STATE UNIVERSITY OF Londrina-UEL Veterinary Medicine Course More suitable for cattle pasture (Cut and milk

) and Equine Forage Prof Dr Marcia Regina Rennet. Introduction -The main source of food for animals, which provide the bulk of the production o f meat, milk, leather, wool, and other is based primarily on the use of pastures (QUARRY & MELLO, 2000). Beef cattle grazing EVOLUTION OF RACES Zebu x Taurus 1 Effect of heat stress on the animal Shadow insufficient Thermal Stress Effect of heat stress on the animal Effect of heat stress on animal reproduction Tropical heat acts with different intensity in males and females. Reproduction Males: a) Decreased testes weight, b) seminiferous tubules come into degradation, c) pr oduction of sperm of lower quality d) reducing the total volume of semen, e) the concentration decreases, f) increase in abnormalities g) Decreased metabolic ac tivity of semen; Males: The pouch or scrotum, where the testes are, serves to lodge Ios, Ios protect and maintain the testicular temperature, about 4 ° C lower than body temperature. T his facilitates spermatogenesis. The main adverse effect of heat stress by heat, in males, is about the testicles such as: Reproduction Reproduction 2 Reproduction Females Females are affected with less intensity than males, but have changes in reprodu ctive behavior: a) Delay in puberty; b) causes anestrus c) Decreases the rate of conception, d) induces abortion; e) Increased perinatal mortality . Strategy in the Tropics 1.2 - Handling the Environment The reduction in growth rate in hot environments are more experienced in Europea n breeds of animals, than in zebu. However, there are some ways of manipulating the environment to avoid a reduction in growth rate.

1.2.1 - Shadow It is the simplest and most economical way to provide thermal comfort for cattle . The shading in the creation of pastures, can be natural, as the formation of s mall woods in the fenced area or near the water cooler and salt and, if confined animals, you can use artificial coverings. 1 - Strategy in the Tropics 1.2 - Handling the Environment 1.2.2 - Spray or Spray It is very efficient for cattle breeding and milk production, but seems not to h ave large effects on growth (Berbigier, 1986). Environmental factors that influence the behavioral expression Learning Hierarchy social pressure heat race Environment Management 2.2.3 - Other techniques Cold water ventilation Effects of Social Hierarchy Major races 3 NELORE - Standard Nellore-owl BRAHMAN Guzerá Indubrasil Tabapuã 4 ANGUS LIMOUSIN Simmental Marchigiana Caracu RED-ANGUS 5 Canchim CATTLE CUTTING IN BRAZIL • Brazil has the largest commercial cattle herd in the world with approximately 195 million head, of which 80% of the herd is constituted by a genetically zebu, mainly Nelore (MRCOALHO, 2005). • Brazil currently accounts for 16% of global m eat production, with an estimated production for the year 2005 to 1.6 million to

ns of carcasses, according to forecasts from the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA, 2004). Etc.. Introduction Pasture for beef cattle Sources: a) native and cultivated pastures b) Expansion of cultivated pastures: land-valu ation;-need for greater productivity, new-planting techniques;-adapted species a nd cultivars, plus c) Aspects to be considered for the production of beef cattle : -climatic conditions and soils;-use form of forage;-production system;-pasture for different categories 6 MANAGEMENT OF CATTLE CUTTING Forage Species Selection of good fodder production potential, persistence and ad aptation to environmental factors, climatic and soil, and growth habits, etc.. D ifferentiation between grasses and legumes grasses: grasses and grasses are incl uded. Possession creeping (g) passing through the medium-sized (grass), even the tall (maize, sorghum, sugarcane, etc.).. Are used as pasture, hay, silage, and grasses. Legumes: These are of variable size, very rich in protein. They are als o used for green manure, because of its nitrogen level of nodule bacteria in the ir roots. MANAGEMENT OF CATTLE CUTTING Forages commonly used in pastures in Brazil A) Colonião by planting seedlings in the grooves have a depth of 15 to 20 cm, sp aced 1 to 2 meters at most, spending up 4 Ton of seedlings per ha. Seed at plant ing is recommended for 15-20 kg seeds / ha.€In the case of planting broadcast sp ending will be 30% more seeds. Should be handled with the animals enter 60 to 80 cm and remove them when downgraded to 30-40cm, not to compromise future regrowth . Must have occupation period 70-10 days, with rest period of 35 to 40 days in w ater, carrying capacity in waters 2-3 AU / ha. Yields about 40-50 Ton / MV / ha / year in 3-4 cuts, produces about 150-200 kg of seed / ha and 8-13 Ton / DM / h a / year MANAGEMENT OF CATTLE CUTTING Tanzania Production: MV / ha / year = 60 Ton DM / ha / year = 26 Ton Production Mombasa MV / ha / year = 60 Ton DM / ha / year = 33 Ton Tobiatã (+ unwieldy) MV / ha / year = 60 Ton DM / ha / year = 30 Ton 7 Rotational grazing in Mombasa Most used forage grazing cattle in Brazil B) Jaraguá Vegeta well in poor soil, i t has great resistance to fire, trampling and clearcuts, but not very tolerant t o drought and low temperatures. Attacker has habit. Planting is done in the spri ng, broadcast or machinery, using 15-20 kg seeds / ha. Consorts well with Legumi nosae, soybeans and perennial Centro. Should be grazed at most 30-40 in height, because in a short space of time becomes fibrous and lowers it to 10 to 15cm. Ab le to support medium for water 2 AU / ha. The yield of green is about 40-50 ton / ha / year in 4-5 cuts. The cut for hay should be done when the grass is 40 to 45 days old. Produces 150-200 kg of seed / ha. C) elephant grass (Camerom, Miner, Napier, Puerto Rico and Taiwan) Proliferation is by cuttings and seeds, the best for changes and those with 100 days of age ( mature). The depth of grooves is spaced at 15cm and 50cm, spending on average 2-

4 Ton / ha. As pasture should be divided the plots up to 5 ha (rotation), occupi ed by 3-7 days and rest 35-45 days. The animals come with 60 to 80cm high and co me out when is lowered to 30 to 40cm. A good elephant grass pasture supports 3-4 AU / ha in water. The grasses must be cut to 1.30 m to 1.50 m high, with 15-20 cm of soil, providing 20-25 Ton MV / ha / cutting. Above 1.5 m is well below its VN and high in fiber. Usually with 3-4 cuts per year can produce 75-100 Ton MV / ha / year. This grass responds well to nitrogen and organic-based 30-40 Ton of manure per ha D) Brachiaria decumbens Fits broad range climate, rainfall 800-1500 mm per year. Resistance to drought, cold, fire, trampling, tolerate damp, and is not demandi ng in fertility. Your biggest problem is the sharpshooters. The planting can be done through decumbens seedlings and seeds. The seeds of decumbens has six month s of dormancy. The quantity of seeds: 240-320-480/VC, machine-haul plane, respec tively. Because he's a very aggressive grass its intercropping with legumes is v ery difficult, more may be consorting with stems of legume shrubs and trees. Sup ports heavy grazing with seating for 2-3 AU / ha. The handling of input is 30 to 40 cm and output with 10 to 15cm and rest 30-35 days. E) Brachiaria brizantha - Brachiarão It is perennial, does not agree strongly, form clumps with 1 to 1.2 m tall. Fits under tropical and humid climates, resists drought and tolerate soil slightly m oist. Is not demanding in soils. Planting is done by cuttings and seeds. Machine (240/VC) haul (320/VC) and air (480/VC) Height management: entry of animals wit h 70-80cm and withdrawal with 30-40cm Production: MV / ha / year: 50 Ton and MS / ha 10-12 Ton 8 The legumes) Soy is perennial perennial, stems thin, long, creeping, vigorous ro ot systems and deep, reaching 3 m deep. Seeds should be scarified and inoculated (inoculation of Cowpea group I), is sown in rows far apart 50 cm with 40-50 see ds per meter. Consorciase well with elephant grass. Spent on seeds: 320/VC (inte rcropping) and 800/VC (database of protein) The management is done by placing th e animals when you are 25 to 30cm and removes them when lowered to 10 to 15cm. P roduction: MV / ha / year = 35Ton DM / ha / yr = 5-6 Ton B. decumbens B) Leucaena Perennial, shrub, reaching up to 10 to 12m high, deep roots. It is d rought resistant and excellent capacity and fixation of atmospheric nitrogen. Th e planting is in spring with 4-6 kg of seed / ha in furrows spaced 2 to 3m. It w as recorded production of 12.5 ton / MS / ha / year with protein content 21-24%. It should be la-manages about 1.5 m cutting of hands, thereby enabling a greate r engalhamento side of the plant. It has a toxic principle known as mimosine, wh ich can cause loss of hair on the rump, tail, head and ect .. C) Perennial pigeon pea, bush form 2 to 3 m high, much branched,€vigorous and de ep root system, this gives it great resistance to drought, does not tolerate ver y low temperature, is not demanding in soil, so it is called the zebu of legumes . Planting in furrows 30 to 40cm from each other, spending is 10-15 kg / seed / ha. To treat the trough is cut to 10 cm of soil with a maximum height of 50cm. P rovides 12 Ton MV / ha / cutting, and may suffer 3-4 cuts per year and produces enough up to four years and then regresses 9 D) Calopogonio Perennial, cycle short, creeping, mat grass 50-60 cm high. His ap pearance is very similar to the perennial soybean. It legumes of tropical and hu mid with high drought tolerance and low tolerance to low temperatures and soakin

g the median, is more demanding in soil, and vegetating on poor soils and sandy. Cutting height of 20 cm (remove the animals) Production of 35 Tons / MV / ha / year with 16-18% CP Suitable for grazing, intercropping and protein database Grazing systems Objectives: To provide the cattle _ feed more regular and nutritious all year. _ Increase the forage yield per unit area. _ Reduce the degradation of the pastur e. _ Keep the soil fertility systems: Continuous Alternating Rotated postponed Systems pickets MINERAL AND PROTEIN SUPPLEMENT: Supplementation roughage for cattle Objective and rationale Seasonality of forage foods of better quality during sto rage methods of fodder: grasses silage Hays In many regions, is one of the major factors related to the low productive and reproductive performance of cattle. I n tropical conditions, the beef cattle depends almost exclusively on pasture as a source of nutrients necessary for their maintenance. Knowledge of disability d etermined the necessity of preparing a mineral and protein, to supply the pet al l the nutrients that are essential in quantity and quality. 10 Mineral deficiencies in animals: Under the regime of pasture, nutrition of the ruminant animal is given by the su m of mineral intake through grazing, drinking water, ingestion of soil and event ually into the trough to meet nutritional requirements. The functions of mineral s are: cellular metabolism, formation of tissues (bone, skin and glandular), pre ssure Types of troughs Troughs for feeding (forage more concentrated) = rounded edges and corners, slop e 0.15% to 0.20%, width of 0.6 to 0.8 m, depth of 0.40 to 0,60 m, the surface is not rough. The length varies by the number of animals, arrival area per animal on average is 0.70 m. Troughs for salt = 20% slope, width 0.4 to 0.5 m, depth 0. 3 to 0.4 m, must contain the lower holes that can not collect liquid, the length varies by the number of animals and size must be at least 1.80 m. Must have a c over (clay tiles, asbestos cement or zinc) with high ceiling height of 2.80 m. osmotic cell excitability, formation of enzymes, vitamins, secretions, hormones, and working as carriers. Water Fountain: Drinkers may be of different types, which may be constructed of masonry, prefabr icated cement or Australian type. Drinkers are more convenient because they prevent the cattle drink water directl y into the watery, watery due to be a source of contamination, as the animals en ter this defecating, urinating and causing quagmire. The arrival area of the trough is 50-10% of the total number of head, the height of the trough rotates around 0.5 to 0.7 m, should have buoys to control the wat er level and must be enclosed inside with one or two strands of wire to prevent entry of animals. Drinkers should not be one of the other more distant than 1 km , it is practical to make the cattle do not walk much. 11

Major Disease and Health Protection First Aid diseases most commonly known are t he main causes for the decline of national plans and fall of exports of cattle t o countries in Europe, Asia and America, so they should be made known and prophy lactic measures in their respective decreases in scene of domestic livestock. Ob jective: To state clinical symptoms and the most common illnesses and emergency treatments: (eg, anaplasmosis, FMD, rabies, tuberculosis, FMD Brucellosis, anthrax, mastitis, Intoxication FMD Anger TB Control of ectoparasites and endoparasites Parasites are organisms that live on the surface or inside the body of organism called the host. The damage to the host may be insignificant, nt or intolerable, it will depend on the number of parasites, the kind e of injuries that they entail and vigor and nutritional status of the ng them we have: a larger significa and degre host.€Amo

Ectoparasites: Lice, scabies, ticks, myiasis (bookies), cloth, horn fly. Endoparasites: They are in very high numbers they are the lungworm, stomach and intestinal 12 Major milk producing countries INTRODUCTION Pasture for dairy cattle European Union United States India Ukraine Russia + 119.4 75.1 45.2 36.4 24.9% 15.6% 9.4% 7.6% Brazil Poland New Zealand Australia Argentina Other 20.8 13.7 12.0 10.8 9.6 137 4.3% 2.9% 2.5% 2.3% 2.0% 28.5% Total Source: USDA; CNA 480 100% Brazil

Sector that generates more jobs (more than construction) 5 million people employ ed on dairy farms 6th largest producer of milk (193-producing countries) 3rd lar gest herd in the world Leite world's cheapest: $ 0.16 / liter Current Panorama Migration production → Midwest (<costs, food) Current Panorama 10 years: SP ↓ 18.7% ↑ 78% in the North. Main milk breeds 13 DUTCH JERSEY Brown Swiss cattle (SCHWYZ) GIR Girola MILK PRODUCTION SYSTEMS IN BRAZIL INTENSIVE CONTROLLED ENVIRONMENT 100% fed into the trough SEMI-EXTENSIVE COCH + Pasta Pasta EXTENSIVE 14 INTENSIVE SYSTEM Semi-intensive system SYSTEM EXTENSION PURPOSE OF CREATION IS THE LARGEST MILK PRODUCTION High Quality Milk SCC <200 000 CS / mL; absence of antibiotics, a low level of sediment, without a dulteration; Good flavor and odor; Every day, all year long. 15 EFFECT OF ENVIRONMENT ON DAIRY CATTLE The environment has become the focus of studies in recent years. Concern of tech nicians and producers with the physical environment and the consequences of this on productivity. Do not Drink Milk Stand up!

EFFECT OF ENVIRONMENT ON DAIRY CATTLE Consequences of heat stress for dairy cows. Damage animal breeding; Reduction in dry matter intake; Change in behavior, and Fall in milk yield. PRODUCTIVE PERFORMANCE: Reduction in food consumption Water consumption Milk com position Indicative of heat stress Respiratory rate Animal-tachypnea 16 Indicative of heat stress Indicative of heat stress Behavior Behavior Indicative of heat stress Indicative of heat stress Behavior Behavior 17 Resources HVAC x Milk production Resources HVAC x Milk production 18 Resources HVAC x Milk production Resources HVAC x Milk production PASTURE PLUS INDICATED FOR DAIRY COWS Pastures of Cynodon (Coast-cross Tiftons, Star afrinaca) Pastures of Brachiaria (Brachiaria brizantha etc. ..) Pastures of the genus Pennisetum purpureum (eleph ant grass) pastures of the genus Panicum maximum (Mombasa, Tanzania, Centennial, Winner) Oats Ryegrass Elephant grass cv. Pioneer Elephant grass cv. Purple 19 Trench silo on earth

Pre-dried silage 20 Irrigated sorghum silage Maize silage Spoiled silage 21 Dystocia or Difficult Various are the causes that can lead a cow having a diffic ult birth: Genetic Problems: can cause a malformation of the calf, making it imp ossible to be completely deformed his exit through the birth canal. Bad embeddin g of the calf: The calf is not positioned properly in the womb, not putting his head between members and putting them in leaving the uterus. Incompatibility of races: you must select players with roughly equal weights and sizes. Bulls of la rge breeds prone to give dystocic. Lack of exercise of cows. Vitamin and mineral deficiencies. History ... Pastures for Horses History All peoples of the world remains a passionate affair with the horse. No other an imal has helped both to humans in almost all activities, over several eras. Myth ology, Ancient Greece (Centaur). The horse has grown to its present form for a p eriod 58 million years. It is believed that the earliest ancestors originated in the Americas in the ice age, as proven by fossils, about 1 million years ago. Featured Horse 22 Anatomical characteristics Major races Paint Horse Arabic English Thoroughbred Andaluz 23 Percheron Appaloosa Quarter-mile. Campolina Mangalarga

Mangalarga Marchador 24 Brazilian Creole CRAMPING Prevention (Grains and bran) to provide food? How to provide? How to provide? Most suitable pasture for horses 25 Habits of the horse grazing Pastures most appropriate: Coast-cross, bahiagrass, puerto rico, black grass, African star grass, rhodes gr ass. Hay (Coast-cross and alfalfa) pastures unless indicated: (Brachiaria - swol len face) Prehension of food: lip + incisors + head movements.€Cutting the pasture: low, u sually the choice should fall to the stoloniferous species and / or rhizomatous. Grazing: daytime (12 hours or more). Water intake: (ranges from 20 to 76 liters / head / day) depending on animal type, climate, diet, etc.. Defense of territo ry: (Demarcation with feces, these areas are not grazed, stallions defecate in t he same location is necessary to make rotation grazing). Leader: Stallion Mare o r more Erada. Types of Arrangements 26 Types of Arrangements Types of Arrangements Types of Arrangements Types of Arrangements Types of Arrangements Types of Arrangements 27 Types of Arrangements Types of Arrangements Types of Arrangements Types of Arrangements Types of Arrangements Types of Arrangements

28 Types of Arrangements Types of Arrangements Types of Arrangements Types of Arrangements Types of Arrangements Types of Arrangements 29 Types of Arrangements Types of Arrangements Types of Arrangements End Appendices Carrying capacity (cattle and milk) is n ° head that supports a farm. For this c alculation is used as the unit animal unit (AU), in terms of kg corresponds to a n animal of 450 kg liveweight. When the plot was to have animals of different (h eterogeneous) transformation into the AU must meet the following schemes:. An ad ult cow ................................. 1.00 AU Construction of the trench siIo (beef and dairy) Example: 100 cows, providing 20 kg / head / day for 6 months. The amount of sila ge needed would be: pounds of silage = number of cows x pounds / head / day x nu mber of days Kilos of silage = 100 x 20 x 180 pounds of silage = 360 000 kg Cons idering that 1m3 of silage weighs 500 kg: 1m3 ------------------- --------------------- 360 000 x 500 Kg = Kg x 720m3 silage Males and females from 3 to 4 years ..... 1.00 AU Males and females of 2 to 3 ye ars ..... 0.75 AU Males and females of 1 to 2 years ..... 0.50 AU Males and Fema les of the 1 year ..... ............................... 0.25 AU Players 1:25 AU .... 30 Construction of the trench siIo (beef and dairy) Dimensions: B = basic major (mouth), b = smaller base (bottom), h = height, C = Length A smaller base should be at least one and half times the gauge of the tra ctor. Therefore, b = 2.5 m Barranco allow a height of 3m. Therefore, h = 3m For the slope of the wall of the silo is 25%, one should consider that: B = b + 1 / 2 XH, therefore, B = 2.5 + 1 / 2 B = 3 x 4m The area (m2) cross section is: S = B + bxh 2 S = 4 + 3 = 2.5 x 6.5 x 3 = 9.75 m 2 February 2 The length of the silo, which can be obtained by the formula: Volume (m3) = Area (m2) x length (m) where C = V / S C = 720 / 9.75 and C = 74m