procedures suggested in Section 3.2, the network is structured precedence containing sequences and trajectories standards. As already explained, this netw ork is independent of the size of the building (number and area of floors of the tower and portions of the periphery) and can be considered as a prototype, or B ASIC NETWORK - apply to all works which use the same construction process. To ge nerate the network of a specific work, it is necessary to complement the BASIC N ETWORK with information about durations, and resources, which depend on the size of the work and its production process. This information is generated from data sets and internal parameters of the model registrations. Figure 09 summarizes t he structure that characterizes the model and the process through which it opera tes. In this figure, it identifies two systems: one responsible for handling the data that feed into the Main Grid, and the other responsible for logic modeling and generation of reports. These systems can be operated by open applications, commonly used in the industry, and easily available on the market. The data mani pulation can be done by spreadsheet modeling and logic applications that operate through networks of precedence. Communication between these two systems is caus ed by export and import files into the environment "Windows". 3.3.2 System for d ata entry and preparation of this system handles the data that characterize the enterprise and internal parameters previously registered in the model. Its funct ion is to relate the data and generate information to be incorporated into the c ore network. The process occurs through the manipulation of two blocks of data d escribed below: 1) Data Scenario (specific for each work) - Featuring quantitati ve aspects of the enterprise, and its production process: - Number of floors of the tower and parts of periphery - Area real building [AR] - Cycles or speed wit h which services will run on these floors;€- Index parametric cost per square re ferenced to [AEC] (R $ / m² of constructed area) - Productivity expected mean (H h / m² actual construction), 2) the internal data model -, parameterized in term s of characteristics of reference works and the production of buildings: - Weigh t - or representation - of service in relation to the total cost of the work: Weight - or representation - of service in relation to the total workforce. 3.3.2.1 Generation - the duration of activities, duration of activities to be ag gregated to the basic network is a function of cycle time (appearing on all floo rs, or sections), and number of floors - or excerpts, in which the service repea ts. Therefore, we define: Ni - number of floors or portions in which the activit y is repeated i, Ci - Time rustle of production activity t per floor or stretch, K i1 and K i2 - Factors to adjust the duration and the cycle time of activity i duration of the activities that will be represented in the network are calculat ed by: Di = Ki1 + KI2 * Ci * Ni, where Di = duration of activity i Adjust the length of service - Ki1 Factor Factor ri1 majora the duration of acti vity, taking into account the increased difficulty of performing the service in the first place of work. Being the first time to perform the services on this si te is Greater than the others, because the teams are still in training and becau

se of the "learning effect" in August is not yet incorporated into the cycle. In some cases, the time to run the service on the last floor, or workplace, can al so be larger than the cycle time. This occurs due to the demobilization of the t eam, or changes in the characteristics of the top floor - which is not always ty pe. In this case, the factor Ki1 fixes the overall length of service, taking int o account the specifics about its implementation in the first and last place of work. This dimensional factor is identical to the cycle time, ie, represents a t ime (in days) that must be added to the total length of service. Adjustments in the cycle depending on the specific features of the service - KI2 Factor Factor KI2 is dimensional, and adjusts the cycle time - therefore applie s to all floors or sections. It is a function of difficulties intrinsic to each service. This coefficient corrects the cycle time depending on the degree of dif ficulty of the work process, which may vary according to the alternative proposa l to run the service. The rustle of time finishing services façade varies is the type of finish chosen. The same happens with the services of foundations, conta inments, slab of it. floor, and others. For services to foundations, for example , the factor KI2 is calibrated to take the following values: • • • Foundations - Foundations Normal running - running with the degree of difficulty Middle Foundations - Complex implementation KI2 = 1.0 (keeping the cycle) KI2 = 1.5 (1.5 times the cycle) KI2 = 2.0 (2.0 tim es the cycle) Number of repetitions - floors or portions in which the activity is repeated - N i Considering as input data: • • • • • number of floors Basements, number of flo ors type, number of floors of Coverage (recessed facade); number of intermediate floors (mezzanines garages or higher), number of portions planned for implement ation in the periphery; the system uses this information to assign a number of repetitions of each activ ity, which correspond to the locations where this activity is performed. For exa mple, to a work with basements S, T and C type flooring floor covering; services work in the Crude Tower will [T + C + and 11 repetitions of the work will be fi ne [T + C] replicates. 0 means adding a number of repetition that corresponds to the floor of the House of machines, where services are performed in gross work, but there are no significant finishing services. For the service of Painting We ll Elevator associate themselves [S + T + C + 2] replicates, add 2 units, which correspond to the ground floor and Machinery. Table 02 shows how these repetitions were attributed to the activities of a buil ding with a Subsoil, 14 Types, first floor coverage, and with the planned implem entation of the periphery in four sections. This table also indicates the depend ency relationships between activities that comprise the network. 8 The "learning effect" is a classic example of the theories of analysis of produc tivity in work processes continuously. In those cases, it appears that productiv ity increases as workers become familiar with it, until it reaches a steady pace , typical of the continuous and uniform process of production. In the works of b uildings of multiple stories, this theory also applies€it can be performed with continuous processes of production. Basic cycles of production - Ci Ci cycle time with activities that are performed on each floor are provided with details of the scene and set the pace with whic h the services will run. These times can be set individually for service, or gro

up of services - which will be performed on the same laugh. The latter case, sim plify the entry process and data generation, leads to better conditions for reso urce leveling and favors the production of stock situations do not occur or wher e an early implementation of services. As a proposal to group services with the same cycle times have: • • • Cycle time for service structures; cycle time for s ervice work gross; cycle time for service work fine. These times are taken as the reference model and are adjusted by a factor of KI2 for the other services work. Values for Ki1 and KI2 are shown in Table 02 and r esult from calibration work done on buildings built by traditional construction processes. 3.3.2.2 Generation of delays or lags between the activities lags (or hold), whic h maintains the logic of the network are the basis of sequential fronts held bet ween services. These fronts depends on technological constraints - or practical - and are calculated based on two criteria: 1) Fronts - defined by a percentage on the duration of the service. For example: Blocks and Baldrames be initiated w hen two thirds of the foundations have been executed, ie, 67.77% when the founda tions are ready. 2) Fronts defined by a minimum number of floors between sequent ial services. For example: it takes at least four floors of that structure to re lease the top of the masonry. So the minimum front between the structures of Typ e and masonry in this case is 4 cycles estruturas9. The two criteria were used t o compose the table in 2003 - where are listed fronts between services, graded f or construction of buildings using the traditional construction process. Playing example contained in Table 03, we have: a) lag between the initiation of servic es and Masonry Structures in the floors Type: lag = 4 x PAVEMENTS STRUCTURES OF CYCLE TIME OF FLOORING STRUCTURES lag = 4 x 6 = 24 DAYS FOR PAVEMENT DIAS b) lag between the end of Foundations and services Blocks and Baldrames Tower. (The ch arge in this case is that, after finishing his service still lacks Foundations t hird of the blocks and Baldrames to run). Lag = 113 LENGTH BETWEEN THE BLOCKS AN D BALDRAMES lag = 0.33 x 24 = 8 days 9 This criterion applies to cyclical services, and follows two types of constraint s: [i] Constraints or technological constraints, while the front is mandatory an d can not be disregarded because of physical impairments, or technical (that is the case, for example , and masonry structures mentioned above); iii]-Constraint s or tax practice, when the front is set for convenience and practical reasons. For example, it is advisable to open a front of one or two floors between the pl acement services countermarks and plaster gone from the ceiling. In this case, t here is no physical impediment to implementation of these two services simultane ously, but it is not appropriate to do so. 3.3.2.3 Determination of costs and input costs associated with the activities an d inputs to production that are associated with the activities of the network wi ll be calculated from the weights that each activity has on the composition of t he cost of the work. These weights are as those shown in Table 01. Considering t he input and internal parameters to the model, we have: DATA ENTRY: Parametric C ost Index Productivity expected average area of Royal Construction - AR Equivale nt Area Construction - AEC INTERNAL PARAMETERS: Weight of the service - cost bas ed on weight Service - based on man-hours calculations made by SYSTEM: Cost of s ervice = [Weight of service, base cost] x [index-Cost] x [AEC] Man-hours = [Weig ht of the service, based Hh] x [ expected productivity] x [HR] for Service [% on total cost] [Hh% of total] [R $ per m2 AEC] [Hh per m2 of RA] [RA m2] [m2 AEC] 3.3.3 System modeling logic - precedence net 3.3.3.1 Characteristics of the syst em This system is responsible for the operation of the logical relationships of the model relating the services and data associated with them. It is also respon sible for generating operational reports that characterize the production strate

gy. So is structured through applications,€prepared to manage projects using the techniques of network precedence as a tool for modeling. These applications pro vide great flexibility to manipulate and format the information processed, gener ating reports for management analysis (including charts), with great power of co mmunication. Still have options to level resources in the work or in a set of wo rks. There are several applications that have these characteristics. However, to fit the model, two more requirements are needed, which are not always available in all of them: 1) They must have the resources to import and export files, enabling exchange of data and information with Numerical Processing Systems - such as spreadsheets, or Systems Management Database. This function is important for allowing the basi c data are received and processed in an environment more suitable for this, and are subsequently exported to the Project Manager - should have the resources to import los10 2) they allow to establish two simultaneous connections between act ivities. This feature is fundamental to the modeling process, it ensures a logic al proposal for the network. The figures below show the condition to be met by t he application: 10 If this function is not level, the model can be operated with the expansion of d ata directly to the Project Manager, but with effort that reduces the efficiency of the process. This system creates a network of work getting information processed by the modul e input and data preparation. These data are listed in Tables 01,02 and 03, whic h represent, respectively, the activities to be modeled, the durations, and the relationships of dependence and time lags between activities. 4. CONCLUSIONS As explained earlier in this text, the model is presented as tool to analyze production strategies, operating through setting up the basic data o f the enterprise and global parameters of production. It is based on a basic gri d generation - or default network, which is complemented with data determined by volumetric characteristics of the building and its production system. Because u se of precedence network technique and work through open applications, character ized as a model for simulation, with great flexibility to generate information. Among the key information that can be generated relate to: • • • • • Timeline of the main services of physical works; programming costs per period; P rogram use of labor per period; Histograms of cost and man-hour curve aggregatio n of resources - S Curve - to evaluate the physical progress of the work. This information is generated for the hierarchy of production - with a density c ompatible with this level of decision - and can be consolidated to meet the hier archies of entrepreneurship and enterprise. Besides these, there are countless p ossibilities for format information provided they use the filtering capabilities of data and issuing reports that are available from the project managers. Moreo ver, because the design work through open systems, other reports may be obtained from the routines of export and import files and manipulation of information th rough other environments and systems. REFERENCES AHUJA. H. N. Project Management Techniques in Planning and Controllin g Projects Constructions. New York, John Wiley & Sons, 1984. ANTIILL, James; WOO DIHEAD, Ronald W. CPM applied the buildings. Rio de Janeiro, Technical and Scien tific Books, 1971 BRAZILIAN ASSOCIATION OF TECHNICAL STANDARDS. Assessment of un it costs and prepare construction budget for the incorporation of building condo -NBR - 12-721. Rio de Janeiro, 1992. FRANCO, Luiz Sérgio. Application guidelines for constructive rationalization of technological processes in structural mason ry construction unarmed. São Paulo, 1992. 319p. Tese (Doutorado) - Escola Polité

cnica, Universidade de São Paulo. GALVÃO, Mary S. Alcélia et al. Operating budge ts and their application in construction management. 100th National Meeting of P roduction Engineering, Belo Horizonte, 1990. Anais. Belo Horizonte, UFMG, 1990, vol. 2, p. 686-691. MARTUCCI, Ricardo. Technological projects for residential bu ildings: utopia or challenge? São Paulo, 1990. 438p. Thesis (Ph.D.) - School of Architecture and Urbanism, University of São Paulo. MELO, Maurício da Costa. Aut omated system for budget formulation cost of construction. São Paulo, 1986. 323p . Thesis (MA) Polytechnic,€University of São Paulo. MURGEL Sergio Rosciano. Plan ning and managing projects (concepts and instruments) - programming and control of works. São Paulo, 1981. 121p. Thesis (MA) Polytechnic School, University of S ão Paulo. O 'BRIEN, James J. VPM Scheduling for high-rise buildings. Journal of the Construction Division, ASCE, vol. 101, no. C04, p. 895-905, December 1975. O 'BRIEN, James; KREITZBERG, Fred C.; MIKES, Wesley F. Network Scheduling Variatio ns for Repetitive work. Journal of Construction Engineering and Management, ASCE , vol. 111, No 2, p. 105-116, June 1985. OLIVEIRA, Miriam; LANTELME, Elvira; FOR MOSO, Carlos Torres. Indicators of quality and productivity for construction. 14 0th National Meeting of Production Engineering, João Pessoa, 1994. Anais. Joao P essoa, UFPB, 1994, vol. 2, p. 797-802. PEER Sholom. Network analysis and constru ction planning. Journal of the Construction Division, ASCE, vol. 100, no. C03, p . 203-2 10, September, 1974. REDA, Rchab M.. RPM: repetitive project modeling. J ournal of the Construction Division, ASCE, vol. 116, no. 2, p. 316-33 0, june, 1 974. ~ L ROCHA JR, John. Information systems for planning in construction. Genes is and computerization. São Paulo, EPUSP, 1990 (Text Tech. At USP. Department of Civil Engineering, BT/26/90, 69p.) .......................................... (A) management in construction. One approach systemic. São Paulo, EPUSP, 1990 (Text Tech. At USP. Department of Civil Enginee ring, BT/27/90, 47p.) ................... ....................... (B) the reason s for the financial planning construction industry. São Paulo, EPUSP, 1995 (Text Tech. At USP. Department of Civil Engineering, TT/PCC/1 1 / 95, 113p.) ROSSO, Theodore. Rationalization of C onstruction. São Paulo. School of Architecture and Planning of the USP, 1980. RU SSELL, Alan D.; WONG, William C. M. New generation of Planning Structures Journa l of Construction Engineering and Management ASCE, vol. 119, no. 2, p. 196-214, June 1993. SILVA, Sergio A. R.; Guelpa, Dante F. V.. Programming methods venture s: assessment and selection criteria. São Paulo, EPUSP, 1993 (Text Tech. At USP. Department of Civil Engineering, BT / PCC / 106 / 93, 2 1 p.) SOUZA, Ana Lucia R.; BARROS, Mercia MB MELHO, Silvio B.. Design and technological innovation in b uilding construction: implementation in the traditional process and innovative p rocesses. São Paulo, EPUSP, 1995 (Text Tech. At USP. Department of Civil Enginee ring, BT/PCC/1 45/95, 65p.) Stradale Oldrich; CACHE Josef .. Time space scheduli ng method. Journal of the Construction Division, ASCE, vol. 108, C03, p. 445-457 , September 1982. WIT, Jan de; HERROLEN, Willy. An evaluation of microcomputer based software packages for project management. European Journal of Operational Research, vol 49, no. 1, pp102 - 139, november 1990. TECHNICAL BULLETINS PUBLISHED BT/PCC/151 - Effects of High Levels of pozzolans i n High Performance Concrete under the Action of Chloride-GERALDO Cechella Isaia, PAUL HELENE. BT/PCC/152 - Slag High fumace as Agomerante - Vanderley MOACYR JOH N, MARIA ALBA Cincotti. BT/PCC/153 - Principles for Quality Analysis of Enterpri ses: The Case of Real estate developments, JOHN DA ROCHA LIMA JR. BT/PCC/154 - M ethodology for Qualification of Peri-urban Areas - MARCOS ALMEIDA JORGE SANTANA, ALEX KENYA Abiko. BT/PCC/155 - Housing Architectural Design in Wood - ROSA MARI A BITTENCOURT, JOHN CESAR HELLMEISTER. BT/PCC/156 - Effect of Curing Temperature on the Strength of Portland Cement Mortar Joint and Blast Furnace-glade, CAMARI NI, MARIA ALBA Cincotti. BT/PCC/157 - Effect of Shading on the Energy Performanc

e of Automatic Building Services RACINE TADEU ARAUJO PRADO, ORESTES Marraccini G ONÇALVES BT/PCC/158 - 0 Concept of rate of return - JOAO DA ROCHA LIMA JR. BT/PC C/159 - Contribution to the Study of Modulus of Deformation of High Strength Con crete With and Without Additions microsilica - DENISE C. C. DAL MOLIN, PAUL J. M . MONTEIRO. BT/PCC/160 - The Role of the Organization Installment Land in Cities Urban Medium Pauline: The Experience of Limeira - SP - EDSON FAVERO, Brenner CY RINO NOGUEIRA. BT/PCC/161 - Constructive Method of Sealing Masonry Concrete Bloc ks Cell Autoclaving Marienne R. M. M. DA COSTA, LUIZ FRANCO SEGI. BT/PCC/162 - P lanning, Shopping Centers - JOAO DA ROCHA LIMA JR. BT/PCC/163 - Legislation of L and Use in Central Areas of Cities averages. Comparative Study: Limeira-American and FRANCISCO BORGES F., Brenner CYRINO NOGUEIRA.€BT/PCC/164 - Development of a Panel of Fiber Reinforced Gypsum Glass Seal Inner vertical-TEREZINHA CLAUDIA AN DRADE DE OLIVEIRA, Vahan Agopyan. BT/PCC/165 - Study of Productivity of manpower in the Department of Molds for Concrete Structures-Ubiraci ESPINELLI RUDDERS DE SOUZA, Vahan Agopyan. BT/PCC/166 - Proposition Class Resistance to Madeira - AL MIR SALES, FRANCISCO ANTONIO ROCCO LAHR. BT/PCC/167 - Formulation of Models for Determining the Demand and Fuel Gas Consumption in Residential Buildings - MARIN A S. OLIVEIRA ISLAND, ORESTES M. GONÇALVES. BT/PCC/168 - Corrosion Inhibitors Compatibility Cement Additive - MARYANGELA G. LIMA, ADEMAR Arvato F., PAUL HELEN E. BT/PCC/169 - 0 Project and Quality of Concrete Slabs in Buildings - ANA LUCIA DE SOUZA ROCHA, SILVIO BURRATTINO red. BT/PCC/170 - 0 and Concept of Anti-Slip Performance Ceramic Flooring - Edmilson Freitas campante, FERNANDO HENRIQUE SABB ATINI. BT/PCC/171 - Feasibility Analysis for the Private Sector, Investment in I nfrastructure and Operation of the Public Road Transport, under the Grant Scheme - PAULO CELSO DE CHIARA, JOHN DA ROCHA LIMA JR. BT/PCC/172 - Guidelines for the Design Process for Implementing streamlined Cons tructive Technologies in the Production of Buildings - Merci M. Bottura DE BARRO S, FERNANDO HENRIQUE SABBATINI BT/PCC/173 - Project Management in Construction I ndustry: Strategic Planning Model for the Production of Buildings - JOSE FRANCIS CO ASSUMPÇÃO BRIDGES, JOHN LIMA ROCK JR.