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TECHNIQUES FOR BUILDING AND CONSTRUCTION OF BUILDINGS

COVERAGE
AFTER STUDYING THIS CHAPTER, YOU SHOULD BE ABLE TO: • Choose the roof structure
appropriate for each type of tile, • Learn the different parts that make up a ro
of structure; • Choose the right tiles and slopes; • Specify and size correctly
gutters; • Draw all roof line.
The roof is composed of structure, coverage and drivers of rainwater. The struct
ure: it is the support element of the coverage, which can be: wooden, metal, etc
... Coverage: the protection element, which can be: ceramic, cement, aluminum,
galvanized steel, etc ... The drivers: these are desirable for the flow of rainw
ater and constituemse of: gutters, sinks, flashings and corners, are galvanized
and pvc 6.1 - TIMBER STRUCTURES For convenience, we divide the structure frame a
nd frame (Figure 6.1). The frame is the structural part, consisting of the sciss
ors, angles, props, etc ... and the plot is the graph consisting of Tuesdays, ra
fters and battens, which are based on the frame and in turn serve to support the
tiles.
Figure 6.1 - Diagram of roof structure
6.1.1 Materials used in structures) - Wood: We can use all the hardwoods to the
roof structure (Table 6.1), however peroba wood has been used more. If you use w
ood that is not included in Table 6.1 we verify that they possess the physical a
nd mechanical characteristics as follows: 105
- Compressive strength (fc), 15% humidity, not less than 55.5 MPa. - Modulus of
rupture tensile strength greater than or equal to 13.5 MPa.
Table 6.1 - Some species of wood suitable for the roof structure (IPT)
The
Peanut canafístula guarucaia jequitibá white orange pink peroba
B
angelim cabriúva cabriúva brown red black heart CAOv Cupiuba faveiro garapa guap
eva blond brown shaver Mandigau stick stick ivory yellow sucupira
C
anjico black Guaratira Taiúva
Woods in Table 6.1 are divided into groups according to their mechanical charact
eristics. The cabreúva red, black heart, faveiro, anjico black Guaratira Taiúva
and have high hardness, so we must be careful when handling them. The lumber fro
m logs are already in standard commercial gauges. However, there are cases where
the sizing of the pieces require larger pieces or different, so it should begin
to composite sections (in these cases studied in the discipline Timber structur
es). - Beams: 6 x 6 x 12cm or 16cm, length 2.5, 3.0, 3.5, 4.0, 4.5, 5.0 m - raft
ers: 5 x 6 cm or 5 x 7 (6 x 8) cm, length 2.5, 3.0, 3.5, 4.0, 4.5, 5.0 m - slat:
1.0 x 5.0 cm, usually with 4.50 m in length and are sold per dozen. Note For la
rger sizes or different lengths, the part price increases. b) - pieces of metal:
The metal parts used in roof structures are the nails, bolts, steel plates to t
he straps and clips. The nails most commonly used are: 22 x 22 x 42 or 48 - to p
reach the beams 42 or 22 x 19 x 39 - to preach the rafters 15 x 15 - to preach t
he slats. The nails obey the rules EB-73 and CP-58 / ABNT. The description of th
e nail head will be for two Nos to x b. = refers to the diameter, is the No. nai
l in Paris Fiera 106
eg 15 = 18 = 2.4 mm 3.4 mm b = the length measured in "lines" - 2.3 mm, correspo
nding to unit 1 / 12 inch old. NOTE: See table annexed to the final nails in the
book. 6.1.2 - parts used in roof structures a) Scissors Scissors roofs are very
efficient to overcome spans without intermediate support (Figure 6.2). Vertical
plane structures are receiving loads parallel to the plane and send them to the
ir support. Usually consist of: Frechal: Ask placed on the wall and under the sc
issors, to distribute the load of the roof. Leg: Parts of support Tuesday, going
from the fulcrum of the scissors to the roof ridge, generally work to compressi
on. Line: Ask that runs along the bottom of scissors and will support the suppor
t, usually work to traction. Stirrup: Are hardware to ensure unity between the p
arts of the scissors. Can work to pull or shear. Pendural and anchor: parts that
connect the line to the leg and are in a position perpendicular to the line. Pe
ndural is called when your position is on the top, and the other rod. Generally
work to traction. Asna and anchors: They are pieces of link between line and leg
, are generally oblique to the plane of the line, called a truss that emerging p
endural foot, the other strut. Generally work to compression. : Note€We will not
dwell on the structural design of structures for roofs be subject to chair the
party. We only want to play scissors simple works for small business. Figure 6.2
shows a typical section of a roof structure
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Figure 6.2 - Typical section of a roof structure
In simple scissors at least we should know: - Openings up to 3.00 m do not need
anchors. - Vain above 8.00m should be placed risers. - The ideal spacing for the
scissors must be on the order of 3.0 m. - The angle between the leg and the lin
e is called the slope, - the point is the relationship between the height of the
ridge and the will of scissors. - The maximum distance between the point of int
ersection of the axes of the leg and the line is the bearing surface of the scis
sors should be ≤ 5.0 cm. (Figure 6.3) - The scissors should be bracing, with Fre
nch hands and diagonal line on the ridge. (Figure 6.4)
Figure 6.3 - Detail of the support of shears on groundsel
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Figure 6.1 - Schematic of bracing Scissors
c) Tuesdays The Tuesdays rely on the scissors in a row (Figure 6.5) or props (Fi
gures 6:16, 6:17, 6:18), and their sizes depend on the space between them (span
between trusses), type of wood and tile maid . We may take in practice and using
the wood from Table 6.1: - 6 x 12 gauge whether the gap between the scissors do
es not exceed 2.50 m. - Gauges of 6 x 16 spans between 2.50 to 3.50 m. These ope
nings are for dry wood. If you're not sure we should slow down or make the calcu
lations using the more precise and Table 6.2 that takes into account the type of
wood and tile: For spans greater than 3.50 m should use special gauges which is
not advisable at cost . Tuesdays are the parts placed in horizontal direction p
erpendicular to the scissors and ridges are named when they are placed on the hi
ghest part of roof (top) and against groundsel in the lower part (Figure 6.5). O
n Tuesday we should be supported in the scissors.
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Figure 6.5 - Schematic of Tuesday in support of shears Table 6.2 - Maximum Go Tu
esdays (m)
Range from the rafters (m) 1.00 to 1.20 1.21 to 1.40 1.41 to 1.60 1.61 to 1.80 1
.81 to 2.00 2.01 to 2.20 second, 21 to 2.40 2.41 to 2.60 Cross section (cm) 6 x
12 2.70 2.55 2.40 2.30 2.25 French, Roman, Portuguese or plan B 2.85 2.70 2.60 2
.45 2.40 2.30 C 3.10 2.95 2.80 2.70 2.60 2.50 2.45 2.35 6 16 3.30 3.15 x 3.00 B
2.85 2.75 3.50 3.30 3.15 3.05 2.90 2.80 C 3.85 3.60 3.45 3.30 3.20 3.10 3.00 2.9
0 6 x 12 6 x 16 2.50 2.40 2.30 2.20 Colonial or paulista B 2.50 2.65 C 2.40 2.30
2.20 2.90 2.75 2.60 2 50 2.40 2.35 3.20 3.05 A 2.90 2.80 B 3.40 C 3.20 3.10 2.4
5 2.85 3.75 3.50 3.35 3.20 3 10 3.00
d) The rafters rafters are placed in perpendicular direction on Tuesdays, so par
allel to the scissors. Are inclined, and its slope determines the trim of the ro
of. The gauge of the rafter spacing varies with every Tuesday, with the type of
wood and tile. We may take in practice and using the wood from Table 6.1: - Tues
days to 2.00 m spaced rafters use of 5 x 6. - Tuesdays when exceeding the 2.00 m
and not exceed 2.50 m, use of 5x7 rafters (6x8). The rafters are placed with a
distance of 0.50 m (axis axis) so that we can use common peroba 1x5 slats. These
openings are for dry wood. If you're not sure we should slow down or make calcu
lations using Table 6.3. 110
Table 6.3 - Maximum Will the rafters (m)
Wood type A B C cross section (cm)
French, Roman, Portuguese or plan 1.40 1.90 1.60 2.00 2.20 2.50 5x6 5x7
Colonial or Paulista 1.40 1.60 2.00 1.80 2.00 2.20 5x6 5x7
e) Shingles The shingles are the last part of the plot and are nailed perpendicu
lar to the rafters. Are found in sections 1.0 x5, 0cm (1.2 x5, 0cm). The spacing
between battens depends on the tile used. For the placement of the strips is ne
cessary to have some tiles in the work to measure your climbs. They are placed o
n the eaves to the ridge, starting with two slats or on fascia board (Figure 6.6
). Therefore, to ensure that constant space, Carpenter prepared a guide (climbs)
(Figure 6.7).
Figure 6.6 - Detail of placing the first strip or fascia board
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Figure 6.7 - Detail of the climbs
The slats support the weight of the tiles, we should therefore check the spacing
between the rafters. If this spacing is 0.50 by 0.50 m, we can use the strips 1
.0 x5, 0m. If it is larger, we use battens 2.5 x5, 0m (peroba). 6.1.3 - Links an
d seams in the construction of roof structures it is necessary to make connectio
ns and splices, with fittings that we needed to know: clipping: - h = height of
the part - clipping r = r ≥ 2 cm - 1 / 8 h ≤ r ≤ 1 / 4 h
Figure 6.8-Details of the link between line and leg (Moliterno, 1992)
112
Figure 6.9 - Details of the link between line and leg (Moliterno, 1992)
Figure 6.10 - Detail of the connection between the leg and the anchor (Moliterno
, 1992)
Figure 6.11 - Detail of the connection between his legs and pendural (Moliterno,
1992)
113
Figure 6.12 - Detail of the connection between his legs and pendural (Moliterno,
1992)
Figure 6.13 - Detail of the connection between the line, trusses and pendural (M
oliterno, 1992)
Amendments must be on Tuesdays from backups, or approximately one quarter of the
span, towards the diagram of bending moments (Figure 6.16), with the bevels 45
° to the use of nails or screws (Figures 6.14 and 6.15).
Figure 6.14-Detail of the amendment of Tuesdays with nails
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Figure 6.15-Detail of the amendment of Tuesdays with screws and plates
Figure 6.16-Detail of the amendments in a line of Tuesdays
6.1.4 - Roof props We can build the roof without the use of scissors. For this,
we must support the Tuesdays in concrete structures or props. In residential con
struction, the internal walls and slabs offer support intermediaries. In such ca
ses, therefore, the cost structure is lower. The prop works to compression and i
s set in a cradle of wood supported on the slab. Thus, the slab receives a distr
ibuted load (Figure s6.17 and 6.18). In solid slabs, where everything is calcula
ted, we can support at any point. However in pre slabs should not rest upon the
same, but toward the walls (Figures 6.17 and 6.19). No need to put a prop off th
e walls, it is necessary to make a concrete beam reversed to go big or wooden be
ams in the small bays. We must also take some precautions such as: - the distanc
e of the props must be equal to the scissors. - The distance between the purlins
should be equal to the distance of the same when supported in shear 115
- Should be added to the props, the cradle (at least 40cm) to better distribute
the work, French hands (in both directions of prop) or rods bolted to the slab t
o provide stability to the assembly.
Figure 6.17-Support of props in cribs
Figure 6.18-Detail of the cradle for load distribution
116
Figure 6.19-Detail of the support of props on the walls
6.1.5 - Recommendations: - It recognizes a good job as a carpenter, when the ali
gnment of the parts are perfect, each roof panel forming a uniform plan. A defec
tive timber will give us a corrugated roof and terrible aspect. - Do not forget
to place the water tank before the end, the carpenter, the timber. - When the na
il is smaller than the piece that he has to penetrate, shall be placed at an ang
le (Figure 6.20). Put it in a nearby location and inclined enough to penetrate h
alf its size in one piece and half in another. Ideally, the nail penetrate 2 / 3
.
Figure 6.20-Detail of fastening nails smaller
- When you need to preach the tip of one part to another by tilting the nails so
they do not penetrate but rather parallel to the fibers as possible perpendicul
ar to them (Figure 6.21).
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Figure 6.21-Detail of fastening strips in the rafters
- To avoid cracks in the wood, must preach as follows: * at the end of a slat in
the joist, the nails do not align (Figure 6.22) * flatten a bit the tip of the
nail * stick timber and then introducing the nail * preach wood thinner thicker.
Figure 6.22 Set-slat in the rafters
6.2 - COVER In this chapter we will cover the ceramic tiles as they are the most
commonly used in residential work. The remaining tiles (cement, aluminum, galva
nized) are commonly used in commercial and industrial works. For its use, it sho
uld seek the guidance of a technician from the manufacturer or even the use of C
atalan technicians. Ceramic tiles have started with the preparation of clay, and
consists of a mixture of various clays. The next step, already mixed the clay p
asses through a milling and refining reaching an extruder, where the clay powder
is transformed into a homogeneous mass and without impurities. This mass passes
through the molding presses, going directly to the drying. Only then made the f
irst selection and the first firing furnace at a temperature of 900 ° C. Should
present metallic sound, similar to that of a bell when suspended by one end and
struck. Should not deformed, defects or blemishes. Tiles are settled with the ut
most care and aligned perfectly. Some parts are fixed with cement mortar, lime a
nd sand in 1:2:8 trait. Are the ridges (Figure 6.23) and spikes, and when the ch
annel type, also from the eaves tiles and eight. 118
It is what is called plaster tiles. The consumption of cement is in the order of
0.002 m / m² roof.
Figure 6.23-finish of the ridge
For roof slopes over 45 °, it is recommended that the tiles are stuck to be tied
to the timber with galvanized wire or copper wire. To cover, use the ruler inst
ead of line from the tip of the eaves to the ridge, and move according to the me
asure of tile, covering where the eaves to the ridge, putting two strips overlap
ping or frontlets to adjust the height of the 1st tile (Figure 6.6). Ceramic til
es are commonly used: - French or Marseille - Paulista or Channel or Colonial -
Paulistinha - Plan - Romana - Portuguese - Termoplan (Vasatex) a) Tile French ha
ve a rectangular shape, are flat and boring, have one of the side edges of two c
hannels longitudinal. To fit in the upper and lower edges, knives in the opposit
e direction. The fittings at the ends serve to fix and prevent the passage of wa
ter. - 15 pcs per sqm - Weight: 45 kgf / m² - dry 54 kgf / m² - saturated - size
≅ 40 cm comp. by 24 cm wide - tip: 33% - Cumeeira: 3 units / ml
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Figure 6.24-Tile French
b) Tile paulista They consist of two separate components, channel, whose functio
n is to conduct water and cover, which makes the coverage of the space between t
wo channels. - 26 pcs per sqm - Weight: 69 kgf / m² - dry 83 kgf / m² - saturate
d - dimensions: 46cm ≅ comp. (Channel) 46 cm long. (Cover) 18 cm width (channel)
width 16 cm (cover) - slope: 25% - gables: 3UN / m
Figure 6.25-Tile Paulo
c) type plan has the characteristics of tile Sao Paulo, but improved, has rounde
d corners and rectangular. - 26 pcs per m² 120
- Gradient: 20-25% - gables: 3 pcs / m 72 kgf / m² - dry weight: 86 kgf / m² - s
aturated - dimensions: 46cm comp. (Cover) 46cm comp. (Channel) width 16cm (hood)
18cm wide (channel)
Figure 6.26-Tile Plan
d) Tile Roman and Roman tile Portuguese tile has the same format as the flat roo
f, only that these types is the channel along with the cover. The site is equal
to Sao Paulo. - Minimum slope: 30% - 16 pieces per square 48kgf / m² - dry weigh
t: 58 kgf / m² - saturated
Figure 6.27-tile Roman and Portuguese
d) Termoplan As its name indicates, the termoplan through double layer, achieves
a thermal insulation and moisture. - Minimum slope: 30% 121
- 15 pieces per square - Weight: 54 kgf / m² - dry 65 kgf / m² - saturated - dim
ensions: 45.0 cm length 21.5 cm width
Figure 6.28-Tile Termoplan
f) Tile Germanic Assembly is done in fish scales with the following features: -
30 tiles per m² - Unit weight: 1.475g - minimum slope: 45% When insulation is pl
aced, calculate ventilation liner.
Figure 6.29-Germanic Tile
6.2.2 - Slope of roof slopes cited in each type of tile roofs relates to straigh
t. Care must be doubled when the roofs are sealed also called tightrope. Due to
its design, storm water gain a greater speed in the beginning (top) and lose on
your end (overhang), causing the waters return, infiltrating part of the waters
on the roofs. The transition point is where the roof is sealed over. Therefore,
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minimum slope is to be achieved in the position where the roof is sealed more (F
igure 6.30). The slopes of the roofs are sealed at least the following Table 6.4
:
Figure 6.30 Minimum-Bias sealed with roofing go up to 8.0 m Table 6.4 - Minimum
dimensions for roofs sealed with going up to 8.0 m
x (m)
3.0 4.0 5.0 6.0 7.0 8.0
x1 (m)
1.5 2.0 2.5 3.0 3.5 4.0
y1 (m)
0.45 0.64 0.85 1.08 1.33 1.60
x2 (m)
1.5 2.0 2.5 3.0 3.5 4.0
y2 (m)
0.60 0.88 1.20 1.44 1.75 2.24
y (m)
1.05 1.52 2.05 2.52 3.08 3.84
In implementing a structure sealed the roof rafters are cut and stuck on Tuesday
s thereby providing the setting "tightrope" (Figure 6.31). Or we can use overlap
ping slats instead of rafters. Since the slats are conforming finest best in the
curvature of the roof sealed.
Figure 6.31-Detail of the roof structure of a sealed
6.3 - drivers are the complements of the roofs, giving them the final touch and
so avoiding the infiltration of rain water. Constituent parts of the system of r
ainwater: 123
Rails 6.3.1 are that obtain storm water and are placed horizontally. They are us
ually made with galvanized sheet No. 26 and 24. The galvanized sheets typically
measure 1.00 m and 1.20 m wide by 2.00 m in length but for the making of rails t
hat is used is galvanized steel coil (because it reduces the number of amendment
s) and measured 1.0 or 1.20 m wide and variable length. Therefore, to better use
of plates and coils or, as its width, and to reduce the price of parts, they ar
e "cut" in standard measures that are: Cuts: 10 - 12 - 15 - 20-25 - 28 - 30 -33
-39 or 40 - 50 - 61-75 - 1,00 cuts over the gutters are used for cutting 33 and
50. Types of gutters: a) - lame:
Figure 6.32 - Gutter kind lame
b) - platband
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Figure 6:33 - Gutter type platband
c) - frame
Figure 6.34 - rail type frame
6.3.2 Water penthouse: Are obtain time rainwater and are placed at an angle. Are
made, such as gutters, galvanized sheets with No. 26 and 24.
Figure 6:35 - Detail of an attic
6.3.3 Conductors:
125
Are vertical pipes that carry water collected by gutters and the attic to collec
tors. May be of galvanized or PVC, and must have a minimum diameter of 75mm. 6.3
.4 Collectors are conduits between the drivers and the public system of rainwate
r. 6.3.5 Rufos and drip pan: The flashings and drip pan are generally made with
plaque in 28 (thinner)
Figure 6.36 - Details of the use of flashings and drip pan
6.4 - 6.4.1 SIZING - Channels: For sizing of gutters we have data from rainfall
region ... etc, making it difficult in some cities due to difficult access to th
at data. However we can use in practice, an empirical formula that gives us the
gutter area "A" (wetted area), which has given good results. A = [in (sq)] = cm
² where: A = floor area of the chute a = area of coverage that helps the driver
= n means the number of areas "to" contributing to the worst driver. For this sc
aling we divide the roof as shown in Figure 6:37
126
Figure 6.32 - Areas of contribution to the conductor
For sizing of gutters should adopt the worst driver (one that receives major con
tribution of water). Example:
Figure 6:38 - Division of the roof in areas "a"
1 need a trough with an area of 50.0 cm ² 2 we check whether it is a large area
or not 3 If is large, we increase the number of drivers or take a trough type la
me (the most suitable for these cases) 4 If small, adopt fascia gutter type, but
always checking the conditions of adjustments to the roof gutter.
Figure 6:39 - Gutter type platband
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Figure 6:40 - Gutter kind lame
We here adopt the type gutter fascia cut 33 due to better adaptation to work and
have a relatively small contribution of water. The gutter lame receives a contr
ibution of increased water (105cm2) 6.4.2 - Conductors: For the case of drivers
can consider the rule of thumb: A cm ² area of the driver for each square feet o
f roof area to be exhausted. Ex ∅ 3 "= 42cm ² and ∅ 4" = 80cm ²
Example: In the former case we have three drivers on each side of the roof. The
end has a contribution area of 25cm ². We can adopt a ∅ 3 ". The center receives
the contribution of 50m ², adopting therefore a ∅ 4". Note: 1 - In this case we
can use the larger for all 2 - We must avoid putting drivers under 3 ". 6.5 - 6
.5.1 FORMS OF ROOF - Eaves: Beiral is part of the roof that goes beyond the alig
nments of the external walls usually has a width ranging from 0.40 to 1.00 m, an
d the most common is 0.60, 0.80 m. They can be in slab (Figure 6.41) or in empty
tiles (Figure 6.42).
Figure 6.41 - Beiral slab
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Figure 6:42 - Beiral tiles in vain
6.5.2 - parapets: These are pieces made of masonry that hide the roofs and eaves
can eliminate or not (Figure 6.43). In this case, it always puts a gutter, flas
hings and drip pan.
Figure 6.43 - Detail of parapets
129
6.5.3 - Roof Line: The roofs are made of lines (creases) that gives them the var
ious ways (Figure 6.44). The main lines are: - ridges - ridges - penthouses or c
orners
Figure 6.44 - Drawing the lines of a roof
- The ridge is a watershed horizontal and is represented in the figure by the le
tter - the spikes are also a watershed, but biased, letter (B) - the penthouses
or corners are prone to receiving water, letter ( C)
(A)
The roof can end in Oitão or water. 6:45 In the figure, we have a roof with two
slopes and therefore two eight, or a roof of four waters, and therefore without
eight.
Figure 6:45 - Roofing ending in waters or in waters more Oitão
6.5.4 - Types of roofs 130
WITH WATER:
Figure 6.46 - Roofs with a water (Bennett, 1972)
WITH TWO WATER:
Figure 6:47 - Roofs with two waters (Borges, 1972)
WITH THREE WATER:
Figure 6.48 - Roofs with three waters (Borges, 1972)
WITH FOUR WATER:
Figure 6:49 - Roof with four waters (Borges, 1972)
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Note: If we adopt simple solutions to the rooftops by economics, and ease of wor
kmanship, while avoiding many gutters that only bring trouble to come.
6.6 - GENERAL RULE FOR DRAWING THE LINES OF THE ROOF The roof is usually represe
nted at the scale of the plant, ie, usually at 1:100 scale. It is also usual to
represent him in the scale 1:200. It is indicated by broken lines, the contours
of the building because the coverage would go beyond the walls of at least 0.50
m, forming the eaves or parapet wall that are represented by solid lines. The wa
ters of the roof or the cloth, have your trim or tilt according to the type of t
ile used. When building a cover, we should remind ourselves of some rules of thu
mb: 1 - The penthouses are the bisectors of the angle formed between the walls a
nd leave the inner corners. 2 - The spikes are the bisectors of the angle formed
between the walls and leave the outer corners. 3 - The gables are always horizo
ntal and generally stay in the center.
Figure 6:49 - Briefing the lines of a roof
4 - When we have a ridge at the highest level of the other, we make the union be
tween the two with a spike, and the meeting of the ridge with the ridge rises a
lower attic.
6.6.1 - Exercises for drawings of roofs:
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133
NOTES
1 - The roofing cement or asbestos cement will not be addressed in this book, be
cause of the wide variety of brands and types. When necessary we should use for
consultation, technical catalogs. 2 - Basic Security: Preventing Falls of materi
als and workers from the edge of the roof, using umbrella body with the screen.
Using scaffolding for all jobs outside the coverage. Install hooks for attaching
cable guide for attaching the seat belt.
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